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continued Book 4 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought - Possibility Thinking: Explorations in Logic and Thought (Rough Draft) — LiveJournal [entries|archive|friends|userinfo]
justincoslor

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continued Book 4 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought [Dec. 3rd, 2007|09:10 am]
justincoslor
-------------------------------------
This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.
------------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor
New Kinds of Electric Generator/Electric Motors In the diagram I drew,
you can use toroidal coils inside roller wheels that roll on the inside
of the magnet tube. Permanent magnets or horseshoe electromagnets can be
used around the outside (since they are three times stronger). The axle
is split in the middle and one end of each of the rollers' coil wire
goes to each corresponding separate half of the roller's axle, which in
turn comes in contact with the corresponding dived separate main axle
end cap, and just have a spring- loaded contact terminal on each half of
the axle. Another model could also have a split axle terminal, and could
have a frictionless magnetic bearing surface internally. 11/7/2004
Justin Coslor Batteries. In the October 2004 issue of Popular Science,
they talked about a thing where the European Space Agency and Team
Encounter allow people to pay $25 to have a photo + description get
etched onto a High Density Rosetta nickel chip and get send off into
space on a solar sail spacecraft. The chips are expected to last at
least 1000 years. Gold substrate CDROMs last about 10 years. D-Skin.com,
for $6, sells five CD skins that prevent scratches. Put a copy of my
friendly intelligence diagram on one of those nickel chips. It acts kind
of like microfiche. We might make some friends. Around 200 B.C.E.,
Parthinians in present-day Baghdad make a crude battery, an iron rod
surrounded by a copper cylinder inside a clay jar filled with vinegar.
-------> Try stacks of copper or zinc and bismuth plates separated by
two silicon rods between each junction and fill the container with
vinegar or bleach that you've added extra salt to, or use condensed
urine or something as the go-between, and put it in a tempered glass or
tempered ceramic container and attach terminals. Around 1898, size-D
zinc-carbon batteries made their debut inside a paper tube along with a
bulb and a brass reflector - which became the first "electric hand
torch". What we know of today as the flashlight.
Would bismuth be a good substitute for carbon or graphite in a
battery? Would stainless steel be useful instead of iron in a wet cell?
Stainless steel has some toxic materials in it though. Would bismuth be
a good substitute for lead in batteries? They're similar on the periodic
table, however bismuth is nontoxic and diamagnetic. Water is a conductor
and it's in vinegar. Sodium chloride is too, and acidic fluids are often
in batteries as well. Maybe acids have extra electrons and bases have
extra holes? ------------------------------------ 11/7/2004 Justin
Coslor See pg 35 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science by
Brian and Brenda Williams. Battery idea #1:
Do electrolysis on salt water to make bleach, which probably will
act as an acidic conductor. Then put the bleach in a glass or ceramic
jar and make a solid bismuth coil and put it in the bleach filled jar,
and take a solid zinc rod and electroplate it with magnesium or dip it
in magnesium and put it in the middle of the bismuth coil (or if a
bismuth tube is used instead, put it in the middle of that with some
space between it and the magnesium-coated zinc rod), and make some kind
of cap with a pressure release cannister and valve. It might work as a
great battery, but keep it outside just in case it leaks or explodes.
The bleach might crystallize (which is good) if you add a bunch of extra
salt to it after doing electrolysis. If it does crystallize, it's less
likely to leak. --------------------------- 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor
Battery idea #2: Drugstore battery.
Open up a tin can and dump the contents out and fill it up with
Pepto Bismal and take a plastic cap and roll up some aluminum foil and
jam one end of it into the cap and wrap the other end of it in wax paper
and fold it over the edge. (You might have to boil the water out of the
Pepto Bismal to thicken it into bismuth.) Next wrap some more tinfoil
around the rim of the can and fold up an extension terminal from it. I
don't know if this will work at all. Copyright 10/31/2004 Justin Coslor
Diamagnetic Energy Generation Satellites
When a coil is passed through a magnetic field it generates a
current of electricity through the coil. So, make a satellite that has a
coil made out of diamagnetic material, and at night it should generate a
current because the earth's diamagnetic field bows out on the dark side
of the Earth due to the solar wind form the sun. As the Earth turns, the
coil will be passing through that bowed out diamagnetic field. It's
necessary to use diamagnetic material for the coil because it will be
used to turn the diamagnetic field of the earth (which is between the
poles) into an electric current running through the coil. A coil made
out of non-diamagnetic material would not be receptive to the
diamagnetic field. Some examples of diamagnetic materials are pyrolytic
graphite, bismuth, water, and salt. The reason that ice floats is
because water is diamagnetic, and ice is more diamagnetic than water, so
it repels the water's diamagnetic field, and the diamagnetic field of
the Earth. One could theoretically make a gigantic coil out of ice, and
generate electricity with it.
One could also make a satellite that could travel through the
Earth's magnetic field in its equatorial orbit, and the diamagnetic coil
would produce an electric current perpendicular to the Earth's
diamagnetic field, and it could beam the electricity back to Earth in
the form of microwaves. One could even try making a satellite that can
just sit and levitate permanently in a semi-fixed position in space on
the dark side of the Earth. The moon is probably diamagnetic since one
side is always facing the Earth. (See related pictures.) 10/7/2004
Justin Coslor Electromagnetism People say that electric fields run
perpendicular to magnetic fields, so maybe the electric force can be
thought of as the active force in atoms, while the magnetic force can be
thought of as the stabilizing force in atoms, yet the two forces
correspond to each other to balance the energy and space in an atom, as
energy is always in motion, and space provides potential for that motion
to occur, whether it be in loops, knots, spirals or
transfer/transformation to other planes, shapes, and dimensions of
energy flow pathways. I like to guess at possibilities then check
science, math, logic, and philosophy or experiment to see if I got
anything right. It's my hobby. It helps me develop intuition and
reasoning ability. 9/26/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Coordinates Magnetic
North is offset from True North because the Earth wobbles at an angle
that causes there to be four seasons. The Prime Meridian goes around the
globe, and on one hemisphere it travels through Magnetic North, and on
the other hemisphere it travels through Greenwich, England. It also goes
through True North and True South. Figure out where the magnetic South
Pole is. Is it split into branches? It's probably in Antarctica. At what
points on the Earth's geomagnetic field coordinates (x,y,z polar
coordinates) are there severe distortions or landmark sub-fields? Is 360
degrees optimal for calculating an oblong spheroid? The Earth is not
round, but more of an oblong spheroid. Why did the Greeks choose 360
degrees? Greek astronomer Hipparchus (~165- 127 B.C.) made a map that
included Antarctica so they must have had advanced technology then. The
map I've seen is fairly complete, but it only shows one side of the
globe. If he was able to have a complete detailed map of Antarctica way
back then, then surely he had a way to obtain a map of the American
Continents? Ptolemy's map also denoted Magnetic North & South offset
from true North & South. Where exactly is the magnetic North Pole, and
how often do the poles flip and why? Does the Moon's orbit get pushed
away from the Earth temporarily during the flipping of the Earth's
poles? Probably, since the moon is mostly made out of diamagnetic
material. That's why we always see the same face of it, and diamagnetic
materials repel both North and South Poles and like to hover over the
mid-point between them (Satellite levitation application... Read
diamagnetic levitation article in New American Scientist around this
month.) Copyright 9/23/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Battery Idea Steam
and gas atoms and molecules probably contain more quanta than liquid
atoms and liquid molecules, which partially utilize each other's
electron shells. Where steam and gas atoms probably have higher electron
orbits and have their own repulsive/attractive field depending on the
spin. Crystallized atom and molecule configurations probably exist
because a bunch of atoms and molecules were either compressed into a
tight area and extended the orbit of their strong force electron shells,
or possibly the atoms might have been cooled from a liquid state while
under the influence of a magnetic field. [10/28/2004 update: The
magnetic field of an atom is the stabilizing force, and the electric
field is the active force. . .probably?] Is it possible to make
crystallized oxygen or crystallized hydrogen or other gases? [Then just
add energy of the atom's particular spectroscopic frequency to liberate
the molecules out of the crystallized form. They'd probably have to be
mixed with other elements to form crystals at reasonable temperatures.]
What if they were highly ionized gases or isotopes? What happens if you
put two conductor terminals on a quartz crystal and then bolt a magnet
onto each side of the crystal independently so that the magnets repel or
attract each other? Will that provide a steady supply of electricity due
to the compression forces on the quartz crystal? It might be a way to
make a magnetic electricity battery that doesn't run out until the
magnets lose their charge. Just attach a circuit or light to something
to the terminals. 8/23/2004 Justin Coslor Toroidal EM Fields (like for
fusion. . .see attached pictures): I'm not claiming that this is
correct, but maybe some elements conduct electricity and have a magnetic
field that is perpendicular to the flow of electrons and maybe other
elements conduct magnetism and have an electric field that is
perpendicular to the lines of flux. Maybe some elements do both, and
maybe some do neither. Gravity is proportional to how active an element
is at the quantum level, coupled with how interactive it is externally.
Make a toroidal field around a Peltier Stack (dissimilar metals like a
battery all stacked up), and blow gases with extra electrons into the
toroidal squasher and their extra electrons may travel up the Peltier
stack, sort of like a battery, but it could polarize the stack and maybe
could function as a power source without actually doing fusion. It could
also be a kind of electron stripper. ??? Gravity is about how the energy
of the internal interacts with the energy of the external. It might
merely be cyclic regions of space that have greater potential for motion
(for energy quanta and other cyclic space regions) than fairly neutral
space regions. I believe that space holds a compression and that the
function of space is potential for motion. Time is a function of motion,
and matter is energy quantas swirling in compressed cyclic space
regions. Maybe the space has knots in it to lock the quanta into cycles?
Who knows? ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/18/2004 Justin
Coslor Note to self: Diodes act as one-way gates. Transistors act like
adjustable-flow valves. They can be strung together to make Boolean
logic circuits. ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004
Justin Coslor Crystalline Memory Lattices: Maybe one could use
intersecting laser beams to control the shadow-growth of semiconductor
crystals for making optical circuitry or maybe some frequencies will
grow lattice structures conducive to electron flow (Negative cells),
while others (or pits rather than peaks) might grow structures (or
carve/melt) conducive to receiving electrons (positive cells/holes).
---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor
Super-cheap gigantic diamagnetic electromagnets: Try making an
electromagnet out of ice as the conductor. Take some plastic tubing and
fill it up with water, cap the ends, coil it up into a spiral, then
freeze it. Then take a larger piece of tubing (wider) and freeze (or
make a horse-shoe-style ice magnet). Then run electricity through the
ice spiral and see if it is able to act as an electro-diamagnet (since
water is somewhat diamagnetic). The lattice structure of the ice
crystals might be good for holding a diamagnetic charge. Who knows???
Try it. If it works, make an enormous one. What happens when you beam
light through the electrically conductive ice coil spiral?
------------------------------------ Copyright 9/6/2004 Justin Coslor
Supercomputer and Memory Technology Build a supercomputer out of
millions of memory units of the kind I designed earlier that have no
moving parts and operate optically. Locate the computer in either
Antarctica or in a very cold climate, such as on a satellite that stays
in the shadow of the Earth or underground on the dark side of the moon.
It could be nuclear powered, or powered by a thermocouple that runs off
of hot rocks (thermonuclear isotopes). use an instantaneous
communication relay between it and stations on the Earth (see physics
research in the book "The Dancing Woo Li Masters" by Gary Zukav). The
key component to the memory units is the new kind of laser range-finder
I designed when I was 16. 2/17/2005 Update by Justin Coslor: Recently I
came up with the optimal geometry for an entirely new and different (and
possibly better) solid-state dense nanotechnology memory geometry
design. See my most recent journal entry to this date on that topic, as
well as the partial diagram I drew that describes the mathematics behind
it. Copyright 9/24/2004 Justin Coslor Speculation about photodiodes,
photovoltaics, and the nature of energy transmission through materials.
Figure out how photodiodes work. I think they somehow convert light
into electrons. That would mean that the light quanta would add energy
to the diode's N-plate's electrons to bring the outermost electrons to a
higher orbit around the nucleus and eventually high enough to be able to
transfer over from one atom to an orbit around an adjacent atom capable
of supporting an extra electron. When all of the atoms on the N-plate
have electrons at transferable orbits they will hop over the junction
and start filling in the orbit holes in the P-plate's atoms. When the
P-plate's atoms fill up with transferable atoms, then electricity will
flow in either direction because the N-P plates will act just like a
regular conductor. In fact, you might not even need a P-plate unless you
wanted a one-way gate effect. Probably, you would have to use a material
that has a photon emission frequency that is the same as the kind of
light that you are exposing it to, in order for the photons to get
absorbed by the electrons orbiting around that material's nucleuses. Use
electron spectroscopy to find suitable materials for the spectrums of
light you expect to use the photovoltaic cells under.
Transparent photovoltaics could be made out of some kind of
crystallne materials (appropriately receptive to the incoming
wavelengths), and could be made very thick, where both the anode and
cathode structures could be transparent, and could be made of a
semiconducting crystalline block that has been formed while under the
polarizing magnetic field of a powerful superconductor. That way, every
molecule in the transparent crystalline block would act as a photodiode,
like miniature photovoltaic cells. Perhaps materials that do not look
transparent to us are quite transparent to their specific spectroscopic
frequencies of radiation, and that may be why they are able to "conduct"
those frequencies of radiation and in doing so, convert that energy into
electric/electron current. ???
Copyright 9/14/2005 Justin Coslor
A New Kind of Potentiometer (which can be used as a tactile sensor)
Details: Make it as a spring-loaded linear-action potentiometer
(variable resistor), where the farther the lever rod is pushed down,t e
more resistance there is on the current flowing across it between the
rod's conductive bearing surface, and the decreasingly (or increasingly)
conductive plate or channel that it glides on/in. It's a very simple
device, and clusters of them can be used in conjunction as sensors for
tactile kinetic force of varying magnitude, depending on the strength of
the spring at the bottom of the rod. It could be used n the finger-pads
or gripper-pads of a robotic arm. The glide plate/channel could be lined
with a carbon resistive strip similar to the one in regular slide-pots.
There could be some stranded insulated wire that comes off of the top of
the rod, and the rod itself could be insulated except for the bearing
surface. The ground wire would be at the top of the glide-plate's
resistive carbon film, so that as the rod gets pushed down against the
force of the spring at the bottom, the resistor would turn on or off
farther and farther depending on how it is designed. The conductive
bearing surface could just be a strip of metal with a rounded bend in
it, so that it has some spring action, and it could have a similar
rounded strip-spring on the back of it so that it pushes on the back
wall to exert some force in the direction of the carbon-resistive film.
Or the bearing surface could be a roller wheel with conductive
lubrication, such as graphite powder, and a back-wall spring similar to
the one just described or just have two independent bearing surfaces
opposite to each other with a hinge and a spring in the middle (although
that is an unnecessarily complex design). Or the bearing surface could
be like a miniature computer mouse ball in a cage that only travels
forwards and backwards and made out of metal. When I mentioned possibly
using a channel in some designs I meant it to be like a vertical gutter
that is rectangular, or triangular. A triangular gutter design would
probably be the easiest and most stable of the gutter designs to make,
and it would provide a lot of stability against possible twisting action
of the spring-loaded vertical push rod. See the photo of the brief
diagram that I scribbled for this invention. Contact me for terms of
licensing, development, publication, and mass-production.
JustinCoslor@gmail.com I'd like everybody to be able to buy these very
inexpensively for their projects, and send samples out to university
students and professors for free. All I'd like is the standard fair
National average inventor's royalty percentage on the gross profit of
the venture capital wholesale sales gross profit of these potentiometers
and off the gross profit of the sale of improved models so that I can
continue to come up with new inventions and have some spending money. I
shouldn't have to be poor forever, because that causes so much
unnecessary misery. It'd be wonderful if I had a better workshop and
some helpers and colleages and more resources to work with. Copyright
9/12/2004 Justin Coslor
Highly sensitive tactile/optical range-finding robotic finger sensor-pads:
For rich tactile data input (robo-fingerpad pressure sensors that
yield very detailed sensory input) sensors, add a stereo computer vision
range-finding unit to each finger, and have slider resistor tubes that
are spring-loaded under a rubbery surface skin, and make them flexible
if possible. (Update Copyright 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor: Think of sea
anemony-like manipulators that each have a little CCD range-finder setup
and tactile sensors for precise gentle manipulations.) I could probably
build a test pad out of drinking straws and little springs or rubber
bands glued to pins that are soldered to either trimpots on a
swivel-mount or tiny slider-resistors. The skin could be molded from
liquid latex or a piece of bicycle innertube, and the stereo-cameras
could be located up on the arm with fiber-optic light input extensions
that go right out to the finger tip pads where they can be precisely
angled to yield stereoscopic CCD range-finding data so that the fingers
will each visually know how far they are from the objects they are
trying to manipulate. Maybe the CCD's can be quadranted up into four
distinct camera matrixes per CCD (or more), each of which would be fed
light by it's own independent fiber optic cable that has an optics unit
on each end....? That would bring the costs and power-consumption down
dramatically because not as many actual digital cameras would need to be
used to obtain the effect of having a whole bunch of independent digital
cameras. Copyright 9/11/2004 Justin Coslor A cheaper kind of
touch-screen for computer kiosks for 2D operating system user interface
haptics and 3D augmented reality user interface haptics. Note: I suppose
this is similar to the haptics in the movie "Minority Report."
Instead of using expensive breakable touch screens, why not set up a
regular CRT computer monitor that has a piece of replaceable plexiglass
over the monitor face, in the form of a kiosk interface whose mouse
movements or click-movements are recorded by an overhead pair of digital
cameras that are running an open-source stereo computer vision algorithm
as drivers that utilize your own hands' movements as 3D haptics devices.
If the operating system is a 2D point- and-click environment, then your
index finger pointing in 3D angles will move the mouse and touching (or
nearly touching) the plexiglass plate will execute a click (selection).
If the operating system is a 3D environment, then perhaps all control of
the environment will occur at least several inches to several feet from
the plexiglass plate, and perhaps there could be an on-screen 3D
animation that mirrors the hand movements, with trainable hand gestures
to control different features and functions of the environment. The
important thing that I must explicitly note is that the stereo cameras
are to be situated on an extended arm overhead, and potentially out of
reach, and that they are to be located either directly above or behind
the user's head so that they are only focused on the user's hands (and
not their face) because they are not to be made in such a way as to be
able to digitally photograph the user's face, since that would be an
invasion of privacy which could potentially be mis-used.
Also, there might be a projection onto a plexiglass plate in front
of the face but behind the hands so that the hands can interact in an
augmented reality environment in addition to being haptics devices for
the above-described kiosk-like CRT screen's operating system. Copyright
10/29/2004 Justin Coslor Course Catalog and Skills Inventory (Software
Idea)
Dig up my old note from years ago about how course catalogs can be
interconnected and turned into software that inventories and sorts
prerequisites and possibilities for which courses the student is
qualified to take based on the courses they've taken. It would help
students who aren't sure what to major in, to plan their school year, as
well as help in organizing quite concretely the knowledge they've
learned and the knowledge they can learn. The students can also build
hypothetical models of future courses of study with the software, and
can help teachers model new curriculums, and link their courses to other
people's curriculums. Libraries can use it too. Also, every student
should be able to see a summary page that lists one paragraph on the
topics that will be, or have been covered in each course in each
semester of their education, if not only just for the benefit of their
memory, to see what they've learned (or haven't learned), what they're
learning, and what they intend to learn (hypothetically) in the future.
That way, they can easily reference their educational background later
on in life, which is especially important if they are lifelong students
or researchers.
Artificial intelligence reasoning engines could be made that
generate comprehension tests and study guides and executive summaries
for any book in any language, and they could link related materials and
form historical and/or geographic timelines of the history and spread
and evolution of ideas and concepts. Such software might already exist
somewhere in some form.
Employers in industry might also like to look at these educational
coverage charts if they're looking for knowledge of specific skills in
applicants during their hiring process. Copyright 12/14/2001 Justin
Coslor Portable Robotic Hole-Threading Tool for Building Robots and
Stuff.
It drills a hole, then threads the hole with a tap, then runs a bolt
through the hole, then puts a washer and a nut on the other end of the
bolt. It might even clamp two pieces of material together while
fastening them together in the above described manner. It would be a
hand-held device, and someone could even make a version that's an
autonomous mobile device (for use in space or factories), and another
version could be a stationary tool bolted to the floor or something.
There could be several different models. I originally thought of this
several years ago through have not yet drawn schematics.
------------------- Components: Drill: high torque, high speed motor,
use gears and speed control. Tap: stepper motor + Air nozzle to blow
chips and slag away. Bolter: leveraged robo-wrist + gripper (or possibly
a robotic version of one of those spring-loaded universal wrenches).
Nutter: leveraged robo-wrist plus gripper. Clamp: as simple as possible,
like one of those 1-turn clamps or something with rubber pads. Sensors:
slag sensor detects chips and blows them away, torque sensors keep
machinery from jamming and breaking. Vision keeps track of what is in
each quadrant of a laser matrix projected onto the work surface. Parts
orienting system: Loads bolter and nutter and washers (part of nutter)
and keeps parts oriented and organized. Copyright 11/12/2004 Justin
Coslor Cottage Industry Explosion: Portable Inexpensive Manufacturing
Robots for Intentional Communities In America
Make portable inexpensive manufacturing robots hooked up to an
open-source computer terminal (possibly running the 3D modeling software
Blender, and some business & art software) as a whole cottage industry
manufacturing system that can be easily set up to refine materials and
produce products that can then be sold locally and over the Internet.
People would design their own products of course, and they can be
quite intricate and precise and easy to replicate due to the use of
robots and computer technologies. The software would make the business
part of it a snap. Design a general system and then use it to fabricate
duplicates of itself, and sell and install them exclusively to people
who live in Intentional Communities, so that America can win back its
manufacturing Jobs from China and India, as well as keep its high-tech
jobs from being outsourced. Copyright 11/5/2004 Justin Coslor Cottage
Industry Stuff Print up some tee-shirts, coffee mugs, bookmarks, and
refrigerator magnets of my friendly intelligence diagram. Post them for
sale on the Internet. Write a little booklet that goes with the diagram,
to include with each item, to help people understand the diagram. Look
for a bootable linux distribution that has life-critical software and
family business software. Order DSL and a bootable DVDRW drive and
download a copy of Knoppix.
Build the portable computer-numeric-controlled (CNC) machining robot
for carving ornamental wood furniture and paneling, and collect an
archive of geometrical designs and nature patterns to use, and template
concrete masonry patterns for face plates for beautifying buildings and
for making sculptures and walkways. Build the originals out of clay and
wood and use stereo digital cameras or a laser range-finder scanner to
digitize the designs. Sell these portable CNC machines inexpensively to
help Americans form cottage industries.
I could build ornate bookshelves and industrial design things that
could be environmentally friendly and quite useful. I'll need a shop to
use unless I just design it and have other people build it like Ikea
does.
I could also sell Atmel AVR SP12 microcontroller programmer kits,
and already-put-together microcontroller programmers, and I could put
together an electronics assembly robot, and a very small very precise
set of robotic arms for doing fine work. 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor
Holographic Range-finding Orbiting Space Telescopes, for Holographic
Geometric Reconstruction of Distant Celestial Objects and Celestial
Systems (or point it at the Earth for Geographical Information Systems).
See pg. 59 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science, for info
on how to make holographic images (depthy multi-perspective images). Do
that on a much larger scale but out in space or even have the
Holographic crystal on the Earth and have the space telescopes pointed
either at the Earth or put distant objects in space. Use a gigantic
holographic crystal that is sensitive to a wide spectrum of different
wavelengths (colors). Have the holographic crystal on a slightly
different orbit than the space telescopes, and the crystal should rotate
slightly to capture the changing perspective of the orbiting stereo or
triple space telescopes beamed at it. Put the space telescopes way out
in space. This is nothing new, but the first two space telescopes could
make the XY plane, and range- finding according to focal length, but add
a third space telescope to do XYZ geometric reconstruction of a remote
volume (the front face of the picture at least) with some distortion.
The third telescope could be above and behind the other two for extra
dimensionality, and that way there wouldn't be a blind spot, however in
other configurations the blind spot might indicate where the readings
start to become somewhat reliable. Copyright 10/29/2004 Justin Coslor
Safety Skin for Robots Make a fabric-like skin of flexible tactile
sensors to be put on the outside of robots, so that if a person (or
another robot or obstacle) bumps into the robot or gets in the way of
the robot, the robot immediately will shut down and disengage to prevent
the chance of injuries to the person. This would be an additional layer
of safety in addition to visual and/or sonar/IR/laser tachometer
environmental sensors. Copyright 10/20/2004 Justin Coslor Free public
archive of great anonymous writing and poetry There should be a website
that acts as a free public archive of great anonymous writing and poetry
throughout history. It could be searchable by a variety of interactive
intelligent means, and offer a secure round-the-world ping-pong
submission form that leaves no trail but is subject to human review as
to whether it is worth archiving. Also, it should be entirely based on
free open- source software that is eloquently coded and understandable
and proven. Copyright 10/11/2004 Justin Coslor Precise EM field sensing
nanocoil fabric Insulated conductive nanocoils could be useful for
sensing electromagnetic fields very precisely. Somebody could make
packets of independent nanocoils that could be laid out in a flexible
fabric form (or rigid) where each coil would be processed and a
numerical value would be passed to a unit of nonvolatile random access
memory. Then this coil fabric, much like a curtain, could be passed
through a room vertically to get a reading of the electromagnetic field
strength at each point in the room. It could be useful for figuring out
where to stick accupuncture needles in medical treatments too. It would
also be useful for teaching people how to use their own body's
bioelectric field in unison with the Earth's geomagnetic field to heal
themselves and others, and to people how to harmonize such forces
regardless of the situation. It seems like this kind of instrumentation
and a visual augmented reality software simulation interface to this
kind of sensory equipment could really improve people's awareness and
mentality, and thus their lives. Eventually they could learn to sense
the fields without the electronic equipment to some degree and not need
the apparatus anymore to stay healthy and balanced. Already there is
bioelectric feedback therapy, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-systems),
and augmented reality technology (which is a form of virtual reality).
9/8/2004 Justin Coslor Notes on the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh book
"Agents Unleashed: A public domain look at agent technology" by Peter
Wayner Copyright 1995, published by Academic Press, Inc. Agent
Technology: Setting Up Secure Networks Parallel and Distributed Programs
User Interfaces Being applied to agent technology: Genetic algorithms,
computational learning theory, classification theory,
adaptive-preference-based decision making automations, personal
oracles/prodigies, power librarians (parse text, translate languages,
figure out language ambiguities), emotional interface via animations,
network roaming ability, and virus protection. Agents are like viruses
that are designed to be helpful. Agents are often programmed in list,
and controlled by TCL (Tool Command Language), and transmitted via PGP
encrypted mime-encoded email. XLISP is a simple, free,
microcomputer-based implementation of a subset of the Common LISP
standards.
In LISP both the data and the program are stored in nested listt
trees. Inside the LISP environment, agents can easily build up, execute,
and tear down data structures. In LISP there ar no pointers, memory
allocation, and deallocation is automatic, and there ar some security
holes but they're patchable to keep agents from overstepping their
bounds. Common LISP uses a hierarchy of packages, which are separate
tables of variables, functions, and their names. These package
hierarchies offer structured access to variables, and can be used to
keep incoming agents from executing any system calls or handling local
memory. LISP's debuggers can be re- tooled to send an agent back home
along with the pre and post screen of the remote LISP compiler's
evaluation loop hooks when an agent causes a memory access or system
resource error.
Some smaller versions of LISP such as XLISP-Plus have
object-oriented features called Common LISP Object System. Dynamic
linking/binding to find the latest functions is used in some versions
like Scheme, which lead to the more algebraic C-Like syntax version
called Dylan. Commercial versions of LISP compilers have extra features
and are faster than the free compilers. Even compiled LISP code is
semi-interpreted and doesn't have a direct ability to manipulate
pointers because it needs to stay mobile in memory, so compiled LISP
code is a great environment for supporting agents that can act on it.
If I plan to program Aritificial Intelligence in LISP rather than
Java, then I should buy the book "Common LISP: The Language" by buy
Steele, for hardcore LISP programming. Check out other books too and
read reviews and recommends online. There are probably some free LISP
tutorials online as well. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin Coslor 2D
Wireframe Digitization of Digital Images for Computer Vision How would
the orientation matching algorithm work in the first three methods? (See
11/14/2002 algorithm.) Irregular objects: 2D width match 2D height match
Form a 2D square around the border of the object. Treat each pixel in
the image as an independent pivot point. For each pixel, draw straight
lines in a layer over top of the image at every possible angle that
intersect at the pivot point (all of which are as long as the longest
dimensions of the image). Measure how much of each line intersects with
the object, especially where there are two or more adjacent pixels in a
straight line. If you do this for all of the pixels you'll have a
coordinate database of angles and lengths and start and end points or
midpoints, which is very useful for forming groups by associating the
lines in the image in various ways, such as: intersection, adjacency,
parallelness, curvature template matching, and continuity of same line.
For some operations one can choose the line that intersects the longest
distance across the object. This is the longest intersecting line from
the current 2D perspective, whose midpoint is the pivot point. This is
useful for the following: at each endpoint of the longest intersecting
line draw a point. Draw a perpendicular line at each endpoint of the
line. Start out with a perpendicular line from the known schematics,
that is as long as the longest dimension of the object (at each
endpoint), and make sure that the perpendicular lines' midpoints are
centered on each endpoint. Now form a box at each half of the object and
reduce the width of the box until the outer edge touches the outside of
the object. Do this for each of the two halves of the object. Now you
have a tightly fitting box around that particular 2D object in the
image! The point of doing this is to be able to separate that object
from the rest of the image, and also to figure out the object's actual
perspective in the image, which can help at guessing 3D attributes. This
object can now be put into an object catalog, each image of which can be
rotated in 2D for matching against for doing approximative Bayesian
pattern matching that incorporates rotation attempts. (See related
diagrams from my handwritten journal.) Now rotate this box and 2D image
in the X,Y plane by N degrees about the pivot point until the box is
perfectly vertical and horizontal on the screen. Now you have the
computer show a front view of the 3D object model so that you can rotate
it forwards and backwards about the pivot point until you get the two
positions that match the length of the 2D image. Compare the two lengths
from the pivot point to the endpoints to find the longest or shortest
line for comparison to decide which of the two 3D positions to choose.
For each of these two possible positions we now want to find the two
positions in which the width matches by twisting the 3D object model,
and comparing the widest or shortest half of the box to the 3D model's
two possible width twistations to find out which width to choose. Now
you have the correct 3D perspective match of the 2D image and you know
the movements necessary to re-orient the object in reality to the 0,0,0
position. So just have the robot do it and begin again with the next
object, and the next, and the next, etc. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin
Coslor Computer Vision Thought Build a little robot that can go around
its environment and pick things up and study them as objects. It would
need to be able to categorize, visualize, contextualize, and use
guess-work (heuristics) scientifically to discover each object's
function, unique and generalized characteristics (size, weight, shape,
color, physical flexibilities, bend points, and center of gravity),
symmetries, associated objects (around what objects is it generally
found and used with?), physics force vectors during use and storage
(this much weight pushes on the floor at these surfaces (points of
contact and interaction), material it is made out of (robot has a
portable microscope to analyze materials and to identify the presence of
cells), surface temperature (infrared vision module can help determine
what objects are alive, very hot or cold, or how much hotter or colder
they are than the ambient room temperature), internal composition (sonar
scanner with 3D computer optimization), and statistical analysis (out of
all the times it has been recognized, what is the average context of
objects & movements of it and the objects interacting with it?). For a
practical application, the robot would only need to recognize a few
objects and be able to ignore all of the rest of what it sees so that it
could focus just on what it needs to know and extract data needed to
accomplish its goal. It will need to simplify what it sees so that it
can quickly find what it is looking for. It should only store in its
memory the things that it will use frequently. It will frequently
identify a few particular objects that are in different orientations.
For this a simplified 3D wireframe model would be useful, also surface
color(s) (optional), symmetries, and center of gravity, or handles for
gripping on to (like symmetry lines). Let's say you have a mechanical
part and the vision system has a 3D wireframe model of its structure.
The robot grips its handle or its center of gravity, picks it up, then
figures out what orientation it is in. How does it figure out the
orientation? 1. It could have touch sensors like a little pin board
whose spring loaded pins reveal the shape (as a matrix of depths) while
the robot holds the part. After the shape is recorded in that
orientation, the vision system could match the shape to the 3D wireframe
model and then tell the robot arm to rotate the part in the XYZ to get
the part into 0,0,0 orientation so that it can be placed somewhere
accurately and systematically. 2. It could scan the part with a wide
laser range-finder, then match and reorient the part. 3. It could take a
digital photo (CCD camera) of the part from 0,0,0 orientation then
rotate the 3D computer model in the X,Y,Z until the part's current
orientation matches, then use an optimized X,Y,Z rotation algorithm to
find the shortest method of rotation to get from the original X,Y,Z
orientation to the desired 0,0,0 orientation, then the robot arm would
make that adjustment and place the part. 4. Use a part's tray with
little wells to catch the parts as they are shaken across the tray (like
on the SMART Cell manufacturing robotic system I use to work on at the
CMU Robotics Institute years ago). Copyright 8/7/2005 Justin Coslor
Binary Space Partition Trees
I'm currently on page 17 of the book "Java 3D Programming" by Daniel
Selman Copyright 2002, and it mentioned using binary space partition
trees as a method of sorting relative positions of objects so that the
objects don't need to be re-sorted when the viewpoint changes. It didn't
explain how binary search partition trees work though I think it means
forming a tree of nodes for each object, where each node represents a
vertex on the object, and the vertexes are sorted by order of depth
(layering). That way multiple objects can be compared by comparing their
vertex depth, and when the perspective changes a different node on the
depth trees becomes node #1, 2, 3, etc in terms of the layering.
Copyright 8/10/2005 Justin Coslor
Data compression for 3D polygonal objects
What needs to happen to make 3D and Virtual Reality and Augmented
Reality popular again is to have more software compatible with Google
Earth (A geo-spacial imaging software that can be used for navigation
--- which needs more functionality). But more importantly what needs to
happen is to have software that is able to represent 3D models using
hardly any data at all. Better 3D data compression is needed, possibly
like that stegonometry idea I had, where vertex coordinate systems are
represented as layered pictogram polygons (see the idea in my notes --
July 2005), where three linked polygons is a 3D point, or set of 3D
points, such as an entire 3D object's vertexes -- the first polygon
represents all of the x coordinates in a particular object. The second
polygon represents all of the Y coordinates. The third polygon
represents all of the Z coordinates successively, and form each
pictogram polygon in a different color for each of the objects in the 3D
scene. The whole thing is in the same base and on the same pictogram XY
coordinate system. The whole thing can be represented as a tiny vector
graphic such as a PNG file that represents an entire 3D rendered
mathematical model/visualization, which is very easy bitwise map which
translates directly into the 3D, so it'd be really fast for rendering
each abstract pictogram map of the object's vertex coordinates. Also, no
two pictogram polygon vertex pixels will fall on the same point in the
pictogram as long as all objects' 3D vertexes are separated by one pixel
or more in 3D space. This would be a highly compressed way to represent
the spacial coordinates of all polygonal objects in a 3D scene, in the
form of a tiny image file, and if you string together multiple pictogram
image files into a sort of a video sequence, the objects in the scene
could gradually move through 3D space sort of like a morph sequence,
into the positioning registered by the second pictogram image file in
the video sequence, etc. . .like a gif89 animation file, but as a vector
graphics image. That would save a lot of processing power and
representation space in recording and playing back 3D video sequences in
virtual reality. See my note from 6/13/2004 on information theory. In it
I translated an old paradigm of information theory into terms of
patterns in contexts. "If a set of contexts constitutes t bits of unique
information, and the set of patterns that the contexts are based on
contains less than t bits of unique information, then it is impossible
to create those contexts from that set of patterns." Well, since coming
up with this idea today about encoding 3D models, and the regular 2D
stegonometry version of it (see my other essay), I no longer believe
that this paradigm is true in all cases (such as this one, for example),
because it doesn't account for alternative perspectives of
representation of information (of patterns in contexts) which are
different and of different computational complexity, but are
analogically equivalent.
Copyright 8/11/2005 Justin Coslor
3D compression scheme
I've developed an alternative system of representing numbers (which
represents them as pictograms), which I turned into an alternative
method of representing 3D vertex coordinates of polygons. In it, each
sequential group of three digits in the pictographic polygon
representation represents the X coordinates for the vertexes from left
to right, or the Y coordinates for the vertexes from top to bottom, or
the Z coordinates for the vertexes from front to back. So in that way
depth and ordering of the vertexes is very organized and the 3D scene
can be drawn in layers very quickly from front to back so that it will
be easy to see which vertexes can be skipped due to their being hidden
around the backside of the object.
The three pictogram polygon numbers each get drawn in different
colors in the vertex map, and the three polygon numbers gets parsed into
either a set of X coordinates, a set of Y coordinates, or a set of Z
coordinates as previously described, where each partition represents the
three digit location of X, Y, or Z.
Probably what needs to happen as a next step is to make three
coordinate buffers: one for the X axis, one for the Y axis, and one for
the Z axis, and then copy the parsed sequences of groups of three
sequential digits into these buffers. Then there will either be a fourth
buffer that combines all of these numbers into a set of XYZ coordinates
representing the vertexes of the 3D object, or else the computer will
dynamically triangulate perspectives on the 3D object to be constructed,
where each sequential list of dynamically combined XYZ vertex
coordinates is generated from left to right, top to down, front to back,
based on a projection of an angular viewpoint of the original
orientation of the X, Y, and Z coordinate lists. That is how
re-orientations of perspectives get generated. If a polygonal pictogram
is to be built for each perspective, then the polygon points in the
pictogram can just be combined one column at a time for the X, Y, and Z
vertex polygons (in groups of 3 pixel column places on the pictogram's X
axis), then the vertexes just get placed on the 3D grid, and lines get
drawn between their boundary shells as a wireframe and skins get
applied.
If you wanted to get really simple you don't even have to use
pixels, you can just make an XY array of 1's and 0's, and have it 9 or
so digits high in the Y axis (2^9), and as long in the X axis as
necessary, and every group of N binary digits horizontally gets
multiplied by the level it's on in the Y axis to give you a set of
sequential X coordinates for vertexes of the object in the 3D space, and
in do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D object's vertexes'
Y coordinates, and do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D
objects' vertexes' Z coordinates. Then an XYZ vertex coordinate list
gets dynamically generated for each perspective of this vertex
arrangement that gets requested. That's how to make an object's vertex
map in binary rather than pixels.
Also, hierarchical representation can be applied to generating
different 3D perspective's projection calculations. By putting the
coordinates in terms of hierarchical representation (as described in
previous essays), calculations can proceed much more quickly than normal
since it speeds up arithmetic by chunking the calculations into their
highest powers of 2 (which the computer can calculate in one
clock-cycle), times a multiplier, plus or minus an offset, which can
also be chunked similarly if it is large. That would speed up 3D
rendering of video sequences dramatically.
This is the format that I want to encode the vertex maps of objects
in the visual dictionary I intend to build, and I intend to
systematically and axiomatically categorize the visual objects in terms
of qualitative and quantitative properties, and cross reference each
object to a linguistic encyclopedia, thesaurus, and dictionary. Most of
this work will be automated. Copyright 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Thoughts
on Computer Vision: 2D Snapshot to 3D Wireframe The Process: Open image
Identify edges of objects Identify symmetries Identify duplicate objects
in different configurations to fill in holes in that kind of object
throughout. 3D Clues: Straight lines Corners and intersection points
Arcs Complex areas: generalize areas such as wrinkles in fabric, or
limbs on a plant, or grass (or just generalize by color). Random or
repeating texture on flat or curved surfaces can also give clues. Guess
at 2D perspective. Rotate perspective to rectalinear*. Guess at hidden
areas by filling in holes. Rotate to top perspective, and guess at
holes. Rotate to side 1 (*see diagrams) perspective, guess at holes.
Rotate to side 2 perspective, guess at holes. Build 3D wireframe. Of any
2D picture you basically can see three sides of a cube, and may have to
guess at the other three sides. It's important to note distorted areas
and account for that in the image processing and representation.
Copyright 9/29/2002 Justin Coslor
Computer Vision Thoughts Classify an object's parts by first
cataloging unknown details.
1. Catalog details
2. Catalog association of details
a. by position
b. by range of motion
c. by flexible areas of topography)
3. Catalog repeat patterns.
Gage size and distance by resolution of a known calibration point,
or guess. Do so without having to use active sensing such as radar,
laser range-finders, etc. Scale images down to the lowest resolution
possible while still being able to extract geometric information of a
reasonable precision. Write "3D shape-guessing software" that guesses
the 3D shape (generalized topography) of objects in a 2D image. It could
guess at the dimensions it could not see, and could not change the
perspective to any possible side or angle. I know this already exists,
but where, and for how much, and is it available anywhere as free
open-source software? It could progressively assimilate more complete
mappings of objects in view as you feed it more images of the scene or
similar scenes. 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Imaginative new perspectives on
famous artworks. Do a painting of Leonardo DaVinci painting the Mona
Lisa in the same style and colors as his painting except from a
different view point of perspective. Study his self portraits and guess
at the unknown details. Do a whole series of paintings of famous artwork
scenes but from different perspectives in those same scenes as the
originals. All in the same style and colors. Copyright 10/01/2002 Justin
Coslor More thoughts on my Thermoelectric Generator Cloth invention 1.
Similar to an inverse Peltier junction 2. Could be embedded in hot
ceramic resistors to recover thermal energy. It could be used to capture
lost heat in electronic circuitry, such as in transistor heat-sinks. It
might need a regulator circuit (which could be embedded on a single
chip) to charge a battery or make use of the electricity directly for
non-critical functions in various circuits. It could be used in cars, on
the under side of the hood and inside of the radiator, and on the
exhaust manifold. it could be used to line hot-air balloons if made thin
enough. It could be used in nuclear power plants It could be wrapped
around radioactive hot rocks for use in space. It could be made out of:
1. metallic powder composites, 2. electroplated wire that can be woven
into a fabric before or after being electroplated. 3. woven dissimilar
metal wire. Inventions: T.E.G. cloth, PDA OCR hand-scanner software
Dremel CNC robotic arm and robotic clamp U CAD/CAM interface software.
Copyright 10/16/2002 Justin Coslor Inventory of revolutionary inventions
that I've invented (but not built) up to this date: 1. Thermo-Electric
Generator Cloth 2. Sine Spiral Graphing for Circular and Complex Motion
3. Conical Orbit Graphing for Satellite Path Visualization and Analysis
4. Dremel CNC Robot (suitcase sized) "Hands Building Hands" robotic
assembly system and haptics interface 5. Library PDA + Hand Scanner
Optical Character Recognition Portable Digitizing System (A software
that could be checked out temporarily from every libary in the world. 6.
New Kind of Cheap Laser-Rangefinder System (use not yet known)...laser
range-finders are normally very expensive. 2/25/2005 Update: I've since
invented a new kind of solid-state crystalline shadow-growth computer
memory device that has no moving parts, that my new kind of
laser-rangefinder would be perfect for accessing and writing the data
to.
6/18/2005 Justin Coslor
Puzzles
There needs to be more geometric puzzles that people can fiddle with
with their hands while they talk or drink coffee. Some could be games. A
coffee shop could have a tough puzzle or a riddle that they could have
for people to try, where they have to buy a cup of coffee to try it, and
if they solve it they'd get a free cup of coffee. 6/19/2005 Justin
Coslor World medicine Have a worldwide franchise of hydroponic
greenhouses stocked full of medicinal plants. Put one or more in every
town and in each one there'd also be a laboratory and clinic, similar to
how they do in China, but using plants from all over the world. The
clinic would be a front-end for a vast computer medicinal expert system
artificial intelligence, and have a fast full-body scanner in each one
to model their body in 3D for closer inspection. Have a ridiculous
amount of data storage capacity, memory, and computational power, and
have a laser surgery machine and blood analysis equipment, etc. Combine
Western Medicine with Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Accupuncture, Chinese
Herbal Medicine, Native American remedies, Aruveydic medicine, and
South-American Shamantic and Russian (Shamantic and modern) medicine,
and ignore smug know-it-all healer wanna-be's. Medicine goes part of the
way, belief accounts for 40% of healing (according to scientists), and
the rest is basically a gift from God. Do everything possible in the
best possible way and constantly improve all areas. Also have
spiritual/energy healers if you can find good ones or manage to train
them. The fee should be a sliding scale based on a percentage of income,
and have payment plans, which can be partially paid by working in the
greenhouse, lab, or clinic.
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This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.
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