### http://frdcsa.org/~justin/photos/people

### http://frdcsa.org/~justin

Even though we forget, we just do the best that we know how in each moment.

http://frdcsa.org/~justin/writing3

Possibility Thinking:

Explorations in Logic and Thought

http://frdcsa.org/~justin/justincoslor.iso

people need reasons more than orders

We know that no one is perfect so try not to treat anyone badly.

Though divided we are one. MANY FROM ONE. DEMOCRACY IS COMMUNITY.

DEMOCRACY IN SYNCHRONOUS COMMUNITY.

STRIVE FOR PEACE NOT PIECES.

SUBSET INTERSECTION INTERSECTION UNION.

I like writing, drawing, discovering wisdom, learning, and talking

gently with nice folks. I mostly enjoy simple ideas.

PICForm Project

PICForm Diagram

Sine Spiral Graphing Project

Sine_Spiral_Graphing.pdf [2.9MB]

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We know that no one is perfect

so try not to treat anyone badly.

http://s29.photobucket.com/albums/c262/gwibsleydask/

http://justincoslor.livejournal.com

photos

http://frdcsa.org/~justin/words

has many errors in it so please remember to be kind to everyone and

only read it gently when you are in a good mood and if you get tired

then gently stop and do something else such as sleep and dream of peace.

The diagrams and drawings and stuff for that book are in the file

justincoslor.iso and they are not perfect either so please be kind and

try not to treat anyone badly, and please do not treat me badly. Thank

you. More formal thought about that could perhaps be carefully edited by

hand and justincoslor.iso is designed to be be put on a recordable

compact disc.

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PICForm Compiler Project

Perhaps people could make a program that makes writing C programs

easier. I think that C stands for subset.

It could be a program that translates PICFORM

cross-domain relations into C programs and data structures.

COMPUTATION: COMPUTATION IS THE MEANS OF SOLVING PROBLEMS; IT IS

APPLIED STRATEGY, THE APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL DIMENSIONS TO

QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF A MENTAL MODEL, SO THAT PATTERNS CAN BE

IDENTIFIED AND CONTEXTUALIZED COMPUTABLY.

----------------------------------------

One of the ways to invent stuff.

Make a system to list topics next to each other

with a selection of topics to find some useful compatibilities

of their relations. It requires helpful compassionate

human beings and a beautiful diversity of other life as

all life can be beautiful if nurtured to be compassionate.

Helpful thinkers with many skills are needed to think about the topics

in the discovery of new ideas and new profound concepts and

considerations. Concepts are contextual perceptions. A continuum of

textuality is like the setting in a story and is what a context

is. Often it is said that a picture, such as a drawing or diagram, is

worth a thousand words. Sometimes less is more with words. It

sometimes helps to simplify and it sometimes helps to elaborate. It

helps to try to do a good job and plan ahead and leave plenty

for the future.

----------------------------------

Summary of some ideas from Possibility Thinking: Explorations in Logic and Thought

Please remember to not treat anyone badly.

http://frdcsa.org/~justin/photos/people/Justin_03.jpg

http://frdcsa.org/~justin

--------------------

If you want to donate something I only accept Post Office Money Orders.

Please be kind to everyone. Thank you.

--------------------

JUSTIN M COSLOR

PO BOX 367

MOUNT VERNON, WA

98273

--------------------

### some thoughts I considered for book 3 of possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought

These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3

of possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought and

many of them are probably flawed so the burden of understanding

lies entirely on the reader and gossip is not allowed.

-----------------------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

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---------------

Book III:

Math Ideas:

---------------

Copyright 9/13/2004 Justin Coslor

Infinity

Something that is infinite in one context may be finite in another

context. For the re-definition of "infinite" is something that goes on

forever along the dimensional framework of a given context. But once new

axioms are applied to the context where that something went on forever,

the context is changed, and thus so the definition of many if not all

things that existed in the former context, and in many cases infinite

objects may become quitet definable (finite).

---------------------------------- 3/2/2005 update by Justin Coslor

Also, it's important to not that perspectives changes (such as

recontexualizations), may come with different axiom sets than the

original context. 10/19/2004 Justin Coslor Public Domain, free for well

intended use only. The upper limits of NP-Completeness Polynomial time

computations' upper limit can be described by saying "infinity^x", and

that has finitely many dimensions of context, but infinite scope along

those dimensions. Non-polynomial time computations can be described by

"x^infinity", and that has finite scope, but infinitely many dimensions

of context. As you can see, cannot exactly equal np, however, it can

approximate an incomplete abstract summary of some parts of np, using

part of p's scope. This is because exponents stand for the number of

perpendicular or symmetrical dimensions that the variable exists in. So

saying that p=np is like trying to say that infinity^x=x^infinity, which

it clearly is not; but p can be composed of a selection of np's

dimensions, as long as they have a common base for forming selective

perspective. Copyright 10/17/2004 Justin Coslor Qualifying & Quantifying

Dimensionality In equations such as AnX^n + A{n-1}X^n-1 + . . . + A1X +

A0 = 0, the coefficients (An to A1) can be considered to be quantifiers,

and X^n to X or Y's etc, can be considered to be qualitative variables.

When the variables X, Y, etc have exponents or are multiplied

together, each combination of exponents and variables defines the

dimensionality of the planes that the equation is holding in relation to

one another, and the coefficients define the size or length or quantity

or magnitude of each dimensional/qualitative structure in the equation

that is held in relation to each other dimensional/qualitative structure

in the equation. Now some dimensional structures are best described by

equations that have more than two sides to the equal sign, such as those

that exist on higher prime and prime composite levels of balance than

most of current mathematics is based on. So we can only approximate

descriptions of those structures in a duality format if at all.

I guess a computer array or database or arrays of arrays can be used

to depict higher dimensionality, but past a certain number of dimensions

it surpasses the human brain's neuro- hardware's ability to visualize

the relations and dimensional complexity. Arrays can be used to list out

infinitely many dimensions categorically and quantitatively. However,

nobody as of yet has discovered a way to think of a way to bound the

classification of objects or situations using more than two extremes,

using dualities such as maximum and minimum to balance an equation.

Triality, or quintality, etc, along the prime numbers may indeed be

possible, though our brains don't seem to interpret the universe along

those dimensions as of yet. Perhaps eventually we will learn to adapt

higher logical foundations. Copyright 10/4/2004 Justin Coslor Spirals

(See the photos of the pictures depicted by this text on this date.) A

number that has exponents contains one perpendicular or symmetrical

dimension per exponent , so f^5 in this equation might look something

like the multidimensional picture of a spiral within a spiral within a

spiral within a spiral within a spiral. This is how my math invention

"Sine Spiral Graphing" applies to the discovery I made about

dimensionality (see journal entry dated 7/10/2004 Justin Coslor). The

line going through the center of the spiral might actually be a spiral,

a circle, an elliptical loop, a curve, or some combination of those.

This kind of visual notation ("Exponential Sine Spiral Graphing" I call

it) can be used in conjunction with conical orbit graphing I call it)

can be used in conjuntion with conical orbit graphing to simplify the

interaction visualizations of multiple spinning and/or orbiting bodies

that have at least one plane of rotation in common.

------------------------------ Update: Copyright 2/10/2005 Justin Coslor

The optimal structure of nanotechnology parallel-processing

supercomputer memory structure could be something like this f^5

composite exponential spiral, except with ribbons of memory units and

have vertical pipelines interconnecting each exponential layer of the

composite spiral, and have a brick made out of short columns of these

f^4 or f^5 or f^n spirals that are laterally connected on the ends of

each column and stack multiple columns on top of each other in sheets of

intensely interconnected spirals, like slices of a tree trunk. 7/10/2004

by Justin Coslor Light Spirals

For several weeks now I have believed that light (and other

emissions of convecting energy) particles/packets/quanta travel not in

waves, but in spirals and flocks of spirals. I came to this conclusion

after figuring out how to visualize Balmer's frequency equation (the one

with the Rydberg constant and electron shell radiuses: f=R(1/Nf^2 -

1/Ni^2) where Nf is the outermost shell and Ni is the initial shell) in

terms of sine-spiral graphing (Sine-spiral graphing is something of my

own invention, and is a 3D resentation of circular motion, where the

sine-waves or cosine waves represented for all points in time as a

spiral (cosine of a point is X, sine at that point is Y, and time at

that point is Z in the 3D coordinate system....remember the unit

circle?) through time (or through a 3rd dimension if time is irrelevant

or instantaneous or if motion is uniform)). See pg 67 of the comic book

"Introducing Quantum Theory" by J.P. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate - Copyright

1996 (2003 reprint) ISBN: 1840460571 for Balmer's frequency equation.

*Note: Waveforms only look like that from a perpendicular side-view, and

I think this because, interestingly enough, 3D spirals look exactly like

that when they are looked at from a perpendicular side view, which

essentially is a 2D perspective. That is part of the basis of my

sine-spiral graphing methods (I came up with the math for it when I got

way behind in 10th grade Math-Analysis class). 7/11/2004 update by

Justin Coslor Light Spirals Continued

To visualize it I juggled the equation around a little, and figured

out the intent that went into creating the algorithm. In Nf^2 and Ni^2,

f^2 and i^2 just means that the variable f exists in a two- dimensional

plane where one f axis is perpendicular or symmetrical to every other

variable in the composite of the multiplicative parts; and when numbers

or values get plugged into those variables, the visualization depicts a

specific graph within the context of that combined dimensionality. That

is why multiplication is used in algorithms to combine variables that

are proportional to each other. *Multiplication shows that they have a

proportional relationship. **Multiplication can also show that

variables' dimensionality can share the same space, by perceiving of

them in the broader context of their dimensions' combined contexts

(whether it be symbolic, semantic, algebraic, or geometrical). ***One

variable=1 dimensional representation. Two variables=2 dimensional

representation. Three variables=3D . . . There is a limit to our neuro

hardware's dimensional ability. ****If a variable is squared it exists

within a two-dimensional context, if it is cubed, it exists within a 3D

context, etc. Copyright 5/6/1997 Justin Coslor Sine Spiral Graphing

A new method of graphing motion called "Sine Spiral Graphing" was

developed by me when I was 16. It allows for simultaneously graphing the

sine and cosine curves of an object in motion, three-dimensionally. Sine

and cosine, when graphed simultaneously in two dimensions, look like two

staggered intersecting waves traveling in the same general direction.

(Fig. 1) There has been a need for developing better methods of graphing

an object's two-dimensional (flat) motion through space over a period of

time that more clearly shows the progression of travel. At present,

mapping three-dimensional motion using different variables is more

complicated, but could be a further application of the principles

presented in the "Sine Spiral Graphing" method. The "Sine Spiral" is

based on the spiral shape of two-dimensional circular motion graphed in

three dimensions using this new graphing technique. The name is derived

from the general name of the sine wave combined with what the actual 3D

graph looks like: a spiral. This technique could be helpful for

scientists and students alike in many applications. Some possible

application for the Sine Spiral could be: - Plotting the motion of a

bead in a hula hoop as it spins around one's waist. - Calculating the

position of various atomic/subatomic particles moving in relation to

each other over time. - Plotting the velocity and position of a point on

an automobile wheel as sit spins down a runway or curvy hilly road. -

Plotting the motion of a baseball spinning through the air as it travels

forward to the catcher over a period of time. - Calculating the motion

of a point on a bowling ball as it rolls down the lane over time. -

Calculating the speeds and positions of a set of points, on various

gears at work, in a clock in relation to each other over time. -

Calculating the motion of a point on a rocket ship, or of a point on a

space satellite as it orbits a planet. - Plotting the movement of a

chicken in a tornado.

All of these examples listed present graphing difficulties when

depicted on a normal graph. The motions in these examples could be

calculated on a computer and represented in a simulated fashion to show

the actual movement in space for one point in time at a time. Concurrent

Sine Spiral graphs can also be drawn for comparison of points on

multiple moving objects. However, it would be difficult to graphically

represent these motions for all points in time all at once. A simulation

could be like a video, where one can only view one place on the video at

a time. Viewing forward and reverse at the same time is not logistically

possible on a video. However, when motion is three-dimensionally graphed

on a computer using a Sine Spiral, it is possible to view these motions

for all points in time all at once. A very effective way to manipulate

and browse three-dimensional graphs (such as a Sine Spiral) on a

computer is with Virtual Reality equipment. With Virtual Reality

equipment, the perspective of the viewer can freely move around in space

(on the graph) and see the 3D objects in one's graph from any

perspective. In a Virtual Reality graph, the user can have total control

over what is viewed and how it is viewed.

Understanding the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, tangent,

and their inverse counterparts is a necessity for understanding Sine

Spiral Graphing. Trigonometric functions of real numbers, called

"Circular Functions" (or Wrapping Functions), can be defined in terms of

the coordinates of points on the unit circle with the equation x^2+y^2=1

having its center at the origin and a radius of 1. (Fig. 2)

There are three elements in a two-dimensional trigonometric

function: the angle of rotation (sigma), the radius of the rotation r,

and the (x,y) position of the point at that angle and radius. As can be

seen in Figure 3, the x and y portions of the graph are always

perpendicular to each other. Thus a right triangle is formed between the

x, y, and radius sides. Right triangle rules can therefore be applied to

this point in space (Brown/Robbins 190).

Such trigonometric functions as sine and cosine can be applied to

the triangle formed by rotation. These functions, sin and cos, are of

fundamental importance in all branches of mathematics. One can use

points other than those on the unit circle to find values of the sine

and cosine functions. (Fig. 4) If a point Q has coordinates (x,y), and

it is at angle sigma in reference to the origin, (cos sigma) = x/r and

(sin sigma) = y/r. To obtain a rough sketch of a sine wave, plot the

points (t, sin t) (Fig. 5), then draw a smooth curve through them, and

extend the configuration to the right and left in periodic fashion. This

gives the portion of the graph shown in Figure 5 (Swolowski 78).

A cosine can be graphed in the same fashion by simply shifting the

graph 90 degrees to the right. (Fig. 6) An object's circular motion can

be described by either a sine wave or a cosine graphed in the same

fashion. Such a wave is composed of the object's radius of rotation and

the vperiod (number of degrees in on cycle) per unit of time that it

rotates. Seeing an object's sine and cosine graph simultaneously greatly

helps in visualizing the object's motion analytically compared how it

found in real life. Watching an animation of an object spinning is the

same as seeing the x and y coordinates (cosine and sine) of the object

for each frame of the animation, one frame at a time. This is because

one could see a scale view of its whole two-dimensional motion over a

period of time. Visualizing an object's true motion in nature from

merely looking at a graph of its sine or cosine can be difficult to

conceptualize. For this reason, the Sine Spiral may be an improvement in

current co-linear graphing (Fig. 7).

Velocity over the period of one rotation on a sine curve can be

measured by dividing the distance traveled in one rotation by the amount

of time it takes to complete that one rotation. Velocity = change in

distance/change in time + direction.

Any change in velocity (a change in time) will change the distance

between peaks of the spiral. The whole Z-axis around which the spiral

revolves represents time passed. When the velocity is constant, the

distance from peak to peak in the spiral is constant or each distance

from one peak to another peak is the same. (Fig. 6) Therefore, if the

distance from one peak to another changes somewhere in the spiral, this

indicates that the velocity has changed at that point in time.

Within the Sine Spiral, some of the variables that can change in the

object's motion are velocity, radius of rotation, position of axis of

revolution, and the scale upon which measurements are based. The shape

of this spiral is an indication of any and all of these variables. The

change in the shape of the spiral correlates to the change in one or

more of these variables. (Fig. 7)

Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines a spiral as "A

three-dimensional curve (as a helix) with one or more turns around and

axis." In current circular motion, the sine of the angle of rotation

provides a Y value (Sine=Y/Radius of Rotation), while the cosine of that

same angle provides and X value (Cosine=X/Radius of Rotation). These X

and Y values are all that is needed to draw the two-dimensional models

of rotation known as the sine curve and the two- dimensional models of

rotation known as the sine curve and cosine curve (or sine wave). To my

knowledge it has not been thought possible to graph this same motion in

three dimensions though, because one needs an X, Y, and Z coordinate in

order to graph in 3D. There can be an X and Y coordinate by finding the

sine and cosine of a unit circle. All that is needed is a Z coordinate

to make the circular motion graphable in three dimensions.

That Z coordinate could be representable by time, or speed of

rotation, or even the period of degrees it takes for one complete

rotation. In a sine wave, the period is 360 degrees. Using the period of

degrees in one rotation, one can find a constantly increasing Z

coordinate by dividing the current number of degrees traveled by the

period of degrees it takes to complete one rotation. In short,

degrees/period. The period can be depicted by a set amount of time.

Finding a ratio between something that can be used as a reference point

(one second vs the number of degrees in one rotation) to one's current

progress in that measurement scale (number of seconds that have passed

vs number of degrees that have been traveled) determine where one is on

the Z- axis.

By dividing one's progress by a predetermined scale of reference, a

new dimension can be generated in which to plot on a graph in order to

illustrate this in three-dimensional fashion. This new dimension can be

called the "Z-axis". Now that there is an X, Y, and Z dimension

available, a three-dimensional model of an object's progress through its

path of circular motion is possible.

For 3D motion, one can draw three spirals over the same T axis and

where two of the spirals intersect, plot a point. Connecting the dots

between the points gives one a tri-spiral (a spiral or shape that

represents 3D motion over time). One can continue plotting the points

with several objects and where the tri-spirals intersect, the objects

intersect. One can break down the tri-spiral to find out where the X, Y,

and Z coordinates are in space and the time coordinates of the

intersection.

To use the Sine Spiral to map the 3D motion throughout time, one

could mark the spiral with tags (or color code it) that tell one when

and how far down the Z-axis it travels. Then to graph several objects to

compare their motions and positions to each other, one can have a

computer draw lines of the same color of the Z-tag, linking all of the

objects that intersect on the two planes like the ZX plane, or the ZY

plane. That way, one could identify when objects like planets line up on

a plane or intersect.

There is much to benefit from in being able to graph an object's

progress at the same time as its position in space. One can see time

from an outside perspective and also see how an object's motion,

position, and speed relate to any point in time. In many circumstances,

it may be very useful to finally be able to get to see the general shape

of an object's travel through all points in time all at once. This new

method of graphing circular motion in three dimensions is the "Sine

Spiral".

The graph forms a regularly spaced spiral whose axis is a straight

line equidistant from the perimeter of the spiral. Changing the radius

of rotation around a center axis changes the radius of the spiral around

the Z axis. Changing the center of rotation in two-dimensional space (X,

Y coordinates) makes the Z axis of the sign spiral curve up, down, or to

the sides when graphed (instead of the normal straight line Z-axis).

For instance, an air hockey puck pinning in place would have a

regular sign spiral that represents a point on the puck's perimeter that

is traveling in a circle. Now if the spinning puck were to be slid

across an air hockey table, that same point (on the perimeter of the

puck) would have an irregular sine spiral whose radius would be

constant, but the Z-axis around which the graph spirals would

instantaneously bend at a ninety degree angle.

A computer can easily generate this three-dimensional picture of an

object "N" at point "T" in time if the speed of travel is irregular (or

at the ratio of degrees traveled to the period of one complete rotation

if the speed is constant). (Fig. 8)

Graphing any two-dimensional motion (motion that moves in any

direction on a flat plane), or rotation in three-dimensions using time

or progress as the third dimension allows one to look at time from an

outside perspective. The Sine Spiral can be used to graph any such

two-dimensional motion, or any number of combinations of such motion. It

can be used to graph several objects moving around in 2D (flat) space on

the same plane. The Sine Spiral can be used to graph an object which has

a rotation within a rotation, and so on (Fig. 9). In this case, each

next level of rotation is on an incrementally larger scale. To view some

of the higher levels of rotation, one must graph the object's motion

over a longer period of time. This concept can relate to complex motions

of a longer period of time. This concept can relate to complex motions

of a large scale found in, for example, the universe. Sine Spiral

graphing can literally be used to graph the motion of every particle in

perceivable universe for all points in observable time, simultaneously

(by bending the Z-axis appropriately to accommodate changes is axis

orientation). Using the Sine Spiral, graphing motion in the Z-axis, or

time, requires one to employ a means to mark or reference the Sine

Spiral in order to distinguish how deep down the Z-axis the motion has

traveled.

Without a Sine Spiral, one can only pick three-dimensions to see on

a graph for all points in those dimensions. One could have X, Y, and Z

coordinates on a 3D graph all at once, but only for one point in time

per graph. Or one could illustrate motion in any two dimensions for all

points in time using the Sine Spiral. Here are some of the dimensions

from which one can choose: X, Y, Z, and Time. One can have four or more

dimensions on a graph by selecting 3 variables form out of the X, Y, Z,

and Time, as well as any number of descriptive, qualitative,

categorical, computational, or other quantitative dimensions. These

kinds of dimensions may appeal/apply to one's senses and could be

described in "real" dimensions such as the Z-axis and others.

With 3D applications using this concept (once improved methods of

graphing 3D motion with the sine spirals are better developed), other

more complex spirals can be mapped. Such 3D applications could include

the universe in their motion through space throughout all time to see

where certain ones meet or line up), and graphing the motion of

particles of a sun during a supernova (the spiral would look similar to

a tangent spiral as described below). The Sine Spiral may be an

improvement in the graphing of nonlinear and linear motion. With the

help of the recent Virtual Reality technology, most any computer can be

used to build 3D models such as Sine Spirals. We can construct and view

a Sine Spiral and have complete control over the graph, viewing it in 3D

space as if it were physically here.

There are many new math applications and theorems that may apply to

this concept. Different types of spirals are possible with the general

Sine Spiral method. Such shapes could include the Sine Tube (a sine

spiral whose period is infinitely small), the Tangent Spiral (which uses

a sine spiral whose period is infinitely small), the Tangent Spiral

(uses the equation Tan sigma = (y/r)/ (x/r) for the x and y

coordinates), and the secant spiral (uses sec sigma = 1/(x/r) for the

coordinate and csc sigma = 1/(y/r) for the y coordinate). Also, in

either two-dimensional or three-dimensional motion (when a graphing

method is available), an object can be spinning in a circle within a

circle (each level of rotation incrementally bigger than the previous),

and this will make a very special type of Sine Spiral that looks like a

spiral within a spiral within a spiral, etc., depending on how many

levels of rotation are going on. More new math applications ar sure to

be found that can apply to the Sine Spiral as it is used.

Graphing three-dimensional motion with the Sine Spiral is more

difficult to do, but can be done effectively. Graphing three-dimensional

motion using the Sine Spiral needs further refinement at this time, but

will hopefully be available for use in the near future. There are many

new avenues that open up as people figure things out in science and

math. The Sine Spiral may be another door in mathematics ready to be

opened up and entered. Through this door may be a whole new way to look

at things, a way to see objects in nonlinear motion from a standpoint

outside of time. ---------------------------------- Works Cited: Brown

R., and D. Robbins, "Advanced Mathematics: A Precalculus Course"

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 1987. Fleenor C., M. Shanks, and C.

Brumfiel. "The Elementary Functions".

Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1973. Gove, P.B., ed.

"Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged".

Springfield, MA: Miriam-Webster, 1986. Manougian, M.N. "Trigonometry

with Applications".

Tampa, FL: Mariner Publishing Co., 1980. Swokowski, E.W.

"Fundamentals of Trigonometry".

Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, Incorporated, 1982.

-------------------------------- Copyright 6/28/2003 Justin Coslor

Conical Satellite Orbit Graphing (See Diagrams dated 10/4/2004,

3/1/2004, and 9/15/2001)

I do think the conical satellite orbit graphing idea I thought of in

winter 2001 (or the year before) could still be something valuable in

detecting and calculating collisions and for 3D space junk detection.

It's based on the hypothesis that if you compress a half-sphere into the

shape of a cone, the 180 degree arcs become straight lines, and straight

lines are easier to represent, interpret depth of, and run calculations

on than arcs. Elliptical orbits would just re straight lines at an

angle, each line representing the orbital path of an object in space.

Where two or more lines intersect, a collision is possible at the point

by either accelerating or de-accelerating the objects that the lines

represent.

Each object in a hemisphere cone is represented by a maximum and

minimum altitude, and an angle representing the direction in which the

object is traveling. There is one cone for each hemisphere. The neat

thing about the conical format is that you can see how a bunch of

objects, traveling in different directions at various altitudes, stack

up along a common line of altitude protruding through the center of the

planet, sun, moon, atom, galaxy, etc, and you can see how this line of

altitude intersects each of those objects at two points in time (one for

each hypersphere cone), along their various paths of travel.

Conical orbit graphing is a way to group a set of satellites (or

other objects in orbit) by a single line protruding through the center

of the central mass out into space (with a longitude and latitude

coordinate for each hemisphere from which the line emerges). All sorts

of nifty computer software functions can be incorporated into this as

well, such as having a 2D map of the central mass (such as a planetary

map or electron orbital map) as a clickable image map that generates a

unique pair of orbit cones for each coordinate (one for each hemisphere

of the hypersphere for objects traveling 360 degrees or more around the

planet). It would have a timing component as well and can be used as a

multi-body gravitational clock, viewable with virtual reality equipment

or a regular computer. There can also be a range component that

highlights any possible collisions within a certain proximity of the

satellites in focus (the satellites that intersect a common axis of

altitude, have one pair of cones for each axis of altitude). The user

should also be able to zoom in and out, rotate the cones, focus on

different axis' of altitude, combine complex orbits with sine- spiral

graphing techniques (see my paper on that), and watch the satellites

travel along their path lines in real-time (at an adjustable rate) using

live or recorded data collected from sensors and observational

equipment. It would help if most modern satellites were equipped to

detect space junk and satellites around them and relay it back to the

ground so that the world has a constantly updated fairly accurate map of

all of the objects and space junk in orbit around the earth, since space

flight has been compared to flying through a high-speed shooting

gallery. Ideally, some kind of Star Trek-like/Tesla

Wardencliffe-tower-like shields or something are needed for the safety

of that hazard (but not for use as a weapon), but a good 3D navigational

map can't hurt. For each satellite the computer can run a conical orbit

graphing collision detection test for each point in time along it's

projected path of travel.

The main use of conical orbit graphing as I see it, is for detecting

collisions at points along a line of altitude, using one pair of cones

for each point in time (or as a 3D interactive video). The user should

be able to pick a time and x-y coordinate, see the satellites that

intersect that line of altitude, then zoom in on the part of the path of

the satellite that they are interested in, then click on a point in that

path, and a new set of cones will be generated using that point as an

altitude line in the center of the cones so that you can then see what

possible collisions and path intersections there are for that point in

the satellite flight path-time. All as straight lines so that it's

easier to comprehend in complex situations. The computer calculations

might even be quicker than calculating arcs. I'd assume elliptical arcs

to be the most computationally intensive using traditional methods, but

they too could probably be represented as straight lines in the software

(going diagonally across the cones from one height to another height,

and then the opposite for the other cone). It would be a 3D software

tool for visualization and collision-interception calculation (and might

be able to help protect all countries from incoming intercontinental

thermonuclear ballistic missiles by combing this visualization method

with a ground-based or space-based or airplane-based or reusable

non-offensive missile based laser/maser anti-ballistic missile defense

system. There might be many other beneficial uses for this visualization

method that I haven't thought of yet (such as charting asteroids around

Saturn or something; though hopefully it won't ever be used for, or even

be useful for offensive purposes of any kind).. I haven't written any of

the code yet or figured out much of the math yet to make it possible

yet. Scholarly help is encouraged. Copyright 8/28/2005 Justin Coslor

Applications of Conical Hyperhemisphere Graphing When Combined With Sine

Spiral Graphing (See my papers dated 5/6/1997 and 6/28/2003.)

A Sine Spiral graph can be used to depict how an object rotates in N

dimensions as it moves from point to point in time (as though it were

rotating in place through time without actually traveling forward along

a path). Then those time coordinates can be linked to a conical orbit

graph of the distance vectors that the object moves through along its

path (or use a 3D Cartesian Coordinate grid of its path if it isn't

going to travel a full orbit around the planet...or not...). This

combination of graphing techniques works regardless of whether the

object is below, on, or above the surface of the Earth, or other center

of mass in space. For instance it could be used for mapping the path of

a vessel that goes from under the ocean, up into the sky, and out into

space into an orbit around the moon or something. ***************** Each

layer of the hyperhemisphere cone is a polar grid of a different

altitude. Elliptical and circular orbits are represented as straight

lines going across a pair of cones and intersect with an axis of

altitude line that goes vertically through the center of each cone,

where the axis of altitude represents a line going through the center of

the planet and out both sides into space. Elliptical orbits go

diagonally across the cones in this fashion from one altitude to

another, and back the opposite way in the cone that represents the other

half of the hyperhemisphere. Circular orbits go straight across the

cones at whatever altitude and declination they happen to be on.

*****************

Space stations could use these mapping techniques to coordinate

their motion and to dock incoming spacecraft, and it could be useful for

spaceship navigation and satellite positioning, coordination, and

communication routing too. Navy submarines could use these sine spiral +

conical hyperhemisphere (or sine spiral + Cartesian or polar) graphs

when planning and plotting routes through the oceans of the world

through different depths and complex courses. Air-Force planes in

perpetual (or merely long distance) flight could also use it to plan or

plot their courses, so could airlines. It could simplify autonomous

agent motion through extremely complicated environments, such as space,

or for nanobots navigation in a chip or in colloidal fluid, or

autopiloted aircraft in extremely crowded skies (such as autopiloted

personal aircraft for overcrowded cities). Cross Domain Relations, for

the Mathematics of Alternative Route Exploration Aside from the first

order logic stuff, the ideas and depictions in this paper were

originally conceived of and are Copyright 5/22/2004 by Justin M. Coslor,

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED (Please contact me for conditions of use...). This

Rough Draft was typed on 6/9/2004 in AbiWord on an X86-Compatible

Personal Computer running GNU Sarge (a free Debian Linux Operating

System), and was encouraged by the FRDCSA.ORG project.

These ideas are intended to enhance the ability to discover and

invent new routes in any field of study, and to aid in evaluating the

relative utility of known routes, as well as to simplify some of the

problems posed by computability theory.

Figure 1.

From the foundations of relational logic, we already know that: if a

relation is xRy: X-->Y, then it is injective; or if xRy: X<-->Y, then it

is bijective; or if xRy: X-->(y1, y2, ..., yp), then it is surjective;

We also know that if a functional relation is xRy: y=f(x)=m where f(x)

represents an arbitrary function of the domain X that yields a set of

unique m's that are sub-ranges (y's) within the bounds of the range Y

(a.k.a. the Class Y), where each m corresponds to a uniquely arbitrary

domain x through the functional relation f(x). In this case, [f(x)]=R in

the equation xRy. (*Remember for later that any mathematical operator

(+, -, /, *, etc.) can be a relation. Any piece of computer software can

also be treated as a relation, since software performs operations, and

is basically a collection of algebraicly-tied operators.) But perhaps,

we can broaden the scope of the Context in order to allow for more

possibilities. This "broadening", may include metaphoric operations and

metaphoric relations between the data type(s) of the functional

relation(s) in focus and various specified number sets, orderings, and

systems of numbers (including symbolic ones). (*We'll cover more on this

later.) Let us introduce a new type of relation, that is a relation that

relates relations, and let us call it a Cross-Domain Relation, and

depict it as such: One goal of this paper is to show a system to

accurately depict the following kinds of relation: xCy: (x1, x2, ...,

xp)-->knEY (injective), or xCy: (x1, x2, ..., xp)<-->knEY (bijective),

or xCy: (x1, x2, ..., xp)-->(k1, k2, ..., kn)EY (surjective); where

every sub-range k that is an element of the range Y, has multiple

domains that relate to each k in a unique way (through a unique route).

Each sub-domain in the Domain X can come from different contexts and

each sub- domain may operate under a different relation to specific

sub-ranges in Y than other sub- domains relations to those same

sub-ranges in Y. In these relations, some of the sub-domains may be

injective, some may be bijective, and some may be surjective. In order

to label and order each set of sub-domains that is part of a unique

cross-domain relation, we introduce the ordering term "n". We can use

the "n" component here to differentiate and/or order cross-domain

relations, by combining the ordering of cross-domain-related sub-domains

(i.e. nCx) with the individual relations between those sub-domains and

any given sub-ranges (i.e. xRy), as such: nCx: N-->X (injective), or

nCx: N<-->X (bijective), or nCx: N-->{x1, x2, ..., xp} (surjective),

then nCxRy describes the cross-domain relation where n is an element in

the cross-domain N such that x=f(n), and x is an element of a particular

cross-domain subset n (as well as being a sub-domain of the domain X),

where x has a relation (a.k.a. a route) to a particular sub-range y in

Y.; (***Note: every x in X and/or every n in N can come from vastly

different contexts, yet still lead to the same y(s) in Y.) where for

each sub-range y, f(n) is every function in the cross-domain N that

leads to multiple sub-domains in X that lead to the the multilateral

result k (which is a specific singular sub-range y in the Class Y with

multiple relations leading to it from the domain X) through the route:

F[C{f(x)}]-->kEY (kEY means k is an Element of Y), where C{f(x)}=n and

y=f(x) and x=f(n), and k represents any specific unique sub-range in Y

that can be arrived at via multiple domains' functional relations, where

each of the multiple domain's relations goes from any sub-domain x in X

to the same specific sub- range y in Y; where F[N] is the set of all

routes to all k's in Y, K is the set of all k's in Y, and F[n] is the a

relation describing set of all routes to a specific k in Y. k is used to

depict sub-ranges that have multiple ways to arrive at them; that is to

say, ways that include origin variations, and intermediary relation

combinations (middle-man combinations). In short: "If some unique X's

yield some of the same unique y's through various relations, then those

X's are said to have "cross-domain relations", because those domains

have some relations whose end results have something in common."

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^This is what I was trying to draw and put into an

equation format. I'm not sure if I succeeded, but probably. It seemed

like there needed to be a formal word for what I was trying to depict as

relations that relate different contexts' functions' domains by a

representable equivalence or similarity in their ranges (when there is

exists such a representable equivalence or similarity), so that's how I

came up with the name "cross- domain relations". Computer software can

essentially be treated as such functions, for which cross-domain

relations that lead to alternative routes may exist for any given set or

class of software functions. It's basically all about alternative

routes. Such a mapping can be quite useful for exploring alternative, or

previously unconsidered, or unknown possibilities and modalities. In

Figure 1., X is a class that contains domains that lead to ranges within

the class Y. There may be other classes that lead to those ranges, even

if they do so indirectly through other classes by broadening the

applicable context. By saying "lead to them" I mean "relate to them" in

any "chosen" way(s). The route equations can get very complex the more

classes and destinations you're analyzing when looking for and mapping

cross-domain relations. In practice, the user ends up with a concise

pack of cross-domain relation equations that summarizes the entire

complexity of the known patterns in the contexts of any situation or

model. The equation packs can also be used to represent the possible

outlets to explore for new patterns based on perceived priority of their

beginning class of categories, and perceived

attainability/computability. . . mark off potentially infinite patterns

and recursive loops accordingly, after exploring the first few layers

only. Conclusion: Cross-domain relations can be used when depicting,

predicting, finding, manipulating, creating, using, analyzing,

backtracking, tracing, comparing, and reverse engineering alternative

routes to anything, in any field of application.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

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Examples: (*In the following examples I have defined the "underscore"

character "_" to be the equivalent of the logical statement "OR", which

is equivalent of the English language statement "and/or". I use the "_"

character to link multiple routes to a sub-range, so that the patterns

of the context of that sub-range can all be packaged into one continuous

string. Such a string can then be parsed easily and sorted according to

factors such as: route-scale (number of computable degrees or nodes v.s.

potentially infinite possibilities), route category, route-size, relative

route location, etc.)

Example 1:

In Figure 1., the domain x2 has an alternative route to y1 through

the cross-domain relation n1Cx2Ry1_n1Cx1Cy1 where n1Cx2Ry1=Route k1, and

n1Cx1Cy1=Route k2. ((In my examples I like to use C to represent

bijective relations, and R to represent surjective or injective

relations.) *Note that x1Cy1Cn1=n1Cx1Cy1 ) So in this example k1 and k2

are the known routes to y1, and since we know about more than one route

to y1, we can call k1 and k2 cross-domain relations. Or we can simply

reference that group of routes by the meta-name k1_k2.

Figure 1.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

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The following are Graph Theory Examples of Cross-Domain Relations:

(**In the following examples, I use R to represent an injective or

surjective route, and use C to represent the continuous directional flow

of a bijective route. I use the symbol "$" to indicate that the routes

on each side of the "$" have a bijective relationship. The "$" symbol is

used when comparing two or more routes. The "=>" symbol means "directly

implies".) Example 2: First have a look at Figure 2. (***Note: in ACB,

(a1Cb1)$(b1Ca1), because BCA exists.)

Figure 2.

Alternative routes to A from C:

ARC=a2Ra2 => a2 = ACCk1

ACBRC=a1Cb1Rb3_ a1Cb1Ca1Cb1Rb3 => ACCk2_ACCk3

ACBCDCC=a1Cb1Cb2Cd1Cd2_A$B$D$C=a1b2d2 => Routes ACCk4 through

ACCk11

(****Many more complex routes beginning at A and terminating at C

exist, and can be very explicitly depicted in this manner.)

----------------------------------------------------------------------

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----------------------------------------------------------------------

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Example 3: In Figure 2, by entering each line's node relationship

into a computer in a format such as: [ACB,BCD,DCC,BRC,ARC,ARF,FCE,FCC],

(<----This is the Context.) (Next I'll describe the Patterns in that

Context...) the computer can generate on the fly all of the possible

routes from any given node to any other given node, including curtailed

potentially infinite loop structures (by representing loop structures

via the "$" operator, as noted earlier), and it can explicitly represent

the optimal routes and rank the suboptimal routes using relation and

cross-domain relation notation. Perhaps in some situations, one might

even order the routes by largest perimeter of closed polygonal circuit

region to smallest polygonal circuit perimeter, followed by largest open

leg to smallest open leg, when declaring a context. (*****Where ";" is

the character that indicates the parsing of each closed-circuit

polygonal region or open leg in this notation variation.) This might

look something like: [ARC_CCF_ARF;ARC_ACB_BRC;BCD_DCC_BRC;FCE] ...if the

proportions were correctly represented in my diagram, that is...

Figure 2.

These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3 of possibility

thinking explorations in logic and thought and many of them are

probably flawed so the burden of understanding lies entirely on the

reader and gossip is not allowed.

-----------------------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

-----------------------------------------------------

of possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought and

many of them are probably flawed so the burden of understanding

lies entirely on the reader and gossip is not allowed.

----------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

----------------------------------------

---------------

Book III:

Math Ideas:

---------------

Copyright 9/13/2004 Justin Coslor

Infinity

Something that is infinite in one context may be finite in another

context. For the re-definition of "infinite" is something that goes on

forever along the dimensional framework of a given context. But once new

axioms are applied to the context where that something went on forever,

the context is changed, and thus so the definition of many if not all

things that existed in the former context, and in many cases infinite

objects may become quitet definable (finite).

---------------------------------- 3/2/2005 update by Justin Coslor

Also, it's important to not that perspectives changes (such as

recontexualizations), may come with different axiom sets than the

original context. 10/19/2004 Justin Coslor Public Domain, free for well

intended use only. The upper limits of NP-Completeness Polynomial time

computations' upper limit can be described by saying "infinity^x", and

that has finitely many dimensions of context, but infinite scope along

those dimensions. Non-polynomial time computations can be described by

"x^infinity", and that has finite scope, but infinitely many dimensions

of context. As you can see, cannot exactly equal np, however, it can

approximate an incomplete abstract summary of some parts of np, using

part of p's scope. This is because exponents stand for the number of

perpendicular or symmetrical dimensions that the variable exists in. So

saying that p=np is like trying to say that infinity^x=x^infinity, which

it clearly is not; but p can be composed of a selection of np's

dimensions, as long as they have a common base for forming selective

perspective. Copyright 10/17/2004 Justin Coslor Qualifying & Quantifying

Dimensionality In equations such as AnX^n + A{n-1}X^n-1 + . . . + A1X +

A0 = 0, the coefficients (An to A1) can be considered to be quantifiers,

and X^n to X or Y's etc, can be considered to be qualitative variables.

When the variables X, Y, etc have exponents or are multiplied

together, each combination of exponents and variables defines the

dimensionality of the planes that the equation is holding in relation to

one another, and the coefficients define the size or length or quantity

or magnitude of each dimensional/qualitative structure in the equation

that is held in relation to each other dimensional/qualitative structure

in the equation. Now some dimensional structures are best described by

equations that have more than two sides to the equal sign, such as those

that exist on higher prime and prime composite levels of balance than

most of current mathematics is based on. So we can only approximate

descriptions of those structures in a duality format if at all.

I guess a computer array or database or arrays of arrays can be used

to depict higher dimensionality, but past a certain number of dimensions

it surpasses the human brain's neuro- hardware's ability to visualize

the relations and dimensional complexity. Arrays can be used to list out

infinitely many dimensions categorically and quantitatively. However,

nobody as of yet has discovered a way to think of a way to bound the

classification of objects or situations using more than two extremes,

using dualities such as maximum and minimum to balance an equation.

Triality, or quintality, etc, along the prime numbers may indeed be

possible, though our brains don't seem to interpret the universe along

those dimensions as of yet. Perhaps eventually we will learn to adapt

higher logical foundations. Copyright 10/4/2004 Justin Coslor Spirals

(See the photos of the pictures depicted by this text on this date.) A

number that has exponents contains one perpendicular or symmetrical

dimension per exponent , so f^5 in this equation might look something

like the multidimensional picture of a spiral within a spiral within a

spiral within a spiral within a spiral. This is how my math invention

"Sine Spiral Graphing" applies to the discovery I made about

dimensionality (see journal entry dated 7/10/2004 Justin Coslor). The

line going through the center of the spiral might actually be a spiral,

a circle, an elliptical loop, a curve, or some combination of those.

This kind of visual notation ("Exponential Sine Spiral Graphing" I call

it) can be used in conjunction with conical orbit graphing I call it)

can be used in conjuntion with conical orbit graphing to simplify the

interaction visualizations of multiple spinning and/or orbiting bodies

that have at least one plane of rotation in common.

------------------------------ Update: Copyright 2/10/2005 Justin Coslor

The optimal structure of nanotechnology parallel-processing

supercomputer memory structure could be something like this f^5

composite exponential spiral, except with ribbons of memory units and

have vertical pipelines interconnecting each exponential layer of the

composite spiral, and have a brick made out of short columns of these

f^4 or f^5 or f^n spirals that are laterally connected on the ends of

each column and stack multiple columns on top of each other in sheets of

intensely interconnected spirals, like slices of a tree trunk. 7/10/2004

by Justin Coslor Light Spirals

For several weeks now I have believed that light (and other

emissions of convecting energy) particles/packets/quanta travel not in

waves, but in spirals and flocks of spirals. I came to this conclusion

after figuring out how to visualize Balmer's frequency equation (the one

with the Rydberg constant and electron shell radiuses: f=R(1/Nf^2 -

1/Ni^2) where Nf is the outermost shell and Ni is the initial shell) in

terms of sine-spiral graphing (Sine-spiral graphing is something of my

own invention, and is a 3D resentation of circular motion, where the

sine-waves or cosine waves represented for all points in time as a

spiral (cosine of a point is X, sine at that point is Y, and time at

that point is Z in the 3D coordinate system....remember the unit

circle?) through time (or through a 3rd dimension if time is irrelevant

or instantaneous or if motion is uniform)). See pg 67 of the comic book

"Introducing Quantum Theory" by J.P. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate - Copyright

1996 (2003 reprint) ISBN: 1840460571 for Balmer's frequency equation.

*Note: Waveforms only look like that from a perpendicular side-view, and

I think this because, interestingly enough, 3D spirals look exactly like

that when they are looked at from a perpendicular side view, which

essentially is a 2D perspective. That is part of the basis of my

sine-spiral graphing methods (I came up with the math for it when I got

way behind in 10th grade Math-Analysis class). 7/11/2004 update by

Justin Coslor Light Spirals Continued

To visualize it I juggled the equation around a little, and figured

out the intent that went into creating the algorithm. In Nf^2 and Ni^2,

f^2 and i^2 just means that the variable f exists in a two- dimensional

plane where one f axis is perpendicular or symmetrical to every other

variable in the composite of the multiplicative parts; and when numbers

or values get plugged into those variables, the visualization depicts a

specific graph within the context of that combined dimensionality. That

is why multiplication is used in algorithms to combine variables that

are proportional to each other. *Multiplication shows that they have a

proportional relationship. **Multiplication can also show that

variables' dimensionality can share the same space, by perceiving of

them in the broader context of their dimensions' combined contexts

(whether it be symbolic, semantic, algebraic, or geometrical). ***One

variable=1 dimensional representation. Two variables=2 dimensional

representation. Three variables=3D . . . There is a limit to our neuro

hardware's dimensional ability. ****If a variable is squared it exists

within a two-dimensional context, if it is cubed, it exists within a 3D

context, etc. Copyright 5/6/1997 Justin Coslor Sine Spiral Graphing

A new method of graphing motion called "Sine Spiral Graphing" was

developed by me when I was 16. It allows for simultaneously graphing the

sine and cosine curves of an object in motion, three-dimensionally. Sine

and cosine, when graphed simultaneously in two dimensions, look like two

staggered intersecting waves traveling in the same general direction.

(Fig. 1) There has been a need for developing better methods of graphing

an object's two-dimensional (flat) motion through space over a period of

time that more clearly shows the progression of travel. At present,

mapping three-dimensional motion using different variables is more

complicated, but could be a further application of the principles

presented in the "Sine Spiral Graphing" method. The "Sine Spiral" is

based on the spiral shape of two-dimensional circular motion graphed in

three dimensions using this new graphing technique. The name is derived

from the general name of the sine wave combined with what the actual 3D

graph looks like: a spiral. This technique could be helpful for

scientists and students alike in many applications. Some possible

application for the Sine Spiral could be: - Plotting the motion of a

bead in a hula hoop as it spins around one's waist. - Calculating the

position of various atomic/subatomic particles moving in relation to

each other over time. - Plotting the velocity and position of a point on

an automobile wheel as sit spins down a runway or curvy hilly road. -

Plotting the motion of a baseball spinning through the air as it travels

forward to the catcher over a period of time. - Calculating the motion

of a point on a bowling ball as it rolls down the lane over time. -

Calculating the speeds and positions of a set of points, on various

gears at work, in a clock in relation to each other over time. -

Calculating the motion of a point on a rocket ship, or of a point on a

space satellite as it orbits a planet. - Plotting the movement of a

chicken in a tornado.

All of these examples listed present graphing difficulties when

depicted on a normal graph. The motions in these examples could be

calculated on a computer and represented in a simulated fashion to show

the actual movement in space for one point in time at a time. Concurrent

Sine Spiral graphs can also be drawn for comparison of points on

multiple moving objects. However, it would be difficult to graphically

represent these motions for all points in time all at once. A simulation

could be like a video, where one can only view one place on the video at

a time. Viewing forward and reverse at the same time is not logistically

possible on a video. However, when motion is three-dimensionally graphed

on a computer using a Sine Spiral, it is possible to view these motions

for all points in time all at once. A very effective way to manipulate

and browse three-dimensional graphs (such as a Sine Spiral) on a

computer is with Virtual Reality equipment. With Virtual Reality

equipment, the perspective of the viewer can freely move around in space

(on the graph) and see the 3D objects in one's graph from any

perspective. In a Virtual Reality graph, the user can have total control

over what is viewed and how it is viewed.

Understanding the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, tangent,

and their inverse counterparts is a necessity for understanding Sine

Spiral Graphing. Trigonometric functions of real numbers, called

"Circular Functions" (or Wrapping Functions), can be defined in terms of

the coordinates of points on the unit circle with the equation x^2+y^2=1

having its center at the origin and a radius of 1. (Fig. 2)

There are three elements in a two-dimensional trigonometric

function: the angle of rotation (sigma), the radius of the rotation r,

and the (x,y) position of the point at that angle and radius. As can be

seen in Figure 3, the x and y portions of the graph are always

perpendicular to each other. Thus a right triangle is formed between the

x, y, and radius sides. Right triangle rules can therefore be applied to

this point in space (Brown/Robbins 190).

Such trigonometric functions as sine and cosine can be applied to

the triangle formed by rotation. These functions, sin and cos, are of

fundamental importance in all branches of mathematics. One can use

points other than those on the unit circle to find values of the sine

and cosine functions. (Fig. 4) If a point Q has coordinates (x,y), and

it is at angle sigma in reference to the origin, (cos sigma) = x/r and

(sin sigma) = y/r. To obtain a rough sketch of a sine wave, plot the

points (t, sin t) (Fig. 5), then draw a smooth curve through them, and

extend the configuration to the right and left in periodic fashion. This

gives the portion of the graph shown in Figure 5 (Swolowski 78).

A cosine can be graphed in the same fashion by simply shifting the

graph 90 degrees to the right. (Fig. 6) An object's circular motion can

be described by either a sine wave or a cosine graphed in the same

fashion. Such a wave is composed of the object's radius of rotation and

the vperiod (number of degrees in on cycle) per unit of time that it

rotates. Seeing an object's sine and cosine graph simultaneously greatly

helps in visualizing the object's motion analytically compared how it

found in real life. Watching an animation of an object spinning is the

same as seeing the x and y coordinates (cosine and sine) of the object

for each frame of the animation, one frame at a time. This is because

one could see a scale view of its whole two-dimensional motion over a

period of time. Visualizing an object's true motion in nature from

merely looking at a graph of its sine or cosine can be difficult to

conceptualize. For this reason, the Sine Spiral may be an improvement in

current co-linear graphing (Fig. 7).

Velocity over the period of one rotation on a sine curve can be

measured by dividing the distance traveled in one rotation by the amount

of time it takes to complete that one rotation. Velocity = change in

distance/change in time + direction.

Any change in velocity (a change in time) will change the distance

between peaks of the spiral. The whole Z-axis around which the spiral

revolves represents time passed. When the velocity is constant, the

distance from peak to peak in the spiral is constant or each distance

from one peak to another peak is the same. (Fig. 6) Therefore, if the

distance from one peak to another changes somewhere in the spiral, this

indicates that the velocity has changed at that point in time.

Within the Sine Spiral, some of the variables that can change in the

object's motion are velocity, radius of rotation, position of axis of

revolution, and the scale upon which measurements are based. The shape

of this spiral is an indication of any and all of these variables. The

change in the shape of the spiral correlates to the change in one or

more of these variables. (Fig. 7)

Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines a spiral as "A

three-dimensional curve (as a helix) with one or more turns around and

axis." In current circular motion, the sine of the angle of rotation

provides a Y value (Sine=Y/Radius of Rotation), while the cosine of that

same angle provides and X value (Cosine=X/Radius of Rotation). These X

and Y values are all that is needed to draw the two-dimensional models

of rotation known as the sine curve and the two- dimensional models of

rotation known as the sine curve and cosine curve (or sine wave). To my

knowledge it has not been thought possible to graph this same motion in

three dimensions though, because one needs an X, Y, and Z coordinate in

order to graph in 3D. There can be an X and Y coordinate by finding the

sine and cosine of a unit circle. All that is needed is a Z coordinate

to make the circular motion graphable in three dimensions.

That Z coordinate could be representable by time, or speed of

rotation, or even the period of degrees it takes for one complete

rotation. In a sine wave, the period is 360 degrees. Using the period of

degrees in one rotation, one can find a constantly increasing Z

coordinate by dividing the current number of degrees traveled by the

period of degrees it takes to complete one rotation. In short,

degrees/period. The period can be depicted by a set amount of time.

Finding a ratio between something that can be used as a reference point

(one second vs the number of degrees in one rotation) to one's current

progress in that measurement scale (number of seconds that have passed

vs number of degrees that have been traveled) determine where one is on

the Z- axis.

By dividing one's progress by a predetermined scale of reference, a

new dimension can be generated in which to plot on a graph in order to

illustrate this in three-dimensional fashion. This new dimension can be

called the "Z-axis". Now that there is an X, Y, and Z dimension

available, a three-dimensional model of an object's progress through its

path of circular motion is possible.

For 3D motion, one can draw three spirals over the same T axis and

where two of the spirals intersect, plot a point. Connecting the dots

between the points gives one a tri-spiral (a spiral or shape that

represents 3D motion over time). One can continue plotting the points

with several objects and where the tri-spirals intersect, the objects

intersect. One can break down the tri-spiral to find out where the X, Y,

and Z coordinates are in space and the time coordinates of the

intersection.

To use the Sine Spiral to map the 3D motion throughout time, one

could mark the spiral with tags (or color code it) that tell one when

and how far down the Z-axis it travels. Then to graph several objects to

compare their motions and positions to each other, one can have a

computer draw lines of the same color of the Z-tag, linking all of the

objects that intersect on the two planes like the ZX plane, or the ZY

plane. That way, one could identify when objects like planets line up on

a plane or intersect.

There is much to benefit from in being able to graph an object's

progress at the same time as its position in space. One can see time

from an outside perspective and also see how an object's motion,

position, and speed relate to any point in time. In many circumstances,

it may be very useful to finally be able to get to see the general shape

of an object's travel through all points in time all at once. This new

method of graphing circular motion in three dimensions is the "Sine

Spiral".

The graph forms a regularly spaced spiral whose axis is a straight

line equidistant from the perimeter of the spiral. Changing the radius

of rotation around a center axis changes the radius of the spiral around

the Z axis. Changing the center of rotation in two-dimensional space (X,

Y coordinates) makes the Z axis of the sign spiral curve up, down, or to

the sides when graphed (instead of the normal straight line Z-axis).

For instance, an air hockey puck pinning in place would have a

regular sign spiral that represents a point on the puck's perimeter that

is traveling in a circle. Now if the spinning puck were to be slid

across an air hockey table, that same point (on the perimeter of the

puck) would have an irregular sine spiral whose radius would be

constant, but the Z-axis around which the graph spirals would

instantaneously bend at a ninety degree angle.

A computer can easily generate this three-dimensional picture of an

object "N" at point "T" in time if the speed of travel is irregular (or

at the ratio of degrees traveled to the period of one complete rotation

if the speed is constant). (Fig. 8)

Graphing any two-dimensional motion (motion that moves in any

direction on a flat plane), or rotation in three-dimensions using time

or progress as the third dimension allows one to look at time from an

outside perspective. The Sine Spiral can be used to graph any such

two-dimensional motion, or any number of combinations of such motion. It

can be used to graph several objects moving around in 2D (flat) space on

the same plane. The Sine Spiral can be used to graph an object which has

a rotation within a rotation, and so on (Fig. 9). In this case, each

next level of rotation is on an incrementally larger scale. To view some

of the higher levels of rotation, one must graph the object's motion

over a longer period of time. This concept can relate to complex motions

of a longer period of time. This concept can relate to complex motions

of a large scale found in, for example, the universe. Sine Spiral

graphing can literally be used to graph the motion of every particle in

perceivable universe for all points in observable time, simultaneously

(by bending the Z-axis appropriately to accommodate changes is axis

orientation). Using the Sine Spiral, graphing motion in the Z-axis, or

time, requires one to employ a means to mark or reference the Sine

Spiral in order to distinguish how deep down the Z-axis the motion has

traveled.

Without a Sine Spiral, one can only pick three-dimensions to see on

a graph for all points in those dimensions. One could have X, Y, and Z

coordinates on a 3D graph all at once, but only for one point in time

per graph. Or one could illustrate motion in any two dimensions for all

points in time using the Sine Spiral. Here are some of the dimensions

from which one can choose: X, Y, Z, and Time. One can have four or more

dimensions on a graph by selecting 3 variables form out of the X, Y, Z,

and Time, as well as any number of descriptive, qualitative,

categorical, computational, or other quantitative dimensions. These

kinds of dimensions may appeal/apply to one's senses and could be

described in "real" dimensions such as the Z-axis and others.

With 3D applications using this concept (once improved methods of

graphing 3D motion with the sine spirals are better developed), other

more complex spirals can be mapped. Such 3D applications could include

the universe in their motion through space throughout all time to see

where certain ones meet or line up), and graphing the motion of

particles of a sun during a supernova (the spiral would look similar to

a tangent spiral as described below). The Sine Spiral may be an

improvement in the graphing of nonlinear and linear motion. With the

help of the recent Virtual Reality technology, most any computer can be

used to build 3D models such as Sine Spirals. We can construct and view

a Sine Spiral and have complete control over the graph, viewing it in 3D

space as if it were physically here.

There are many new math applications and theorems that may apply to

this concept. Different types of spirals are possible with the general

Sine Spiral method. Such shapes could include the Sine Tube (a sine

spiral whose period is infinitely small), the Tangent Spiral (which uses

a sine spiral whose period is infinitely small), the Tangent Spiral

(uses the equation Tan sigma = (y/r)/ (x/r) for the x and y

coordinates), and the secant spiral (uses sec sigma = 1/(x/r) for the

coordinate and csc sigma = 1/(y/r) for the y coordinate). Also, in

either two-dimensional or three-dimensional motion (when a graphing

method is available), an object can be spinning in a circle within a

circle (each level of rotation incrementally bigger than the previous),

and this will make a very special type of Sine Spiral that looks like a

spiral within a spiral within a spiral, etc., depending on how many

levels of rotation are going on. More new math applications ar sure to

be found that can apply to the Sine Spiral as it is used.

Graphing three-dimensional motion with the Sine Spiral is more

difficult to do, but can be done effectively. Graphing three-dimensional

motion using the Sine Spiral needs further refinement at this time, but

will hopefully be available for use in the near future. There are many

new avenues that open up as people figure things out in science and

math. The Sine Spiral may be another door in mathematics ready to be

opened up and entered. Through this door may be a whole new way to look

at things, a way to see objects in nonlinear motion from a standpoint

outside of time. ---------------------------------- Works Cited: Brown

R., and D. Robbins, "Advanced Mathematics: A Precalculus Course"

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 1987. Fleenor C., M. Shanks, and C.

Brumfiel. "The Elementary Functions".

Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1973. Gove, P.B., ed.

"Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged".

Springfield, MA: Miriam-Webster, 1986. Manougian, M.N. "Trigonometry

with Applications".

Tampa, FL: Mariner Publishing Co., 1980. Swokowski, E.W.

"Fundamentals of Trigonometry".

Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, Incorporated, 1982.

-------------------------------- Copyright 6/28/2003 Justin Coslor

Conical Satellite Orbit Graphing (See Diagrams dated 10/4/2004,

3/1/2004, and 9/15/2001)

I do think the conical satellite orbit graphing idea I thought of in

winter 2001 (or the year before) could still be something valuable in

detecting and calculating collisions and for 3D space junk detection.

It's based on the hypothesis that if you compress a half-sphere into the

shape of a cone, the 180 degree arcs become straight lines, and straight

lines are easier to represent, interpret depth of, and run calculations

on than arcs. Elliptical orbits would just re straight lines at an

angle, each line representing the orbital path of an object in space.

Where two or more lines intersect, a collision is possible at the point

by either accelerating or de-accelerating the objects that the lines

represent.

Each object in a hemisphere cone is represented by a maximum and

minimum altitude, and an angle representing the direction in which the

object is traveling. There is one cone for each hemisphere. The neat

thing about the conical format is that you can see how a bunch of

objects, traveling in different directions at various altitudes, stack

up along a common line of altitude protruding through the center of the

planet, sun, moon, atom, galaxy, etc, and you can see how this line of

altitude intersects each of those objects at two points in time (one for

each hypersphere cone), along their various paths of travel.

Conical orbit graphing is a way to group a set of satellites (or

other objects in orbit) by a single line protruding through the center

of the central mass out into space (with a longitude and latitude

coordinate for each hemisphere from which the line emerges). All sorts

of nifty computer software functions can be incorporated into this as

well, such as having a 2D map of the central mass (such as a planetary

map or electron orbital map) as a clickable image map that generates a

unique pair of orbit cones for each coordinate (one for each hemisphere

of the hypersphere for objects traveling 360 degrees or more around the

planet). It would have a timing component as well and can be used as a

multi-body gravitational clock, viewable with virtual reality equipment

or a regular computer. There can also be a range component that

highlights any possible collisions within a certain proximity of the

satellites in focus (the satellites that intersect a common axis of

altitude, have one pair of cones for each axis of altitude). The user

should also be able to zoom in and out, rotate the cones, focus on

different axis' of altitude, combine complex orbits with sine- spiral

graphing techniques (see my paper on that), and watch the satellites

travel along their path lines in real-time (at an adjustable rate) using

live or recorded data collected from sensors and observational

equipment. It would help if most modern satellites were equipped to

detect space junk and satellites around them and relay it back to the

ground so that the world has a constantly updated fairly accurate map of

all of the objects and space junk in orbit around the earth, since space

flight has been compared to flying through a high-speed shooting

gallery. Ideally, some kind of Star Trek-like/Tesla

Wardencliffe-tower-like shields or something are needed for the safety

of that hazard (but not for use as a weapon), but a good 3D navigational

map can't hurt. For each satellite the computer can run a conical orbit

graphing collision detection test for each point in time along it's

projected path of travel.

The main use of conical orbit graphing as I see it, is for detecting

collisions at points along a line of altitude, using one pair of cones

for each point in time (or as a 3D interactive video). The user should

be able to pick a time and x-y coordinate, see the satellites that

intersect that line of altitude, then zoom in on the part of the path of

the satellite that they are interested in, then click on a point in that

path, and a new set of cones will be generated using that point as an

altitude line in the center of the cones so that you can then see what

possible collisions and path intersections there are for that point in

the satellite flight path-time. All as straight lines so that it's

easier to comprehend in complex situations. The computer calculations

might even be quicker than calculating arcs. I'd assume elliptical arcs

to be the most computationally intensive using traditional methods, but

they too could probably be represented as straight lines in the software

(going diagonally across the cones from one height to another height,

and then the opposite for the other cone). It would be a 3D software

tool for visualization and collision-interception calculation (and might

be able to help protect all countries from incoming intercontinental

thermonuclear ballistic missiles by combing this visualization method

with a ground-based or space-based or airplane-based or reusable

non-offensive missile based laser/maser anti-ballistic missile defense

system. There might be many other beneficial uses for this visualization

method that I haven't thought of yet (such as charting asteroids around

Saturn or something; though hopefully it won't ever be used for, or even

be useful for offensive purposes of any kind).. I haven't written any of

the code yet or figured out much of the math yet to make it possible

yet. Scholarly help is encouraged. Copyright 8/28/2005 Justin Coslor

Applications of Conical Hyperhemisphere Graphing When Combined With Sine

Spiral Graphing (See my papers dated 5/6/1997 and 6/28/2003.)

A Sine Spiral graph can be used to depict how an object rotates in N

dimensions as it moves from point to point in time (as though it were

rotating in place through time without actually traveling forward along

a path). Then those time coordinates can be linked to a conical orbit

graph of the distance vectors that the object moves through along its

path (or use a 3D Cartesian Coordinate grid of its path if it isn't

going to travel a full orbit around the planet...or not...). This

combination of graphing techniques works regardless of whether the

object is below, on, or above the surface of the Earth, or other center

of mass in space. For instance it could be used for mapping the path of

a vessel that goes from under the ocean, up into the sky, and out into

space into an orbit around the moon or something. ***************** Each

layer of the hyperhemisphere cone is a polar grid of a different

altitude. Elliptical and circular orbits are represented as straight

lines going across a pair of cones and intersect with an axis of

altitude line that goes vertically through the center of each cone,

where the axis of altitude represents a line going through the center of

the planet and out both sides into space. Elliptical orbits go

diagonally across the cones in this fashion from one altitude to

another, and back the opposite way in the cone that represents the other

half of the hyperhemisphere. Circular orbits go straight across the

cones at whatever altitude and declination they happen to be on.

*****************

Space stations could use these mapping techniques to coordinate

their motion and to dock incoming spacecraft, and it could be useful for

spaceship navigation and satellite positioning, coordination, and

communication routing too. Navy submarines could use these sine spiral +

conical hyperhemisphere (or sine spiral + Cartesian or polar) graphs

when planning and plotting routes through the oceans of the world

through different depths and complex courses. Air-Force planes in

perpetual (or merely long distance) flight could also use it to plan or

plot their courses, so could airlines. It could simplify autonomous

agent motion through extremely complicated environments, such as space,

or for nanobots navigation in a chip or in colloidal fluid, or

autopiloted aircraft in extremely crowded skies (such as autopiloted

personal aircraft for overcrowded cities). Cross Domain Relations, for

the Mathematics of Alternative Route Exploration Aside from the first

order logic stuff, the ideas and depictions in this paper were

originally conceived of and are Copyright 5/22/2004 by Justin M. Coslor,

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED (Please contact me for conditions of use...). This

Rough Draft was typed on 6/9/2004 in AbiWord on an X86-Compatible

Personal Computer running GNU Sarge (a free Debian Linux Operating

System), and was encouraged by the FRDCSA.ORG project.

These ideas are intended to enhance the ability to discover and

invent new routes in any field of study, and to aid in evaluating the

relative utility of known routes, as well as to simplify some of the

problems posed by computability theory.

Figure 1.

From the foundations of relational logic, we already know that: if a

relation is xRy: X-->Y, then it is injective; or if xRy: X<-->Y, then it

is bijective; or if xRy: X-->(y1, y2, ..., yp), then it is surjective;

We also know that if a functional relation is xRy: y=f(x)=m where f(x)

represents an arbitrary function of the domain X that yields a set of

unique m's that are sub-ranges (y's) within the bounds of the range Y

(a.k.a. the Class Y), where each m corresponds to a uniquely arbitrary

domain x through the functional relation f(x). In this case, [f(x)]=R in

the equation xRy. (*Remember for later that any mathematical operator

(+, -, /, *, etc.) can be a relation. Any piece of computer software can

also be treated as a relation, since software performs operations, and

is basically a collection of algebraicly-tied operators.) But perhaps,

we can broaden the scope of the Context in order to allow for more

possibilities. This "broadening", may include metaphoric operations and

metaphoric relations between the data type(s) of the functional

relation(s) in focus and various specified number sets, orderings, and

systems of numbers (including symbolic ones). (*We'll cover more on this

later.) Let us introduce a new type of relation, that is a relation that

relates relations, and let us call it a Cross-Domain Relation, and

depict it as such: One goal of this paper is to show a system to

accurately depict the following kinds of relation: xCy: (x1, x2, ...,

xp)-->knEY (injective), or xCy: (x1, x2, ..., xp)<-->knEY (bijective),

or xCy: (x1, x2, ..., xp)-->(k1, k2, ..., kn)EY (surjective); where

every sub-range k that is an element of the range Y, has multiple

domains that relate to each k in a unique way (through a unique route).

Each sub-domain in the Domain X can come from different contexts and

each sub- domain may operate under a different relation to specific

sub-ranges in Y than other sub- domains relations to those same

sub-ranges in Y. In these relations, some of the sub-domains may be

injective, some may be bijective, and some may be surjective. In order

to label and order each set of sub-domains that is part of a unique

cross-domain relation, we introduce the ordering term "n". We can use

the "n" component here to differentiate and/or order cross-domain

relations, by combining the ordering of cross-domain-related sub-domains

(i.e. nCx) with the individual relations between those sub-domains and

any given sub-ranges (i.e. xRy), as such: nCx: N-->X (injective), or

nCx: N<-->X (bijective), or nCx: N-->{x1, x2, ..., xp} (surjective),

then nCxRy describes the cross-domain relation where n is an element in

the cross-domain N such that x=f(n), and x is an element of a particular

cross-domain subset n (as well as being a sub-domain of the domain X),

where x has a relation (a.k.a. a route) to a particular sub-range y in

Y.; (***Note: every x in X and/or every n in N can come from vastly

different contexts, yet still lead to the same y(s) in Y.) where for

each sub-range y, f(n) is every function in the cross-domain N that

leads to multiple sub-domains in X that lead to the the multilateral

result k (which is a specific singular sub-range y in the Class Y with

multiple relations leading to it from the domain X) through the route:

F[C{f(x)}]-->kEY (kEY means k is an Element of Y), where C{f(x)}=n and

y=f(x) and x=f(n), and k represents any specific unique sub-range in Y

that can be arrived at via multiple domains' functional relations, where

each of the multiple domain's relations goes from any sub-domain x in X

to the same specific sub- range y in Y; where F[N] is the set of all

routes to all k's in Y, K is the set of all k's in Y, and F[n] is the a

relation describing set of all routes to a specific k in Y. k is used to

depict sub-ranges that have multiple ways to arrive at them; that is to

say, ways that include origin variations, and intermediary relation

combinations (middle-man combinations). In short: "If some unique X's

yield some of the same unique y's through various relations, then those

X's are said to have "cross-domain relations", because those domains

have some relations whose end results have something in common."

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^This is what I was trying to draw and put into an

equation format. I'm not sure if I succeeded, but probably. It seemed

like there needed to be a formal word for what I was trying to depict as

relations that relate different contexts' functions' domains by a

representable equivalence or similarity in their ranges (when there is

exists such a representable equivalence or similarity), so that's how I

came up with the name "cross- domain relations". Computer software can

essentially be treated as such functions, for which cross-domain

relations that lead to alternative routes may exist for any given set or

class of software functions. It's basically all about alternative

routes. Such a mapping can be quite useful for exploring alternative, or

previously unconsidered, or unknown possibilities and modalities. In

Figure 1., X is a class that contains domains that lead to ranges within

the class Y. There may be other classes that lead to those ranges, even

if they do so indirectly through other classes by broadening the

applicable context. By saying "lead to them" I mean "relate to them" in

any "chosen" way(s). The route equations can get very complex the more

classes and destinations you're analyzing when looking for and mapping

cross-domain relations. In practice, the user ends up with a concise

pack of cross-domain relation equations that summarizes the entire

complexity of the known patterns in the contexts of any situation or

model. The equation packs can also be used to represent the possible

outlets to explore for new patterns based on perceived priority of their

beginning class of categories, and perceived

attainability/computability. . . mark off potentially infinite patterns

and recursive loops accordingly, after exploring the first few layers

only. Conclusion: Cross-domain relations can be used when depicting,

predicting, finding, manipulating, creating, using, analyzing,

backtracking, tracing, comparing, and reverse engineering alternative

routes to anything, in any field of application.

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

Examples: (*In the following examples I have defined the "underscore"

character "_" to be the equivalent of the logical statement "OR", which

is equivalent of the English language statement "and/or". I use the "_"

character to link multiple routes to a sub-range, so that the patterns

of the context of that sub-range can all be packaged into one continuous

string. Such a string can then be parsed easily and sorted according to

factors such as: route-scale (number of computable degrees or nodes v.s.

potentially infinite possibilities), route category, route-size, relative

route location, etc.)

Example 1:

In Figure 1., the domain x2 has an alternative route to y1 through

the cross-domain relation n1Cx2Ry1_n1Cx1Cy1 where n1Cx2Ry1=Route k1, and

n1Cx1Cy1=Route k2. ((In my examples I like to use C to represent

bijective relations, and R to represent surjective or injective

relations.) *Note that x1Cy1Cn1=n1Cx1Cy1 ) So in this example k1 and k2

are the known routes to y1, and since we know about more than one route

to y1, we can call k1 and k2 cross-domain relations. Or we can simply

reference that group of routes by the meta-name k1_k2.

Figure 1.

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

The following are Graph Theory Examples of Cross-Domain Relations:

(**In the following examples, I use R to represent an injective or

surjective route, and use C to represent the continuous directional flow

of a bijective route. I use the symbol "$" to indicate that the routes

on each side of the "$" have a bijective relationship. The "$" symbol is

used when comparing two or more routes. The "=>" symbol means "directly

implies".) Example 2: First have a look at Figure 2. (***Note: in ACB,

(a1Cb1)$(b1Ca1), because BCA exists.)

Figure 2.

Alternative routes to A from C:

ARC=a2Ra2 => a2 = ACCk1

ACBRC=a1Cb1Rb3_ a1Cb1Ca1Cb1Rb3 => ACCk2_ACCk3

ACBCDCC=a1Cb1Cb2Cd1Cd2_A$B$D$C=a1b2d2 => Routes ACCk4 through

ACCk11

(****Many more complex routes beginning at A and terminating at C

exist, and can be very explicitly depicted in this manner.)

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

----------------------------------------

Example 3: In Figure 2, by entering each line's node relationship

into a computer in a format such as: [ACB,BCD,DCC,BRC,ARC,ARF,FCE,FCC],

(<----This is the Context.) (Next I'll describe the Patterns in that

Context...) the computer can generate on the fly all of the possible

routes from any given node to any other given node, including curtailed

potentially infinite loop structures (by representing loop structures

via the "$" operator, as noted earlier), and it can explicitly represent

the optimal routes and rank the suboptimal routes using relation and

cross-domain relation notation. Perhaps in some situations, one might

even order the routes by largest perimeter of closed polygonal circuit

region to smallest polygonal circuit perimeter, followed by largest open

leg to smallest open leg, when declaring a context. (*****Where ";" is

the character that indicates the parsing of each closed-circuit

polygonal region or open leg in this notation variation.) This might

look something like: [ARC_CCF_ARF;ARC_ACB_BRC;BCD_DCC_BRC;FCE]

proportions were correctly represented in my diagram, that is...

Figure 2.

These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3 of possibility

thinking explorations in logic and thought and many of them are

probably flawed so the burden of understanding lies entirely on the

reader and gossip is not allowed.

----------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

----------------------------------------

### some thoughts I considered for book 3 of possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3 of

possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought and

many of them are probably flawed so the burden of understanding

lies entirely on the reader and gossip is not allowed.

-----------------------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

-----------------------------------------------------

Copyright 2/1/2005 Justin Coslor

Hierarchical Number Theory: Graph Theory Conversions Looking for

patterns in this: Prime odd and even cardinality on the natural number

system (*See diagram). First I listed out the prime numbers all in a

row, separated by commas. Then above them I drew connecting arcs over

top of every other odd prime (of the ordering of primes). Over top of

those I drew an arc over every two of those arcs, sequentially. Then

over top of every sequential pair of those arcs I drew another arc, and

so on. Then I did the same thing below the listing of the numbers, but

this time starting with every other even prime.

Then I sequentially listed out whole lot of natural numbers and did

the same thing to them down below them, except I put both every other

even and every other odd hierarchical ordering of arcs over top of one

another, down below the listing of the natural number system.

Then over top of the that listing of the natural number system I

transposed the hierarchical arc structures from the prime number system;

putting both every other even prime and every other odd prime

hierarchically on top of each other, as I previously described. *Now I

must note that in all of these, in the center of every arc I drew a line

going straight up or down to the center number for that arc. (See

diagram.)

In another example, I took the data, and spread out the numbers all

over the page in an optimal layout, where no no hierarchical lines cross

each other, but the numbers act as nodal terminals where the

hierarchical arches sprout out of. (See Diagram) This made a very

beautiful picture which was very similar to a hypercube that has been

unfolded onto a 2D surface. Graph Theory might be able to be applied to

hierarchical representations that have been re-aligned in this manner,

and in that way axioms from Graph Theory might be able to be translated

into Hierarchical Number Theory.

The center-poles are very significant because when I transposed the

prime number structures onto the natural number system there is a

central non-prime even natural number in the very center directly

between the center-poles of the sequential arc structures of the every

other even prime and every other odd prime of the same hierarchical

level and group number. The incredibly amazing thing is that when

dealing with very large prime numbers, those prime numbers can be

further reduced by representing them as an offset equation of the

central number plus or minus an offset number. The beauty of is, that

the since the central numbers aren't prime, they can be reduced in

parallel as the composite of some prime numbers, that when multiplied

together total that central number; and those prime composite numbers

can be further reduced in parallel by representing each one as their

central number (just like I previously described) plus or minus some

offset number, and so on and so on until you are dealing with very

managably small numbers in a massively parallel computation. The offset

numbers can be similarly crunched down to practically nothing as well.

This very well may solve a large class of N-P completeness problems!!!

Hurray! It could be extremely valuable in encryption, decryption,

heuristics, pattern recognition, random number testing, testing for

primality in the search for new primes, several branches of mathematics

and other hard sciences can benefit from it as well. I discovered pretty

much independently, just playing around with numbers in a coffee shop

one day on 1/31/2005, and elaborated on 2/1/2005, and it was on 2/4/2005

when describing it to a friend who wishes to remain anonymous that I

realized this nifty prime-number crunching technique, a few days after

talking with the Carnegie Mellon University Logic and Computation Grad

Student Seth Casana, actually it was then that I realized that prime

numbers could be represented as an offset equation, and then I figured

out how to reduce the offset equations to sets of smaller and smaller

offset equations. I was showing Seth the diagrams I had drawn and the

patterns in them. He commented that it looked like a Friege lattice or

something. I think After I pointed out the existance of central numbers

in the diagrams Seth told me that sometimes people represent prime

numbers as an offset, and that all he could think of was that they could

be some kind of offset or something. He's a total genius. He's

graduating this year with a thesis on complexity theory and the

philosophy of science. He made a bunch of Flash animations that teach

people epistemology. Copyright 2/1/2005 Justin Coslor Rough draft typed

3/19/2005. This is an entirely new way to perceive of number systems.

It's a way to perceive of them hierarchically. Many mathematical

patterns may ready become apparent for number theorists as larger and

larger maps in this format are drawn and computed. Hopefully some will

be in the prime number system, as perceived through a variety of other

numbering systems and forms of cardinality. (See photos.) Copyright

3/25/2004 Justin Coslor Hierarchical Number Theory Applied to Graph

Theory

When every-other-number numerical hierarchies are converted into

dependency charts and then those dependency charts are generalized and

pattern matched to graphs and partial graphs of problems, number theory

can apply to those problems because the hierarchies are based on the

number line of various cardinalities.

I had fun at Go Club yesterday, and while I was at the gym I thought

of another math invention. It was great. I figured out how to convert a

graph into a numerical hierarchy which is based on the number line, so

number theory can apply to the graph, and do so by pattern matching the

graph to the various graphs that are generated by converting numerical

hierarchical representations of the number line into dependency charts.

I don't know if that will make sense without seeing the diagrams, but

it's something like that. The exciting part is that almost any thing,

concept, game, or situation can be represented as a graph, and now, a

bunch of patterns can be translated into being able to apply to them.

Copyright 1/31/2005 Justin Coslor Odd and Even Prime Cardinality First

twenty primes: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53,

59, 61, 67, 71, 73. ------------------- *See the photo of the digram I

drew on the original page. What properties and relations are there

between the odd primes? First ten odd primes: 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 37, 43,

53, 61, 71. First five odd odd primes: 2, 11, 23, 43, 61. First five odd

even primes: 5, 17, 37, 53, 71. First ten even primes: 3, 7, 13, 19, 29,

41, 47, 59, 67, 73. First five even even primes: 7, 19, 41, 59, 73.

First five even odd primes: 3, 13, 29, 47, 67.

-------------------------- prime^(odd^4) = prime^(odd)^(odd)^(odd)^(odd)

= 2, 61, . . prime^(odd^3) = prime^(odd)^(odd)^(odd) = 2, 23, 43, 61, .

. . prime^(odd^2) = prime^(odd)^(odd) = 2, 11, 23, 43, 61, . . .

prime^(odd) = prime^(odd) = 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 37, 43, 53, 61, 71, . . .

prime^(odd)^(even) = 5, 17, 37, 53, 71, . . . prime^(even)^(odd) = 3,

13, 29, 47, 67, . . . ---------------------------------- Copyright

6/10/2005 Justin Coslor HOPS: Hierarchical Offset Prefixes

For counting hierarchically, prefix each set by the following

variables: parity, level, and group (group starting number). Then use

that group starting number as the starting position, and count up to the

number from zero placed at that starting position for representation of

a number prior to HOP computation. I need to develop a calculation

method for that representation.

Have a high-level index which lists all of the group starting

numbers for one of the highest rows, then the rest of the number's group

numbers can be derived for any given level above or below it. All

calculations should access this index.

If I was to look for the pattern "55" in a string of numbers, for

example, I might search linearly and copy all two-digit locations that

start with a "5" into a file, along with the memory address of each,

then throw out all instances that don't contain a "5" as the second

digit. That's one common way to search. But for addresses with a log of

digits, such as extremely large numbers, this is impractical and it's

much easier to do hierarchical level math to check for matches. The

simplest way to do it is a hierarchical parity check + level check +

group # check before proceeding to check both parities of every subgroup

on level 1 of that the offset number. The offset begins at zero at the

end of the prefix's group number, and a micro-hierarchy is built out of

that offset. For large numbers, this is much faster than using big

numbers for everything. Example: Imagine the number 123,456,789 on the

number line. We'll call it "N". N = 9 digits in decimal, and many more

digits in binary. In HOP notation, N = parity.level.group.offset. If I

had a comprehensive index of all the group numbers for a bunch of the

levels I could generate a prefix for this # N, and then I'd only have to

work with a tiny number that is the difference between the closest

highest group and the original number, because chances are the numbers I

apply it to are also offset by that prefix or a nearby prefix. The great

part about hierarchical offset prefixes is that it makes every number

very close to every other number because you just have to jump around

from level to level (vertically) and by group to group (horizontally).

I'll need to ask a programmer to make me a program that generates an

index of group numbers on each level, and the program should also be

able to do conversions between decimal numbers and hierarchical offset

prefixes (HOPs). That way there are only four simple equations necessary

to add, subtract, multiply, divide any two HOP numbers: just perform the

proper conversions between the HOPs' parity, levels, groups, and

offsets.

Parity conversions are simple, level conversions are just dealing

with powers of 2, group conversions are just multiples of 2 + 1, and

offset conversions just deal with regular mathematics using small

numbers. Copyright 7/7/2005 Justin Coslor Prime Breakdown Lookup Tables

Make a lookup table of all of the prime numbers in level 1

level.group.offset notation, and calculate values for N levels up from

there for each prime in that same level.group.offset notation using the

level 1 database. 2^n = distance between prime 2^(n + m) and prime 2^(n

+ (m + 1)).

Center numbers are generated by picking another prime on that same

level somehow (I'm not positive how yet), and the number in-between them

is the center number. Center number factoring can be done repeatedly so

that, for example, if you wanted to multiply a million digit number by a

million digit number, you could spread that out into several thousand

small number calculations, and in that way primes can be factored using

center numbers + their offsets.

Also, prime number divisor checking can be done laterally in

parallel by representing each divisor in level.group.offset notation and

then converting the computation into a set of parallel processed center

number prime breakdown calculations, which would be significantly faster

than doing traditional divisor checking, especially for very large

divisors, assuming you have a parallel processor computer at your

disposal, or do distributed computing, and do multiprocessing/multi-

threading on each processor as well. Copyright 10/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Prime divisor-checking in parallel processing pattern search. *I assume

that people have always known this information. Prime Numbers are not:

1. Even --> Add all even numbers to the reject filter. 2. Divisible by

other prime numbers --> Try dividing all numbers on the potentially

prime list by all known primes. 3. Multiples of other prime numbers -->

Parallel process: Map out in parallel multiples of known primes up to a

certain range for the scope of the search field, and add those to the

reject filter for that search scope. When you try to divide numbers on

the potentially prime list, all of those divisions can be done in

parallel where each prime divisor is granted its own process, and

multiple numbers on the potentially prime list for that search scope

(actually all of the potentials) could be divisor-checked in parallel,

where every number on the potentially prime list is granted its own

complete set off parallel processes, where each set contains a separate

parallel process for every known prime. So for less than half of the

numbers in the search scope will initially qualify to make it onto the

potentially prime list for divisor checking. And all of the potentially

prime numbers will need to have their divisor check processes augmented

as more primes are discovered in the search scope. The Sieve of

Eratosthenes says that the search scope is in the range of n^2, where n

is the largest known prime. Multiple search scopes can be running

concurrently as well, and smaller divisor checks will always finish much

sooner than the larger ones (sequentially) for all numbers not already

filtered out. 12/24/2004 Justin Coslor Look for Ways to Merge Prime

Number Perception Algorithms I don't yet understand how the Riemann Zeta

Function works, but it might be compatible with some of the mathematics

I came up with for prime numbers (sequential prime number word list

heuristics, active filtering techniques, and every other number

groupings on the primes and on the natural number system). Maybe there

are lots of other prime number perception algorithms that can also be

used in conjunction with my algorithms. ??? -------------- Try applying

my algorithm for greatly simplifying the representation of large prime

numbers to the Riemann Zeta function. My algorithm reduces the

complexity of the patterns between sequential prime numbers to a fixed

five variable word for each pair of sequential primes, and there are

only 81 possible words in all. So as a result of fixing the pattern

representation language to only look for certain qualities that are in

every sequential prime relationship, rather than having infinite

possibilities and not knowing what to look for, patterns will emerge

after not to long into the computer runtime. These patterns can then be

used to predict the range of the scope of future undiscovered prime

numbers, which simplifies the search for the next prime dramatically,

but even more important than that is that my algorithm reduces the

cardinality complexity (the representation) of each prime number

significantly for all primes past a certain point, so in essence, this

language I've invented is a whole new number system, but I'm not sure

how to run computations on it. . .though it can be used with a search

engine as a cataloging method for dealing with extremely large numbers.

My algorithm is in this format: The Nth prime (in relation to the prime

that came before it) = the prime number nearest to [the midpoint of the

Nth prime, whether it be in the upper half or the lower half] : in

relation to the remainder of that "near-midpoint-prime" when subtracted

from the Nth prime. The biggest part always gets listed to the left of

the smaller part (with a ratio sign separating them), and if for the N-

1th prime if the prime prime part got listed on one side and in the next

if it's on the opposite side we take note of that. Next we find the

difference in the two parts and note if it is positive or negative, even

or odd, and lastly we compare it to the N-1th difference to see if it is

up, down, the same, or if N-1's difference is greater than 1 and N's

difference is 1 then we say it has been "reset". If the difference jumps

from 1 to a larger difference in N's difference we say it's "undo

reset". Also, the difference is the absolute value of the

"near-midpoint-prime" minus the remaining amount between it and the Nth

prime. Now each of these qualities can be represented by one letter and

placed in one of four sequential places (categories) to make a four

character word. Numbers could even be used instead of characters, but

that might confuse people (though not computers). *******************

"Prime Sequence Matcher" (to be made into software) *******************

This whole method is Copyright 10/25/2004 Justin Coslor, or even sooner

(most likely 10/17/2004, since that's when it occurred to me. I thought

of this idea to help the whole world and therefore must copyright it to

ensure that nobody hordes or misuses it. The algorithms behind this

method that I have invented are free for academic use by all United

Nations member nations, for fair good intent only towards everyone.

---------------------------------- Download a list of the first 10,000

prime numbers from the Internet, and consider formating it in EMACS to

look something like this: 12 23 35 47 5 11 6 13 . . . 10,000 ____ and

name that file primelist.txt ----------------------- Write a computer

program in C or Java called "PrimeSequenceMatcher" that generates a file

called "primerelations.txt" in the following format based on

calculations done on each of line of the file "primelist.txt".

primelist.txt->PrimeSequenceMatcher->primerelations.txt file:

primerelations.txt 2 3 2:1 diff 1 left, pos, odd, same 3 5 3:2 diff 1

left, pos, even, up 4 7 5:2 diff 3 left, pos, even, same 5 11 7:4 diff 3

LR, neg, even, down(or reset) 6 13 6:5 diff 1 right, pos, even, up(or

undo reset) 7 17 10:7 diff 3 . . . N __ __:__ diff __ For the C program

see pg. 241 to 251 of Kernigan and Ritchie's book, "The C Programming

Language", for functions that might be useful in the program. See the

scans of my journal entries from 10/17/2004, 10/18/2004, and 10/24/2004

for details on the process (*Note, there may be a few errors, and the

paperwork is sort of sloppy for those dates...), and turn it into an

efficient explicit algorithm. **2/22/2005 Update: I wrote out the gist

of the algorithms for the software in my 10/26/2004 journal entry. The

point of the generating the file primerelations.txt is to run the file

through pattern searching algorithms, and build a relational database,

because since the language of the primes's representation in my method

is severely limited, patterns might emerge. Nobody knows whether or not

the patterns will be consistent in predicting the range that the next

primes will be in, but I hope that they will, and it's worth doing the

experiment since that would be a remarkable tool to have discovered. The

patterns may reveal in some cases which is larger: the

nearest-to-midpoint prime or it's corresponding additive part. Where the

sum equals the prime. That would tell you a general range of where the

next prime isn't at. Also the patterns may in some cases have a

predictable "diff" value, which would be immensely valuable in knowing,

so that you can compare it to the values of the prime that came before

it, which would give a fairly close prediction of where the next prime

may lye. By looking at the pattern of the ordering of sentences, we can

possibly tell which side of the ratio sign the nearest-to-midpoint prime

of the next prime we are looking for lies on (and thus know whether it

is in the upper half or the lower half of the search scope). The search

scope for the next prime number is in the range of the largest known

prime squared. We might also be able to in some cases determine how far

from the absolute value of the difference between the nearest-to-

midpoint prime and the prime number we are looking for, that the prime

number that we are looking for is. Copyright 10/26/2004 to 10/27/2004

Justin Coslor I hereby release this idea under The GNU Public License

Agreement (GPL). ************************* Prime Sequence Matcher

Algorithm ************************* (This algorithm is to be turned into

software. See previous journal entries that are related.) Concept

conceived of originally on 10/17/2004 by Justin Coslor Trends in these

sequential prime relation sentences might emerge as lists of these

sentences are formed and parsed for all, or a large chunk of, the known

primes. ------------------------------- The following definitions are

important to know in order to understand the algorithm: nmp = the prime

number nearest to the midpoint of "the Nth prime we are representing

divided by 2" aptnmp = adjacent part of the nmp = prime number we are

representing minus nmp prime/2 = (nmp+aptnmp)/2 = the midpoint of the

prime nmp = (2 * midpoint) - aptnmp aptnmp = (2 * midpoint) - nmp prime

= 2 * midpoint We take notice of whether nmp is greater than, equal to,

or less than aptnmp. diff = |nmp - aptnmp| N prime = nmp:aptnmp or

aptnmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp|

___________________________________

| a | b | c | d |

| left | pos | even | up |

| right | neg | odd | down |

| LR | null | | same |

| RL | | | reset |

| | | | undoreset |

-----------------------------------

Each possible word can be abbreviated as a symbolic character or

symbolic digit, so the sentence is shortened to the size of a four

character word or four digit number. *Note: "a" only = "same" when prime

= 2 (.....that is, when N = 1) **Note: If "c" ever = "same", then N is

not prime, so halt. "abcd" has less than or equal to 100 possible

sequential prime relation sentences (SPRS)'s, since the representation

is limited by the algorithms listed below. Generate a list of SPRS's for

all known primes and do pattern matching/search algorithms to look for

trends that will limit the search scope. The algorithms might even

include SPRS orderings recursively. --------------------------------

Here are the rules that govern abcd: If nmp > aptnmp, then a = left. If

nmp < aptnmp, then a = right. If nmp = aptnmp, then a = same. If N - 1's

"a" = left, and N's "a" = right, then set N's "a" = LR. If N - 1's "a" =

right, and N's "a" = left, then set N's a = RL. If N's nmp - (N - 1)'s

nmp > 0, then b = pos. If N's nmp - (N - 1)'s nmp < 0, then b = neg. If

C = same, then b = null. Meaning, if N's nmp - (N-1)'s nmp = 0, then b=

null. If N's nmp - (N-1)'s nmp is an even integer, then c = even. If N's

nmp - (N - 1)'s nmp is an odd integer, then c = odd. If N's diff > (N -

1)'s diff, then d = up. If N's diff < (N - 1)'s diff, then d = down. If

N's diff = (N-1)'s diff, then d = same. If (N - 1)'s diff > 1 and N's

diff = 1, then d = reset. If (N - 1)'s diff = 1 and N's diff > 1, then d

= undoreset. [......But maybe when (N - 1)'s diff and N's diff = either

1 or 3, then d would also = up, or d = down.] If a = left or RL, then N

prime = nmp:aptnmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp| If a = right or LR, then N

prime = aptnmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp| If a = same, then N prime =

nmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp|, but only when N prime = N.

----------------------------------- Copyright 10/24/2004 Justin Coslor

Prime number patterns based on a ratio balance of the largest

near-midpoint prime number and the non-prime combinations of factors in

the remainder: An overlay of symmetries describe prime number patterns

based on a ratio balance of the largest near midpoint prime number and

the non-prime combinations of factors in the remainder. This is to cut

down the search space for the next prime number, by guessing at what

range to search the prime in first, using this data.

For instance, we might describe the prime number 67 geometrically by

layering the prime number 31 under the remainder 36, which has the

modulo binary symmetry equivalency of the pattern 2*2*3*3. We always put

the largest number on top in our description, regardless of whether it

is prime or non-prime, because this ordering will be of importance in

our sentence description of that prime.

We describe the sentence in relation to how we described the prime

number that came before it. For instance, we described 61 as 61=31:2*3*5

ratio (the larger composite always goes on the left of the ratio symbol,

because it will be important to note which side the prime number ends up

on), difference of 1 (difference shows how far from the center the

near-mid prime lies. 31-30=1), right->left (this changing of sides is

important to note because it describes which side of the midpoint of the

prime that the nearest-to-midpoint prime lies on or has moved to, in

terms of the ratio symbol) odd same (this describes whether the

nearest-to-midpoint primes of two prime numbers have a difference that

is even, odd, or if they have the same nearest-to-midpoint primes.)

67=2*2*3*3:31 ratio, difference of 5, left->right same undo last reset.

By looking at the pattern in the sentence descriptions (180 possible

sentences), we can tell which side of the ratio sign that the next

prime's nearest-to-midpoint prime lies on, which tells you which half of

the search scope the next prime lies in, which might cut the

computational task in finding the next finding that next prime number in

half or more. A computer program to generate these sentences can be

written for doing the pattern matching. In the prime number 67 example,

the part that says "same", refers to whether the nearest-to- midpoint

primes of two prime numbers have a difference that is even, odd, or if

they have the same nearest-to-midpoint primes. I threw in the "reset to

1" thing just because it probably occurs a lot, then there's also the

infamous "undo-from-last-reset" which it brings the difference from 1

back to where it was previously at. Copyright 10/5/2004 Justin Coslor

Prime Numbers in Geometry continued . . . Modulo Binary I think that if

prime numbers can be expressed geometrically as ratios there might be a

geometric shortcut to determining if a number is prime or maybe

non-prime. Prime numbers can be represented symmetrically, but not with

colored partitions. (*See diagrams.) Here's a new kind of binary code

that I invented, based on the method of partitioning a circle and

alternately coloring and grouping the equiangled symmetrical partitions

of non-prime partition sections. (*Note, since prime numbers don't have

symmetrical equiangled partitions, use the center-number + offset

converted into modulo binary (see my 2/4/2005 idea and the 2/1/2005

diagram I drew for prime odd and even cardinality and data compression

on the prime numbers)). Modulo binary: *Based on geometric symmetry

ratios. **I may not have been very consistent with my numbering scheme

here, but you should be in final draft version. 1=1 2=11 3=111 4=1010

5=11111 6=110110 or 101010 7=1111111 8=10101010 or 11101110 9=110110110

10=1010101010 11=11111111111 12=110110110110 13=1111111111111

14=10101010101010 15=10110,10110,10110 16=1010,1010,1010,1010 Find a

better way of doing this that might incorporate my prime center number +

offset representation of the primes and non-primes. This is an entirely

new way of counting, so try to make it scalable, and calculatable.

Secondary Levels of Modulo Binary: (*This is just experimental. . .I

based these secondary levels on the first level numbers that are

multiples of these.) 0=00 1=1 2=10 3=110 4=2+2=1010 5=10110 6=3+3=110110

or 111000 or 101101 7= 8=4+4=10101010 9=3+3+3=110110110 10=1010101010

11= 12=3+3+3+3=110110110110 13= 14=10101010101010101010

15=5+5+5=101101011010110 16=4+4+4+4=1010101010101010 Draw a 49 section

and 56 section circle, and look for symmetries to figure out how best to

represent the number 7 in the secondary layer of modulo binary. There

needs to be a stop bit too. Maybe 00 or something, and always start

numbers with a 1. The numbers on through ten should be sufficient for

converting partially from base 10. Where calculations would still be

done in base 10, but using modulo binary representations of each digit.

For encryption obfuscation and stuff. It seems that for even numbers,

the half-circle symmetries rotate between 0,0 across the circle for

numbers that are odd when divided by two, and the numbers that are odd

when divided by two have alternate-half 0,0 symmetry. But numbers that

are prime when divided by two have middle- across 0,1 symmetry.

Copyright 9/30/2004 Justin Coslor Prime Numbers in Geometry *Turn this

idea into a Design Science paper entitled "Patterns in prime composite

partition coloring structures". In the paper, relate these discoveries

to the periodic table. (All prime numbers can be represented as unique

symmetries in Geometry.) 1/1 = 0 division lines 1/2 = 1 division lines

1/3 = 3 division lines 1/4 = 2 division lines 1/5 = 5 division lines 1/6

= 5 division lines = one 1/2 division line and two 1/3 division lines on

each half circle. 1/7 = 7 division lines 1/8 = 4 division lines 1/9 =

_____ division lines . . . Or maybe count by partition sections rather

than division lines. . . How do I write an algorithm or computer program

that counts how many division lines there are in a symmetrically

equiangled partitioning of a circle, where if two division lines that

meet in the middle (as all division lines do) form a straight line they

would only count as one line and not two? Generate a sequential list of

values to find their number of division lines, and see if there is any

pattern in the non-prime division line numbers (i.e. 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/9,

1/10, 1/12, ...) that might be able to be related to the process of

determining or discovering which divisions are prime, or the sequence of

the prime numbers (1/2, 1/3, 1/5, 1/7, 1/11, 1/13, 1/17, ...). 10/5/2004

Justin Coslor As it turns out, there is a pattern in the non-prime

division lines that partition a circle. The equiangled symmetry

partition patterns look like stacks of prime composites layered on top

of one another like the Tower of Hanoi computer game, where each layer's

non-prime symmetry pattern can be colored using it's own colors in an

on-off configuration around the circle (See diagrams.). Prime layers

can't be colored in an on-off pattern symmetrically if the partitions

remain equiangled, because there would be two adjacent partitions

somewhere in the circle of the same color, and that's not symmetrical.

Copyright 7/25/2005 Justin Coslor Geometry of the Numberline: Pictograms

and Polygons. (See diagrams)

Obtain a list of sequential prime numbers. Then draw a pictogram

chart for each number on graph paper, with the base 10 digits 1 through

10 on the Y-axis, and on the X-axis of each pictogram the first column

is the 1's column, the second column is the 10's column, the third

columns is the 100's column, etc. Then plot the points for each digit of

the prime number you're representing, and connect the lines

sequentially. That pictogram is then the exact unique base-10

geometrical representation of that particular prime number (and it can

be done for non-prime numbers too). Another way to make the pictogram

for a number is to plot the points as described, but then connect the

points to form a maximum surface area polygon, because when you do that,

that unique polygon exactly describes that particular number when it's

listed in its original orientation. inside the base-10 graph paper

border that uses the minimum amount of X-axis boxes necessary to convey

the picture, and pictograms are always bordered on the canvas 10 boxes

high in base 10. Other bases can be used too for different sets of

pictograms. What does the pictogram for a given number look like in

other bases? We can connect the dots to make a polygon too, that is

exactly the specific representation in its proper orientation of that

particular unique number represented in that base. Also I wonder what

the pictograms and polygon pictograms look like when represented in

polar coordinates?

These pictogram patterns might show up a lot in nature and artwork,

and it'd be interesting to do a mathematical study of photos and

artwork, where each polygon that matches gets bordered by the border of

it's particular matching pictogram polygon in whatever base it happens

to be in, and pictures might be representable as layers of these

numerical pictograms, spread out all over the canvas overlapping and

all, and maybe partially hidden for some. You could in that way make a

coordinate system in which to calculate the positions and layerings of

the numerical pictograms that show up within the border of the photo or

frame of the artwork, and it could even be a form of steganometry when

intentionally layered into photos and artwork, for cryptography and art.

Summing multiple vertexes of numerical polygon pictograms could also

be used as a technique that would be useful for surjectively distorting

sums of large numbers. That too might have applications in cryptography

and computer vector artwork.

See the diagram of the base 10 polar coordinate pictogram

representation of the number 13,063. With polar notation, as with

Cartesian Coordinate System notation of the pictograms, it's important

to note where the reference point is, and what base it's in, and whether

it's on a polar coordinate system or Cartesian Coordinate System. In

polar coordinates, you need to know where the center point is in

relation to the polygon. . .no I'm wrong, it can be calculated s long as

no vertexes lie in a line. In all polygon representations, the edge

needs to touch all vertexes. Copyright 7/27/2005 Justin Coslor Combining

level.group.offset hierarchical representation with base N pictogram

representation of numbers (See diagrams)

level.group offset notation is (baseN^level)*group+offset Pictogram

notation is as described previously.

If you take the pictogram shape out of context and orient it

differently it could mean a lot of different things, but if you know the

orientation (you can calculate the spacing of the vertexes in different

orientations to find the correct orientation, but you know must also

know what base the number is in to begin with) then you can decipher

what number the polygon represents. You must know what the base is

because it could be of an enormous base. . .you must also know an anchor

point for lining it up with the XY border of the number line context in

that base because it could be a number shape floating inside a enormous

base for all anyone knows, with that anchor point. Also, multiple

numbers on the same straight line can be confusing unless they are

clearly marked as vertexes. If multiple polygons are intersecting, then

they could represent a matrix equation of all of those numbers. Or if

there are three or four polygons connected to each other by a line or a

single vertex, then the three pictograms might represent the three or

four parts of a large or small level.group.offset number in a particular

base. Pictograms connected in level.group offset notation would still

need to be independently rotated into their correct orientation, and

you'd need to know their anchor points and base, but you could very

simply represent an unfathomably enormous number that way in just a tiny

little drawing. Also, numbers might represent words in a dictionary or

letters of an alphabet. This is literally the most concise way to

represent unfathomably enormous numbers that possibly anyone has ever

imagined. Ever. You could write a computer program that would draw and

randomize these drawings as a translation from a dictionary/language set

and word processor document. They could decoded in the reverse process

by people who know the anchor point keys and base keys for each polygon.

You can make the drawings as a subtle off-white color blended into the

white part of the background of a picture, and transmit enormous

documents as a single tiny little picture that just needs some

calculating and keys to decode. Different polygon pictograms, which each

could represent a string of numbers, which can be partitioned into

sections that each represents a word or character, could each be drawn

in a different color. So polygons that are in different colors and

different layers in a haphazard stack, could be organized, where the

color of multiple polygons, means they are part of the same document

string, and the layering of the polygons indicates the order that the

documents are to be read in. Copyright 7/28/2005 Justin Coslor Optimal

Data Compression: Geometric Numberline Pictograms

If each polygon is represented using a different color, you don't

even need to draw the lines that connect the vertexes, so that you can

cram as many polygons as possible onto the canvas. In each polygon, the

number of vertexes is the number of digits in whatever base it's being

represented in. Large bases will mean larger image dimensions, but will

allow for really small representations of large numbers. Ideally one

should only use a particular color on one polygon once. For optimal

representation, one should represent each number in a base that is as

close to the number of digits in that base as possible. If you always do

that, then you won't have to know what base the polygon is represented

in to begin with (because it can be calculated). However, you will still

need to know the starting vertex or another anchor point to figure out

which orientation the polygon is to be perceived of in. On polar

coordinate polygon pictograms, you will just need to know the center

point and a reference point such as where the zero mark is, as well as

what base the polygon is represented in (in most cases). Hierarchical

level.group.offset data compression techniques or other data compression

techniques can also be used. Copyright 7/24/2005 Justin Coslor Prime

Inversion Charts (See diagram) Make a conversion list of the sequential

prime numbers, where each number (prime 1 through the N'th prime) is

inverted so that the least significant digit is now the most significant

digit, and the most significant digit is now the least significant digit

(ones column stays in the ones column, but the 10's column gets put in

the 10ths column on the other side of the decimal point, same with

hundreds, etc.). So you have a graph that goes from 0 through 10 on the

Y-axis, and 0 through N along the X axis, and you just plot the points

for prime 1 through the N'th prime and connect the dots sequentially.

Also, you can convert this into a binary string by making it so that if

any prime is higher up on the Y-axis than the prime before it, it

becomes a 1, and if it is less than the prime before it, it becomes a 0.

Then you can look for patterns in that. I noticed many recurring binary

string patterns in that sequence, as well as many pallendrome string

patterns in that representation (and I only looked at the first couple

of numbers, so there might be something to it). 10/8/2004 Justin Coslor

Classical Algebra (textbook notes) Pg. 157 of Classical Algebra fourth

edition says: The Prime Number Theorem: In the interval of 1 through X,

there are about X/LOGeX primes in this interval. P=X/LOGeX scope: (1,X)

or something. The book claims that they cannot factor 200 digit primes

yet. In 1999 Nayan Hajratwala found a record new prime 2^6972593 - 1

with his PC. It's a Mersenne Prime over 2 million digits long. This book

deals a lot with encryption. I believe that nothing is 100% secure

except for the potential for a delay. On pg. 39 it says "There is no

known efficient procedure for finding prime numbers." On pg. 157 it

directly contradicts that statement by saying: "There are efficient

methods for finding very large prime numbers." The process I described

in my 10/7/2004 journal entryis like the sieve of Eratosthenes, except

my method goes a step farther in making a continuously augmented filter

list of divisor multiplicants not to bother checking, while

simultaneously running the Sieve of Eratosthenes in a massive

synchronously parallel computational process. Prime numbers are useful

for use in pattern search algorithms that operate in abductive and

deductive reasoning engines (systems), which can be used to explore and

grow and help solve problems and provide new opportunities and to invent

things and do science simulations far beyond human capability. (Pg. 40)

Theorem: An integer x>1 is either prime or contains a prime factor

<=sqrt(x). Proof: x=ab where a and b are positive integers between 1 and

x. Since P is the smallest prime factor, a>=p, b>=p and x=ab>=p^2. Hence

p<=sqrt(x). Example: If x=10 a=2 and b=5. p=3 p^2=9 so 10=2*5>=9. So

factors of x are within the scope of (2, sqrt(x)) or else it's prime.

a^2>=b^2. x^2>=p^4. x^2/p^4=big. Try converting Fermat's Little Theorem

and other corollaries into geometry symmetries and modulo binary format.

The propositions in Modern Algebra about modulo might only hold for two-

dimensional arithmetic, but if you add a 3rd dimension the rotations are

countable as periods on a spiral, which when viewed from a perpendicular

side-view looks like a 2-dimensional waveform. 9/26/2004 Justin Coslor

Privacy True privacy may not be possible, but the best that we can hope

for is a long enough delay in recognition of observations to have enough

time and patience to put things intot the perspective of a more

understanding context. Copyright 9/17/2004 Justin Coslor A Simple,

Concise, Encryption Syntax. This can be one layer of an encryption, that

can be the foundation of a concise syntax. *Important: The example does

not do this, but in practice, if you plan on using this kind of

encryption more than once, then be sure to generate a random unique

binary string for each letter of the alphabet, and make each X digits

long. Then generate a random binary string that is N times as long as

the length of your message to be sent, and append unique sequential

pieces (of equal length) of this random binary string to the right of

each character's binary representation. The remote parts should have

lots of securely acquired random unique alphabet/random binary string

pairs, such as on a DVD that twas delivered by hand. In long messages,

never use the same alphabet's character(s) more than once but rotate to

the next binary character representation on the DVD sequentially. Here's

the example alphabet (note that you can of course choose your own

alphabetic representation as long as it is logically consistent): a

010101 b 011001 c 011101 d 100001 e 100101 f 101001 g 110001 h 110101 i

111001 --------- j 010110 k 011010 l 011110 m 100010 n 100110 o 101010 p

110010 q 110110 r 111010 --------- s 010111 t 011011 u 011111 v 100011 w

100111 x 101011 y 110011 z 110111 space 111011 ------------------------

EXAMPLE: "peace brother" can be encoded like this using that particular

alphabet:

011011101001011000101101011100100110010110010101110111011010010110111011010110

0101111010101010100001101110110101111001010111101001

------------------------ 2/18/2005 Update by Justin Coslor Well, I

forgot how to break my own code. Imagine that! I think it had something

to do with making up a random string that was of a length that is

divisible by the number of letters in the alphabet, yet is of equal

bit-length to the bit-translated message, so that you know how long the

message is, and you know how many bits it takes to represent each

character in the alphabet. Then systematically mix in the random bits

with the bits in the encoded message. In my alphabet I used 27

characters that were each six bits in length; and in my example, my

message was 13 characters long, 11 of which were unique. I seriously

have no idea what I was thinking when I wrote this example, but at least

my alphabet I do understand, and it's pretty concise, and sufficiently

obscured for some purposes. Copyright 6/30/2005 Justin Coslor Automatic

Systems (See Diagram) There is 2D, and there are 3D snapshots

represented in 2D, and there is the model-theory approach of making

graphs and flowcharts, but why not add dimensional metrics to graph

diagrams to represent systems more accurately?

--------------------------------- Atomic Elements -> Mixing pot ->

Distillation/Recombination: A->B->C->D->E -> State Machine Output

Display (Active Graphing = real-time) -> Output Parsing and calculation

of refinements (Empirical) -> Set of contextually adaptive relations:

R1->A, R2->B, R3->C, R4->D, R5->E. -------------------------------------

Copyright 5/11/2005 Justin Coslor How to combine sequences: Draw a set

of Cartesian coordinate system axis, and on the x axis mark off the

points for one sequence, and on the y axis mark off the points for the

sequence you want to combine with it (and if you have three sequences

you want to combine, mark off the third sequence on the z-axis. ...for

more than 3 sequences, use linear algebra). Next draw a box between the

origin and the first point on each sequence; then calculate the length

of the diagonal. Then do the same for the next point in each sequence

and calculate the length of the diagonal. Eventually you will have a

unique sequence that is representative of all of the different sequences

that you combined into one in this manner. For instance, you could

generate a sequence that is the combination of the prime numbers and the

Fibonacci Sequence. In fact, the prime numbers might be a combination of

two or more other sequences in this manner, for all I know. 1/4/2005

Justin Coslor Notes from the book "Connections: The Geometric Bridge

Between Art and Science" + some ideas.

In a meeting with Nehru in India in 1958 he said "The problem of a

comprehensive design science is to isolate specific instances of the

pattern of a general, cosmic energy system and turn these to human use."

The topic of design science was started by architect, designer, and

inventor Buckminster Fuller. The chemical physicist Arthur Loeb, who

considers design science to be the grammar of space. Buy that book, as

well as the book "The Undecidable" by Martin Davis.

Chemist Istvan Hergittai edited two large books on symmetry. He also

edits the journals "symmetry" and "space structures" where I could

submit my paper on the geometry of prime numbers and patterns in

composite partition coloring structures. *Also, send it to Physical

Science Review to solicit scientific applications of my discovery. Send

it to some math journals too. Again, the paper I want to write is called

"Patterns in prime composite partition coloring structures", and it will

be based on that journal entry I had about symmetrically dividing up a

circle into partitions, then labeling the alternating patterns in the

symmetries using individual colors for each primary pattern in the

stack, similar to that game "The Tower of Hanoi". Study the writings of

Thales (Teacher of Pythagoras), who is known as the father of Greek

mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy, and who visited Egypt to learn

its secrets [Turnbull, 1961 "The Great Mathematicians], [Gorman, 1979

Pythagoras - A Life] ---------------------------- Connections page 11.

Figure 1.7 The Ptolemaic scale based on the primes 2, 3, and 5. C=1,

D=8/9, E=4/5, F=3/4, G=2/3, A=3/5, B=8/15, C=1/2.

------------------------- Figure 1.6 The Pythagorean scale derived from

the primes 2 and 3: C=1, space=8/9, D=8/9, space=8/9, E=64/81,

space=243/256, F=3/4, space=8/9, G=2/3, space=8/9, A=16/27, space=8/9,

B=128/243, space=243/256, C'=1/2, space=8/9, D'=4/9, space=8/9,

E'=32/81, space=243/256, F'=3/8, space=8/9, G'=1/3, space=8/9, A'=8/27,

space=8/9, B'=64/243, space=243/256, C"=1/4. ----------------- *1/4/2005

Project:

Someday try writing an electronic music song that makes vivid use of

parallel mathematical algorithms based on the prime numbers, actually

come to think of it, this concept was presented in an episode of Star

Trek Voyager. ---------------------------- 8/26/2004 Justin Coslor Notes

(pg. 1) These are my notes on three papers contributed to the MIT

Encyclopedias of Cognitive Science by Wilfried Sieg in July 1997: Report

CMU-PHIL-79, Philosophy, Methodology, Logic. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

15213-3890. - Formal Systems - Church Turing Thesis - Godel's Theorems

-------------------------------- Notes on Wilfried Sieg's "Properties of

Formal Systems" paper: Euclid's Elements -> axiomatic-deductive method.

Formal Systems = "Mechanical" regimentation of the inference steps along

with only syntactic statements described in a precise symbolic language

and a logical calculus, both of which must be recursive (by the

Church-Turing Thesis). Meaning Formal Systems use just the syntax of

symbolic word statements (not their meaning), recursive logical

calculus, and recursive symbolic definitions of each word.

Frege in 1879: "a symbolic language (with relations and

quantifiers)" + an adequate logical calculus -> the means for the

completely formal representation of mathematical proofs. Fregean frame

-> mathematical logic ->Whitehead & Russell's "Principia Mathematica" ->

metamathematical perspective <- Hilbert's "Grundlagen der Geometrie"

1899 *metamathematical perspective -> Hilbert& Bernays "Die Prizipien

der Mathematik" lectures 1917- 1918 -> first order logic = central

language + made a suitable logical calculus. Questions raised:

Completeness, consistency, decidability. Still active. Lots of progress

has been made in these areas since then. **Hilbert & Bernays "Die

Prizipien der Mathematik" lectures 1917-1918 -> mathematical logic.

Kinds of completeness: Quasi-empirical completeness of Zermelo Fraenkel

set theory, syntactic completeness of formal theories, and semantic

completeness = all statements true in all models. - Sentential logic

proved complete by Hilbert and Bernays (1918) and Post (1921). - First

order logic proved complete by Godel (1930). "If every finite subset of

a system has a model, so does the systems." But first order logic has

some non-standard models.

Hilbert's Entsheidungsproblem proved undecidable by Church & Turing.

It was the decision problem for first order logic. So the "decision

problem" proved undecidable, but it lead to recursion theoretic

complexity of sets, which lead to classification of 1. arithmetical, 2.

hyper-arithmetical, and 3. analytical hierarchies. It later lead to

computational complexity classes. So they couldn't prove what could be

decided in first order logic, but they could classify the complexity of

modes of computation using first order logic. ---In first order logic,

one can classify the empirical and computational complexity of syntactic

configurations whose formulas and proofs are effectively decidable by a

Turing Machine. I'm not positive about this next part. ...but, such

syntactic configurations (aka software that eventually halts) are

considered to be formed systems. In other words, ,one cannot classify

the empirical and computational complexity of software that never halts

(or hasn't halted), using first order logic. The Entsheidungsproblem

(First order logic Decision Problem) resulted in model theory, proof

theory, and computability thoery. It required "effective methods" of

decision making to be precisely defined. Or rather, it required

effective methods of characterizing what could or couldn't be decided in

first-order logic.

The proof of the completeness theorem resulted in the relativity of

"being countable" which in turn resulted in the Skolem paradox. ***I

believe that paradoxes only occur when the context of a logic is

incomplete or when it's foundations scope is not broad enough.

Semantic arguments in geometry yielded "Relative Consistency

Proofs". Hilbert used "finitist means" to establish the consistency of

formal systems. Ackerman, von Neumann, and Herbrand used a very

restricted induction principle to establish the consistency of number

theory. Modern proof theory used "constructivist" means to prove

significant parts of analysis. Insights have been gained into the

"normal form" of proofs in sequent and natural deduction calculi. So

they all wanted to map the spectrum of unbreakable reason. Godel firmly

believed that the term "formal system' or 'formalism' should never be

used for anything but software that halts.

------------------------------------- 9/1/2004 Justin Coslor Notes on

Wilfried Sieg's "Church-Turing Thesis" paper:

Church re-defined the term "effective calculable function" (of

positive integers) with the mathematically precise term "recursive

function". Kleen used the term "recursive" in "Introduction to

Metamathematics, in 1952. Turing independently suggested identifying

"effectively calculable functions" as functions whose values can be

computed (mechanically) using a Turing Machine.Turing & Church's theses

were, in effect, equivalent, and so jointly they are referred to as the

Church-Turing Thesis. Metamathematics takes formally presented theories

as objects of mathematical study (Hilbert 1904), and it's been pursued

since the 1920's, which led to precisely characterizing the class of

effective procedures, which led to the Entsheidungsproblem, which was

solved negatively relative to recursion (****but what about for

non-recursive systems?). Metamathematics also led to Godel's

Incompleteness Theorems (1931), which apply to all formal systems, like

type theory of Principia Mathematica or Zermalo-Fraenkel Set Theory,

etc. Effective Computability: So it seems like they all wanted

infallable systtems (formal systems), and the were convinced that the

way to get there required a precise definition of effective

calculability. Church and Kleen thought it was equivalent to

lambda-definability, and later prove that lambda-definability is

equivalent to recursiveness (1935-1936).

Turing thought effective calculability could be defined as anything

that can be calculated on a Turing Machine (1936). Godel defined the

concept of a (general) recursive function using an equational calculus,

but was not convinced that all effectively calculable functions would

fall under it. Post (*my favorite definition...*) in 1936 made a model

that is strikingly similar to Turing's, but didn't provide any analysis

in support of the generality of his model. But Post did suggest

verifying formal theories by investigating ever wider formulations and

reducing them to his basic formulation. He considered this method of

identifying/defining effectively calculable functions as a working

hypothesis.

Post's method is strikingly similar to my friend Andrew J.

Dougherty's thesis of artificial intelligence, which is that at a

certain point, the compactness of a set of functions is maximized

through optimization and at that point, the complexity of their

informational content plateaus, unless you keep adding new functions. So

his solution to Artificial Intelligence is to assimilate all of the

known useful functions in the world, and optimize them to the plateau

point of complexity (put the information in lowest terms), and to then

use that condensed information set/tool in exploring for new functions

to add, so that the rich depth of the problem solving and information

seeking technology can continually improve past any plateau points.

(in 1939) Hilbert and Bernays showed that deductively formalized

functions require that their proof predicates to be primitive recursive.

Such "reconable" functions are recursive and can be evaluated in a very

restricted number of theoretic formalism. Godel emphasized that

provability and definability depend on the formalism considered. Godel

also emphasized that recursiveness or computability have an absoluteness

property not shared by provability or definability, and other

metamathematical notions.

My theory is a bottom-up approach for pattern discovery and adaptive

reconceptualization between the domains of different contexts, and can

provide the theoretical framework for abductive reaasoning, necessary

for the application of my friend Andrew J. Dougherty's thesis. Perhaps

my theories could be abductively formalized? My theories do not require

empiricism (deduction), to produce new elements that are

primitive-recursive to produce new elements that are primitive-recursive

(circular-reasoning-based/symbolic/repetition-based) predicates to be

used in building and calculating statements and structures, that can add

new information. To me, "meaning" implies having an "appreciation" for

the information and functions and relations, at least in part; and that

this "appreciation" is obtained through recognition of the information

(and functions' and relations') utility or relative utility via use or

simulation experience within partially- defined contexts. I say

"partially-defined" contexts because by Godel's Incompleteness Theorems,

an all-encompassing ultimate context cannot be completely defined since

the definition itself (and it's definer would have to be part of that

context, which isn't possible because it would have to be infinitely

recursive and thus never fully representable.

Turing invented a mechanical method for operating symbolically. His

invention's concepts provided the mechanical means for running

simulations. Andrew J. Dougherty and I have created the concepts for

mechanically creating new simulations to run until all possible

simulations that can be created in good intention, that are helpful and

fair for all, exceeds the number of such programs that can be possibly

used in all of existence, in all time frames forever, God willing.

Turing was a uniter not a divider and he demanded immediate

recognizability of symbolic configurations, so that basic computation

steps need not be further subdivided. *But there are limitations in

taking input at face value. Sieg in 19944, inspired by Turing's 1936

paper formulated the following boundedness conditions and locality

limitations of computors: (B.1) there is a fixed bound for the number of

symbolic configurations a computor can immediately recognize; (B.2)

there is a fixed bound for the number of a computor's internal states

that need to be taken into account; -- therefore he can carry out only

finitely many different operations. These operations are restricted by

the following locality conditions: (L.1) only elements of observed

configurations can be changed. (L.2) the computor can shift his

attention from one symbolic configuration to another only if the second

is within a bounded distance from the first. *Humans are capable of more

than just mechanical processes. ---------------------------------- Notes

on Wilfried Sieg's "Godel's Theorems" paper: Kurt Godel established a

number of absolutely essential facts: - completeness of first order

logic - relative consistency of the axiom of choice - generalized

continuum hypothesis - (And relevant to the foundations of mathematics:)

*His two Incompleteness Theorems (a.k.a. Godel's Theorems.

In the early 20th century dramatic development of logic in the

context of deep problems in the foundations in mathematics provided for

the first time the means to reflect mathematical practice in formal

theories. 1. - One question asked was: "Is there a formal theory such

that mathematical truth is co- extensive with provability in that

theory?" (Possibly... See Russell's type theory P of Principia

Mathematica and axiomatic set theory as formulated by Zermelo...) - From

Hilbert's research around 1920 another question emerged: 2. "Is the

consistency of mathematics in its formalized presentation provable by

restricted mathematical, so-called finitist means? *To summarize

informally: 1. Is truth co-extensive with provability? 2. Is consistency

provable by finitist means? Godel proved the second question to be

negative for the case of formalizably finitist means. Godel's

Incompleteness theorems: - If P is consistent (thus recursive), then

there is a sentence sigma in the language of P, such that neither sigma

nor its negation not-sigma is provable in P. Sigma is thus independent

of P. (Is sigma the dohnut hole of reason that fits into the center of

the circular reasoning (into the center of, but independent from the

recursion)?) - If P is consistent, then cons, the statement in the

language of P that expresses the consistency of P, is not provable in P.

Actually Godel's second theorem claims the unprovability of that second

(meta) mathematical meaningful statement noted on pg. 7. Godel's first

incompleteness theorem's purpose is to actually demonstrate that some

syntactically true statements can be semantically false. He possibly did

this to show that formal theories are not adequate by themselves to

fully describe true knowledge, at least with knowledge that is

represented by numbers, that is. It illustrates how it is possible to

lie with numbers. In other words, syntax and semantics are mutually

exclusive, and Godel's second Incompleteness Theorem demonstrates that.

In other words the symbolically representative nature of language makes

it possible to lie and misinterpret.

Godel liked to explain how every consistently formal system that

contains a certain amount of number theory can be rigorously proven to

contain undecidably arithmetical propositions, including proving that

the consistency of systems within such a system is non-demonstratable;

and that this can all be proven using a Turing Machine.

Godel thought "the human mind (even within the realm of pure

mathematics) infinitely surpasses the power of any finite machine."

**But what about massively parallel Quantum supercomputers? Keep in mind

the boundary and limitation conditions that Sieg noted in his

Church-Turing Thesis paper of dimensional minds in relatable

timelines... (Computors). 8/26/2004 Justin Coslor Concepts that I'll

need to study to better understand logic and computation: Readings:

Euclid's Elements Principia Mathematica Completeness: quasi-empirical

completeness, syntactic completeness, semantic completeness consistency

decidability recursion theoretic complexity of sets classification

hierarchies computational complexity classes modes of computation model

theory proof theory computability theory relative consistency proofs

consistency of formal systems consistency of number theory modern proof

theory constructivist proofs semantic arguments in geometry analysis

sequent and natural deduction calculi recursive functions

Metamathematics Type Theory Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory effective

computability Lambda-definability investigating ever-wider formulations

primitive recursive proof predicates provability and definability

meaning: [11/11/2004 Justin Coslor -- Meaning depends on goal-subjective

relative utility. In other words, Experience leading up to perspective

filters and perspective relational association buffers.] utility and

relative utility simulation deductively formalized functions boundedness

conditions locality limitations formalizably finitist means choice,

continuum, foundations syntax & semantics incompleteness undecidable

arithmetical propositions hierarchies: arithmetical, hyper-arithmetical

(is hyper-arithmetical where all of the nodes' relations are able to be

retranslated to the perspective of any particular node?), and analytical

hierarchies hierarchical complexity computational complexity Graph

Theory Knowledge Representation Epistemology Pattern Search,

Recognition, Storage, and retrieval Appreciation

-----------------------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

-----------------------------------------------------

These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3 of

possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought and

many of them are probably flawed so the burden of understanding

lies entirely on the reader and gossip is not allowed.

----------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

----------------------------------------

Copyright 2/1/2005 Justin Coslor

Hierarchical Number Theory: Graph Theory Conversions Looking for

patterns in this: Prime odd and even cardinality on the natural number

system (*See diagram). First I listed out the prime numbers all in a

row, separated by commas. Then above them I drew connecting arcs over

top of every other odd prime (of the ordering of primes). Over top of

those I drew an arc over every two of those arcs, sequentially. Then

over top of every sequential pair of those arcs I drew another arc, and

so on. Then I did the same thing below the listing of the numbers, but

this time starting with every other even prime.

Then I sequentially listed out whole lot of natural numbers and did

the same thing to them down below them, except I put both every other

even and every other odd hierarchical ordering of arcs over top of one

another, down below the listing of the natural number system.

Then over top of the that listing of the natural number system I

transposed the hierarchical arc structures from the prime number system;

putting both every other even prime and every other odd prime

hierarchically on top of each other, as I previously described. *Now I

must note that in all of these, in the center of every arc I drew a line

going straight up or down to the center number for that arc. (See

diagram.)

In another example, I took the data, and spread out the numbers all

over the page in an optimal layout, where no no hierarchical lines cross

each other, but the numbers act as nodal terminals where the

hierarchical arches sprout out of. (See Diagram) This made a very

beautiful picture which was very similar to a hypercube that has been

unfolded onto a 2D surface. Graph Theory might be able to be applied to

hierarchical representations that have been re-aligned in this manner,

and in that way axioms from Graph Theory might be able to be translated

into Hierarchical Number Theory.

The center-poles are very significant because when I transposed the

prime number structures onto the natural number system there is a

central non-prime even natural number in the very center directly

between the center-poles of the sequential arc structures of the every

other even prime and every other odd prime of the same hierarchical

level and group number. The incredibly amazing thing is that when

dealing with very large prime numbers, those prime numbers can be

further reduced by representing them as an offset equation of the

central number plus or minus an offset number. The beauty of is, that

the since the central numbers aren't prime, they can be reduced in

parallel as the composite of some prime numbers, that when multiplied

together total that central number; and those prime composite numbers

can be further reduced in parallel by representing each one as their

central number (just like I previously described) plus or minus some

offset number, and so on and so on until you are dealing with very

managably small numbers in a massively parallel computation. The offset

numbers can be similarly crunched down to practically nothing as well.

This very well may solve a large class of N-P completeness problems!!!

Hurray! It could be extremely valuable in encryption, decryption,

heuristics, pattern recognition, random number testing, testing for

primality in the search for new primes, several branches of mathematics

and other hard sciences can benefit from it as well. I discovered pretty

much independently, just playing around with numbers in a coffee shop

one day on 1/31/2005, and elaborated on 2/1/2005, and it was on 2/4/2005

when describing it to a friend who wishes to remain anonymous that I

realized this nifty prime-number crunching technique, a few days after

talking with the Carnegie Mellon University Logic and Computation Grad

Student Seth Casana, actually it was then that I realized that prime

numbers could be represented as an offset equation, and then I figured

out how to reduce the offset equations to sets of smaller and smaller

offset equations. I was showing Seth the diagrams I had drawn and the

patterns in them. He commented that it looked like a Friege lattice or

something. I think After I pointed out the existance of central numbers

in the diagrams Seth told me that sometimes people represent prime

numbers as an offset, and that all he could think of was that they could

be some kind of offset or something. He's a total genius. He's

graduating this year with a thesis on complexity theory and the

philosophy of science. He made a bunch of Flash animations that teach

people epistemology. Copyright 2/1/2005 Justin Coslor Rough draft typed

3/19/2005. This is an entirely new way to perceive of number systems.

It's a way to perceive of them hierarchically. Many mathematical

patterns may ready become apparent for number theorists as larger and

larger maps in this format are drawn and computed. Hopefully some will

be in the prime number system, as perceived through a variety of other

numbering systems and forms of cardinality. (See photos.) Copyright

3/25/2004 Justin Coslor Hierarchical Number Theory Applied to Graph

Theory

When every-other-number numerical hierarchies are converted into

dependency charts and then those dependency charts are generalized and

pattern matched to graphs and partial graphs of problems, number theory

can apply to those problems because the hierarchies are based on the

number line of various cardinalities.

I had fun at Go Club yesterday, and while I was at the gym I thought

of another math invention. It was great. I figured out how to convert a

graph into a numerical hierarchy which is based on the number line, so

number theory can apply to the graph, and do so by pattern matching the

graph to the various graphs that are generated by converting numerical

hierarchical representations of the number line into dependency charts.

I don't know if that will make sense without seeing the diagrams, but

it's something like that. The exciting part is that almost any thing,

concept, game, or situation can be represented as a graph, and now, a

bunch of patterns can be translated into being able to apply to them.

Copyright 1/31/2005 Justin Coslor Odd and Even Prime Cardinality First

twenty primes: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53,

59, 61, 67, 71, 73. ------------------- *See the photo of the digram I

drew on the original page. What properties and relations are there

between the odd primes? First ten odd primes: 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 37, 43,

53, 61, 71. First five odd odd primes: 2, 11, 23, 43, 61. First five odd

even primes: 5, 17, 37, 53, 71. First ten even primes: 3, 7, 13, 19, 29,

41, 47, 59, 67, 73. First five even even primes: 7, 19, 41, 59, 73.

First five even odd primes: 3, 13, 29, 47, 67.

-------------------------- prime^(odd^4) = prime^(odd)^(odd)^(odd)^(odd)

= 2, 61, . . prime^(odd^3) = prime^(odd)^(odd)^(odd) = 2, 23, 43, 61, .

. . prime^(odd^2) = prime^(odd)^(odd) = 2, 11, 23, 43, 61, . . .

prime^(odd) = prime^(odd) = 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 37, 43, 53, 61, 71, . . .

prime^(odd)^(even) = 5, 17, 37, 53, 71, . . . prime^(even)^(odd) = 3,

13, 29, 47, 67, . . . ---------------------------------- Copyright

6/10/2005 Justin Coslor HOPS: Hierarchical Offset Prefixes

For counting hierarchically, prefix each set by the following

variables: parity, level, and group (group starting number). Then use

that group starting number as the starting position, and count up to the

number from zero placed at that starting position for representation of

a number prior to HOP computation. I need to develop a calculation

method for that representation.

Have a high-level index which lists all of the group starting

numbers for one of the highest rows, then the rest of the number's group

numbers can be derived for any given level above or below it. All

calculations should access this index.

If I was to look for the pattern "55" in a string of numbers, for

example, I might search linearly and copy all two-digit locations that

start with a "5" into a file, along with the memory address of each,

then throw out all instances that don't contain a "5" as the second

digit. That's one common way to search. But for addresses with a log of

digits, such as extremely large numbers, this is impractical and it's

much easier to do hierarchical level math to check for matches. The

simplest way to do it is a hierarchical parity check + level check +

group # check before proceeding to check both parities of every subgroup

on level 1 of that the offset number. The offset begins at zero at the

end of the prefix's group number, and a micro-hierarchy is built out of

that offset. For large numbers, this is much faster than using big

numbers for everything. Example: Imagine the number 123,456,789 on the

number line. We'll call it "N". N = 9 digits in decimal, and many more

digits in binary. In HOP notation, N = parity.level.group.offset. If I

had a comprehensive index of all the group numbers for a bunch of the

levels I could generate a prefix for this # N, and then I'd only have to

work with a tiny number that is the difference between the closest

highest group and the original number, because chances are the numbers I

apply it to are also offset by that prefix or a nearby prefix. The great

part about hierarchical offset prefixes is that it makes every number

very close to every other number because you just have to jump around

from level to level (vertically) and by group to group (horizontally).

I'll need to ask a programmer to make me a program that generates an

index of group numbers on each level, and the program should also be

able to do conversions between decimal numbers and hierarchical offset

prefixes (HOPs). That way there are only four simple equations necessary

to add, subtract, multiply, divide any two HOP numbers: just perform the

proper conversions between the HOPs' parity, levels, groups, and

offsets.

Parity conversions are simple, level conversions are just dealing

with powers of 2, group conversions are just multiples of 2 + 1, and

offset conversions just deal with regular mathematics using small

numbers. Copyright 7/7/2005 Justin Coslor Prime Breakdown Lookup Tables

Make a lookup table of all of the prime numbers in level 1

level.group.offset notation, and calculate values for N levels up from

there for each prime in that same level.group.offset notation using the

level 1 database. 2^n = distance between prime 2^(n + m) and prime 2^(n

+ (m + 1)).

Center numbers are generated by picking another prime on that same

level somehow (I'm not positive how yet), and the number in-between them

is the center number. Center number factoring can be done repeatedly so

that, for example, if you wanted to multiply a million digit number by a

million digit number, you could spread that out into several thousand

small number calculations, and in that way primes can be factored using

center numbers + their offsets.

Also, prime number divisor checking can be done laterally in

parallel by representing each divisor in level.group.offset notation and

then converting the computation into a set of parallel processed center

number prime breakdown calculations, which would be significantly faster

than doing traditional divisor checking, especially for very large

divisors, assuming you have a parallel processor computer at your

disposal, or do distributed computing, and do multiprocessing/multi-

threading on each processor as well. Copyright 10/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Prime divisor-checking in parallel processing pattern search. *I assume

that people have always known this information. Prime Numbers are not:

1. Even --> Add all even numbers to the reject filter. 2. Divisible by

other prime numbers --> Try dividing all numbers on the potentially

prime list by all known primes. 3. Multiples of other prime numbers -->

Parallel process: Map out in parallel multiples of known primes up to a

certain range for the scope of the search field, and add those to the

reject filter for that search scope. When you try to divide numbers on

the potentially prime list, all of those divisions can be done in

parallel where each prime divisor is granted its own process, and

multiple numbers on the potentially prime list for that search scope

(actually all of the potentials) could be divisor-checked in parallel,

where every number on the potentially prime list is granted its own

complete set off parallel processes, where each set contains a separate

parallel process for every known prime. So for less than half of the

numbers in the search scope will initially qualify to make it onto the

potentially prime list for divisor checking. And all of the potentially

prime numbers will need to have their divisor check processes augmented

as more primes are discovered in the search scope. The Sieve of

Eratosthenes says that the search scope is in the range of n^2, where n

is the largest known prime. Multiple search scopes can be running

concurrently as well, and smaller divisor checks will always finish much

sooner than the larger ones (sequentially) for all numbers not already

filtered out. 12/24/2004 Justin Coslor Look for Ways to Merge Prime

Number Perception Algorithms I don't yet understand how the Riemann Zeta

Function works, but it might be compatible with some of the mathematics

I came up with for prime numbers (sequential prime number word list

heuristics, active filtering techniques, and every other number

groupings on the primes and on the natural number system). Maybe there

are lots of other prime number perception algorithms that can also be

used in conjunction with my algorithms. ??? -------------- Try applying

my algorithm for greatly simplifying the representation of large prime

numbers to the Riemann Zeta function. My algorithm reduces the

complexity of the patterns between sequential prime numbers to a fixed

five variable word for each pair of sequential primes, and there are

only 81 possible words in all. So as a result of fixing the pattern

representation language to only look for certain qualities that are in

every sequential prime relationship, rather than having infinite

possibilities and not knowing what to look for, patterns will emerge

after not to long into the computer runtime. These patterns can then be

used to predict the range of the scope of future undiscovered prime

numbers, which simplifies the search for the next prime dramatically,

but even more important than that is that my algorithm reduces the

cardinality complexity (the representation) of each prime number

significantly for all primes past a certain point, so in essence, this

language I've invented is a whole new number system, but I'm not sure

how to run computations on it. . .though it can be used with a search

engine as a cataloging method for dealing with extremely large numbers.

My algorithm is in this format: The Nth prime (in relation to the prime

that came before it) = the prime number nearest to [the midpoint of the

Nth prime, whether it be in the upper half or the lower half] : in

relation to the remainder of that "near-midpoint-prime" when subtracted

from the Nth prime. The biggest part always gets listed to the left of

the smaller part (with a ratio sign separating them), and if for the N-

1th prime if the prime prime part got listed on one side and in the next

if it's on the opposite side we take note of that. Next we find the

difference in the two parts and note if it is positive or negative, even

or odd, and lastly we compare it to the N-1th difference to see if it is

up, down, the same, or if N-1's difference is greater than 1 and N's

difference is 1 then we say it has been "reset". If the difference jumps

from 1 to a larger difference in N's difference we say it's "undo

reset". Also, the difference is the absolute value of the

"near-midpoint-prime" minus the remaining amount between it and the Nth

prime. Now each of these qualities can be represented by one letter and

placed in one of four sequential places (categories) to make a four

character word. Numbers could even be used instead of characters, but

that might confuse people (though not computers). *******************

"Prime Sequence Matcher" (to be made into software) *******************

This whole method is Copyright 10/25/2004 Justin Coslor, or even sooner

(most likely 10/17/2004, since that's when it occurred to me. I thought

of this idea to help the whole world and therefore must copyright it to

ensure that nobody hordes or misuses it. The algorithms behind this

method that I have invented are free for academic use by all United

Nations member nations, for fair good intent only towards everyone.

---------------------------------- Download a list of the first 10,000

prime numbers from the Internet, and consider formating it in EMACS to

look something like this: 12 23 35 47 5 11 6 13 . . . 10,000 ____ and

name that file primelist.txt ----------------------- Write a computer

program in C or Java called "PrimeSequenceMatcher" that generates a file

called "primerelations.txt" in the following format based on

calculations done on each of line of the file "primelist.txt".

primelist.txt->PrimeSequenceMatcher->pri

primerelations.txt 2 3 2:1 diff 1 left, pos, odd, same 3 5 3:2 diff 1

left, pos, even, up 4 7 5:2 diff 3 left, pos, even, same 5 11 7:4 diff 3

LR, neg, even, down(or reset) 6 13 6:5 diff 1 right, pos, even, up(or

undo reset) 7 17 10:7 diff 3 . . . N __ __:__ diff __ For the C program

see pg. 241 to 251 of Kernigan and Ritchie's book, "The C Programming

Language", for functions that might be useful in the program. See the

scans of my journal entries from 10/17/2004, 10/18/2004, and 10/24/2004

for details on the process (*Note, there may be a few errors, and the

paperwork is sort of sloppy for those dates...), and turn it into an

efficient explicit algorithm. **2/22/2005 Update: I wrote out the gist

of the algorithms for the software in my 10/26/2004 journal entry. The

point of the generating the file primerelations.txt is to run the file

through pattern searching algorithms, and build a relational database,

because since the language of the primes's representation in my method

is severely limited, patterns might emerge. Nobody knows whether or not

the patterns will be consistent in predicting the range that the next

primes will be in, but I hope that they will, and it's worth doing the

experiment since that would be a remarkable tool to have discovered. The

patterns may reveal in some cases which is larger: the

nearest-to-midpoint prime or it's corresponding additive part. Where the

sum equals the prime. That would tell you a general range of where the

next prime isn't at. Also the patterns may in some cases have a

predictable "diff" value, which would be immensely valuable in knowing,

so that you can compare it to the values of the prime that came before

it, which would give a fairly close prediction of where the next prime

may lye. By looking at the pattern of the ordering of sentences, we can

possibly tell which side of the ratio sign the nearest-to-midpoint prime

of the next prime we are looking for lies on (and thus know whether it

is in the upper half or the lower half of the search scope). The search

scope for the next prime number is in the range of the largest known

prime squared. We might also be able to in some cases determine how far

from the absolute value of the difference between the nearest-to-

midpoint prime and the prime number we are looking for, that the prime

number that we are looking for is. Copyright 10/26/2004 to 10/27/2004

Justin Coslor I hereby release this idea under The GNU Public License

Agreement (GPL). ************************* Prime Sequence Matcher

Algorithm ************************* (This algorithm is to be turned into

software. See previous journal entries that are related.) Concept

conceived of originally on 10/17/2004 by Justin Coslor Trends in these

sequential prime relation sentences might emerge as lists of these

sentences are formed and parsed for all, or a large chunk of, the known

primes. ------------------------------- The following definitions are

important to know in order to understand the algorithm: nmp = the prime

number nearest to the midpoint of "the Nth prime we are representing

divided by 2" aptnmp = adjacent part of the nmp = prime number we are

representing minus nmp prime/2 = (nmp+aptnmp)/2 = the midpoint of the

prime nmp = (2 * midpoint) - aptnmp aptnmp = (2 * midpoint) - nmp prime

= 2 * midpoint We take notice of whether nmp is greater than, equal to,

or less than aptnmp. diff = |nmp - aptnmp| N prime = nmp:aptnmp or

aptnmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp|

___________________________________

| a | b | c | d |

| left | pos | even | up |

| right | neg | odd | down |

| LR | null | | same |

| RL | | | reset |

| | | | undoreset |

-----------------------------------

Each possible word can be abbreviated as a symbolic character or

symbolic digit, so the sentence is shortened to the size of a four

character word or four digit number. *Note: "a" only = "same" when prime

= 2 (.....that is, when N = 1) **Note: If "c" ever = "same", then N is

not prime, so halt. "abcd" has less than or equal to 100 possible

sequential prime relation sentences (SPRS)'s, since the representation

is limited by the algorithms listed below. Generate a list of SPRS's for

all known primes and do pattern matching/search algorithms to look for

trends that will limit the search scope. The algorithms might even

include SPRS orderings recursively. --------------------------------

Here are the rules that govern abcd: If nmp > aptnmp, then a = left. If

nmp < aptnmp, then a = right. If nmp = aptnmp, then a = same. If N - 1's

"a" = left, and N's "a" = right, then set N's "a" = LR. If N - 1's "a" =

right, and N's "a" = left, then set N's a = RL. If N's nmp - (N - 1)'s

nmp > 0, then b = pos. If N's nmp - (N - 1)'s nmp < 0, then b = neg. If

C = same, then b = null. Meaning, if N's nmp - (N-1)'s nmp = 0, then b=

null. If N's nmp - (N-1)'s nmp is an even integer, then c = even. If N's

nmp - (N - 1)'s nmp is an odd integer, then c = odd. If N's diff > (N -

1)'s diff, then d = up. If N's diff < (N - 1)'s diff, then d = down. If

N's diff = (N-1)'s diff, then d = same. If (N - 1)'s diff > 1 and N's

diff = 1, then d = reset. If (N - 1)'s diff = 1 and N's diff > 1, then d

= undoreset. [......But maybe when (N - 1)'s diff and N's diff = either

1 or 3, then d would also = up, or d = down.] If a = left or RL, then N

prime = nmp:aptnmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp| If a = right or LR, then N

prime = aptnmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp| If a = same, then N prime =

nmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp|, but only when N prime = N.

----------------------------------- Copyright 10/24/2004 Justin Coslor

Prime number patterns based on a ratio balance of the largest

near-midpoint prime number and the non-prime combinations of factors in

the remainder: An overlay of symmetries describe prime number patterns

based on a ratio balance of the largest near midpoint prime number and

the non-prime combinations of factors in the remainder. This is to cut

down the search space for the next prime number, by guessing at what

range to search the prime in first, using this data.

For instance, we might describe the prime number 67 geometrically by

layering the prime number 31 under the remainder 36, which has the

modulo binary symmetry equivalency of the pattern 2*2*3*3. We always put

the largest number on top in our description, regardless of whether it

is prime or non-prime, because this ordering will be of importance in

our sentence description of that prime.

We describe the sentence in relation to how we described the prime

number that came before it. For instance, we described 61 as 61=31:2*3*5

ratio (the larger composite always goes on the left of the ratio symbol,

because it will be important to note which side the prime number ends up

on), difference of 1 (difference shows how far from the center the

near-mid prime lies. 31-30=1), right->left (this changing of sides is

important to note because it describes which side of the midpoint of the

prime that the nearest-to-midpoint prime lies on or has moved to, in

terms of the ratio symbol) odd same (this describes whether the

nearest-to-midpoint primes of two prime numbers have a difference that

is even, odd, or if they have the same nearest-to-midpoint primes.)

67=2*2*3*3:31 ratio, difference of 5, left->right same undo last reset.

By looking at the pattern in the sentence descriptions (180 possible

sentences), we can tell which side of the ratio sign that the next

prime's nearest-to-midpoint prime lies on, which tells you which half of

the search scope the next prime lies in, which might cut the

computational task in finding the next finding that next prime number in

half or more. A computer program to generate these sentences can be

written for doing the pattern matching. In the prime number 67 example,

the part that says "same", refers to whether the nearest-to- midpoint

primes of two prime numbers have a difference that is even, odd, or if

they have the same nearest-to-midpoint primes. I threw in the "reset to

1" thing just because it probably occurs a lot, then there's also the

infamous "undo-from-last-reset" which it brings the difference from 1

back to where it was previously at. Copyright 10/5/2004 Justin Coslor

Prime Numbers in Geometry continued . . . Modulo Binary I think that if

prime numbers can be expressed geometrically as ratios there might be a

geometric shortcut to determining if a number is prime or maybe

non-prime. Prime numbers can be represented symmetrically, but not with

colored partitions. (*See diagrams.) Here's a new kind of binary code

that I invented, based on the method of partitioning a circle and

alternately coloring and grouping the equiangled symmetrical partitions

of non-prime partition sections. (*Note, since prime numbers don't have

symmetrical equiangled partitions, use the center-number + offset

converted into modulo binary (see my 2/4/2005 idea and the 2/1/2005

diagram I drew for prime odd and even cardinality and data compression

on the prime numbers)). Modulo binary: *Based on geometric symmetry

ratios. **I may not have been very consistent with my numbering scheme

here, but you should be in final draft version. 1=1 2=11 3=111 4=1010

5=11111 6=110110 or 101010 7=1111111 8=10101010 or 11101110 9=110110110

10=1010101010 11=11111111111 12=110110110110 13=1111111111111

14=10101010101010 15=10110,10110,10110 16=1010,1010,1010,1010 Find a

better way of doing this that might incorporate my prime center number +

offset representation of the primes and non-primes. This is an entirely

new way of counting, so try to make it scalable, and calculatable.

Secondary Levels of Modulo Binary: (*This is just experimental. . .I

based these secondary levels on the first level numbers that are

multiples of these.) 0=00 1=1 2=10 3=110 4=2+2=1010 5=10110 6=3+3=110110

or 111000 or 101101 7= 8=4+4=10101010 9=3+3+3=110110110 10=1010101010

11= 12=3+3+3+3=110110110110 13= 14=10101010101010101010

15=5+5+5=101101011010110 16=4+4+4+4=1010101010101010 Draw a 49 section

and 56 section circle, and look for symmetries to figure out how best to

represent the number 7 in the secondary layer of modulo binary. There

needs to be a stop bit too. Maybe 00 or something, and always start

numbers with a 1. The numbers on through ten should be sufficient for

converting partially from base 10. Where calculations would still be

done in base 10, but using modulo binary representations of each digit.

For encryption obfuscation and stuff. It seems that for even numbers,

the half-circle symmetries rotate between 0,0 across the circle for

numbers that are odd when divided by two, and the numbers that are odd

when divided by two have alternate-half 0,0 symmetry. But numbers that

are prime when divided by two have middle- across 0,1 symmetry.

Copyright 9/30/2004 Justin Coslor Prime Numbers in Geometry *Turn this

idea into a Design Science paper entitled "Patterns in prime composite

partition coloring structures". In the paper, relate these discoveries

to the periodic table. (All prime numbers can be represented as unique

symmetries in Geometry.) 1/1 = 0 division lines 1/2 = 1 division lines

1/3 = 3 division lines 1/4 = 2 division lines 1/5 = 5 division lines 1/6

= 5 division lines = one 1/2 division line and two 1/3 division lines on

each half circle. 1/7 = 7 division lines 1/8 = 4 division lines 1/9 =

_____ division lines . . . Or maybe count by partition sections rather

than division lines. . . How do I write an algorithm or computer program

that counts how many division lines there are in a symmetrically

equiangled partitioning of a circle, where if two division lines that

meet in the middle (as all division lines do) form a straight line they

would only count as one line and not two? Generate a sequential list of

values to find their number of division lines, and see if there is any

pattern in the non-prime division line numbers (i.e. 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/9,

1/10, 1/12, ...) that might be able to be related to the process of

determining or discovering which divisions are prime, or the sequence of

the prime numbers (1/2, 1/3, 1/5, 1/7, 1/11, 1/13, 1/17, ...). 10/5/2004

Justin Coslor As it turns out, there is a pattern in the non-prime

division lines that partition a circle. The equiangled symmetry

partition patterns look like stacks of prime composites layered on top

of one another like the Tower of Hanoi computer game, where each layer's

non-prime symmetry pattern can be colored using it's own colors in an

on-off configuration around the circle (See diagrams.). Prime layers

can't be colored in an on-off pattern symmetrically if the partitions

remain equiangled, because there would be two adjacent partitions

somewhere in the circle of the same color, and that's not symmetrical.

Copyright 7/25/2005 Justin Coslor Geometry of the Numberline: Pictograms

and Polygons. (See diagrams)

Obtain a list of sequential prime numbers. Then draw a pictogram

chart for each number on graph paper, with the base 10 digits 1 through

10 on the Y-axis, and on the X-axis of each pictogram the first column

is the 1's column, the second column is the 10's column, the third

columns is the 100's column, etc. Then plot the points for each digit of

the prime number you're representing, and connect the lines

sequentially. That pictogram is then the exact unique base-10

geometrical representation of that particular prime number (and it can

be done for non-prime numbers too). Another way to make the pictogram

for a number is to plot the points as described, but then connect the

points to form a maximum surface area polygon, because when you do that,

that unique polygon exactly describes that particular number when it's

listed in its original orientation. inside the base-10 graph paper

border that uses the minimum amount of X-axis boxes necessary to convey

the picture, and pictograms are always bordered on the canvas 10 boxes

high in base 10. Other bases can be used too for different sets of

pictograms. What does the pictogram for a given number look like in

other bases? We can connect the dots to make a polygon too, that is

exactly the specific representation in its proper orientation of that

particular unique number represented in that base. Also I wonder what

the pictograms and polygon pictograms look like when represented in

polar coordinates?

These pictogram patterns might show up a lot in nature and artwork,

and it'd be interesting to do a mathematical study of photos and

artwork, where each polygon that matches gets bordered by the border of

it's particular matching pictogram polygon in whatever base it happens

to be in, and pictures might be representable as layers of these

numerical pictograms, spread out all over the canvas overlapping and

all, and maybe partially hidden for some. You could in that way make a

coordinate system in which to calculate the positions and layerings of

the numerical pictograms that show up within the border of the photo or

frame of the artwork, and it could even be a form of steganometry when

intentionally layered into photos and artwork, for cryptography and art.

Summing multiple vertexes of numerical polygon pictograms could also

be used as a technique that would be useful for surjectively distorting

sums of large numbers. That too might have applications in cryptography

and computer vector artwork.

See the diagram of the base 10 polar coordinate pictogram

representation of the number 13,063. With polar notation, as with

Cartesian Coordinate System notation of the pictograms, it's important

to note where the reference point is, and what base it's in, and whether

it's on a polar coordinate system or Cartesian Coordinate System. In

polar coordinates, you need to know where the center point is in

relation to the polygon. . .no I'm wrong, it can be calculated s long as

no vertexes lie in a line. In all polygon representations, the edge

needs to touch all vertexes. Copyright 7/27/2005 Justin Coslor Combining

level.group.offset hierarchical representation with base N pictogram

representation of numbers (See diagrams)

level.group offset notation is (baseN^level)*group+offset Pictogram

notation is as described previously.

If you take the pictogram shape out of context and orient it

differently it could mean a lot of different things, but if you know the

orientation (you can calculate the spacing of the vertexes in different

orientations to find the correct orientation, but you know must also

know what base the number is in to begin with) then you can decipher

what number the polygon represents. You must know what the base is

because it could be of an enormous base. . .you must also know an anchor

point for lining it up with the XY border of the number line context in

that base because it could be a number shape floating inside a enormous

base for all anyone knows, with that anchor point. Also, multiple

numbers on the same straight line can be confusing unless they are

clearly marked as vertexes. If multiple polygons are intersecting, then

they could represent a matrix equation of all of those numbers. Or if

there are three or four polygons connected to each other by a line or a

single vertex, then the three pictograms might represent the three or

four parts of a large or small level.group.offset number in a particular

base. Pictograms connected in level.group offset notation would still

need to be independently rotated into their correct orientation, and

you'd need to know their anchor points and base, but you could very

simply represent an unfathomably enormous number that way in just a tiny

little drawing. Also, numbers might represent words in a dictionary or

letters of an alphabet. This is literally the most concise way to

represent unfathomably enormous numbers that possibly anyone has ever

imagined. Ever. You could write a computer program that would draw and

randomize these drawings as a translation from a dictionary/language set

and word processor document. They could decoded in the reverse process

by people who know the anchor point keys and base keys for each polygon.

You can make the drawings as a subtle off-white color blended into the

white part of the background of a picture, and transmit enormous

documents as a single tiny little picture that just needs some

calculating and keys to decode. Different polygon pictograms, which each

could represent a string of numbers, which can be partitioned into

sections that each represents a word or character, could each be drawn

in a different color. So polygons that are in different colors and

different layers in a haphazard stack, could be organized, where the

color of multiple polygons, means they are part of the same document

string, and the layering of the polygons indicates the order that the

documents are to be read in. Copyright 7/28/2005 Justin Coslor Optimal

Data Compression: Geometric Numberline Pictograms

If each polygon is represented using a different color, you don't

even need to draw the lines that connect the vertexes, so that you can

cram as many polygons as possible onto the canvas. In each polygon, the

number of vertexes is the number of digits in whatever base it's being

represented in. Large bases will mean larger image dimensions, but will

allow for really small representations of large numbers. Ideally one

should only use a particular color on one polygon once. For optimal

representation, one should represent each number in a base that is as

close to the number of digits in that base as possible. If you always do

that, then you won't have to know what base the polygon is represented

in to begin with (because it can be calculated). However, you will still

need to know the starting vertex or another anchor point to figure out

which orientation the polygon is to be perceived of in. On polar

coordinate polygon pictograms, you will just need to know the center

point and a reference point such as where the zero mark is, as well as

what base the polygon is represented in (in most cases). Hierarchical

level.group.offset data compression techniques or other data compression

techniques can also be used. Copyright 7/24/2005 Justin Coslor Prime

Inversion Charts (See diagram) Make a conversion list of the sequential

prime numbers, where each number (prime 1 through the N'th prime) is

inverted so that the least significant digit is now the most significant

digit, and the most significant digit is now the least significant digit

(ones column stays in the ones column, but the 10's column gets put in

the 10ths column on the other side of the decimal point, same with

hundreds, etc.). So you have a graph that goes from 0 through 10 on the

Y-axis, and 0 through N along the X axis, and you just plot the points

for prime 1 through the N'th prime and connect the dots sequentially.

Also, you can convert this into a binary string by making it so that if

any prime is higher up on the Y-axis than the prime before it, it

becomes a 1, and if it is less than the prime before it, it becomes a 0.

Then you can look for patterns in that. I noticed many recurring binary

string patterns in that sequence, as well as many pallendrome string

patterns in that representation (and I only looked at the first couple

of numbers, so there might be something to it). 10/8/2004 Justin Coslor

Classical Algebra (textbook notes) Pg. 157 of Classical Algebra fourth

edition says: The Prime Number Theorem: In the interval of 1 through X,

there are about X/LOGeX primes in this interval. P=X/LOGeX scope: (1,X)

or something. The book claims that they cannot factor 200 digit primes

yet. In 1999 Nayan Hajratwala found a record new prime 2^6972593 - 1

with his PC. It's a Mersenne Prime over 2 million digits long. This book

deals a lot with encryption. I believe that nothing is 100% secure

except for the potential for a delay. On pg. 39 it says "There is no

known efficient procedure for finding prime numbers." On pg. 157 it

directly contradicts that statement by saying: "There are efficient

methods for finding very large prime numbers." The process I described

in my 10/7/2004 journal entryis like the sieve of Eratosthenes, except

my method goes a step farther in making a continuously augmented filter

list of divisor multiplicants not to bother checking, while

simultaneously running the Sieve of Eratosthenes in a massive

synchronously parallel computational process. Prime numbers are useful

for use in pattern search algorithms that operate in abductive and

deductive reasoning engines (systems), which can be used to explore and

grow and help solve problems and provide new opportunities and to invent

things and do science simulations far beyond human capability. (Pg. 40)

Theorem: An integer x>1 is either prime or contains a prime factor

<=sqrt(x). Proof: x=ab where a and b are positive integers between 1 and

x. Since P is the smallest prime factor, a>=p, b>=p and x=ab>=p^2. Hence

p<=sqrt(x). Example: If x=10 a=2 and b=5. p=3 p^2=9 so 10=2*5>=9. So

factors of x are within the scope of (2, sqrt(x)) or else it's prime.

a^2>=b^2. x^2>=p^4. x^2/p^4=big. Try converting Fermat's Little Theorem

and other corollaries into geometry symmetries and modulo binary format.

The propositions in Modern Algebra about modulo might only hold for two-

dimensional arithmetic, but if you add a 3rd dimension the rotations are

countable as periods on a spiral, which when viewed from a perpendicular

side-view looks like a 2-dimensional waveform. 9/26/2004 Justin Coslor

Privacy True privacy may not be possible, but the best that we can hope

for is a long enough delay in recognition of observations to have enough

time and patience to put things intot the perspective of a more

understanding context. Copyright 9/17/2004 Justin Coslor A Simple,

Concise, Encryption Syntax. This can be one layer of an encryption, that

can be the foundation of a concise syntax. *Important: The example does

not do this, but in practice, if you plan on using this kind of

encryption more than once, then be sure to generate a random unique

binary string for each letter of the alphabet, and make each X digits

long. Then generate a random binary string that is N times as long as

the length of your message to be sent, and append unique sequential

pieces (of equal length) of this random binary string to the right of

each character's binary representation. The remote parts should have

lots of securely acquired random unique alphabet/random binary string

pairs, such as on a DVD that twas delivered by hand. In long messages,

never use the same alphabet's character(s) more than once but rotate to

the next binary character representation on the DVD sequentially. Here's

the example alphabet (note that you can of course choose your own

alphabetic representation as long as it is logically consistent): a

010101 b 011001 c 011101 d 100001 e 100101 f 101001 g 110001 h 110101 i

111001 --------- j 010110 k 011010 l 011110 m 100010 n 100110 o 101010 p

110010 q 110110 r 111010 --------- s 010111 t 011011 u 011111 v 100011 w

100111 x 101011 y 110011 z 110111 space 111011 ------------------------

EXAMPLE: "peace brother" can be encoded like this using that particular

alphabet:

0110111010010110001011010111001001100101

0101111010101010100001101110110101111001

------------------------ 2/18/2005 Update by Justin Coslor Well, I

forgot how to break my own code. Imagine that! I think it had something

to do with making up a random string that was of a length that is

divisible by the number of letters in the alphabet, yet is of equal

bit-length to the bit-translated message, so that you know how long the

message is, and you know how many bits it takes to represent each

character in the alphabet. Then systematically mix in the random bits

with the bits in the encoded message. In my alphabet I used 27

characters that were each six bits in length; and in my example, my

message was 13 characters long, 11 of which were unique. I seriously

have no idea what I was thinking when I wrote this example, but at least

my alphabet I do understand, and it's pretty concise, and sufficiently

obscured for some purposes. Copyright 6/30/2005 Justin Coslor Automatic

Systems (See Diagram) There is 2D, and there are 3D snapshots

represented in 2D, and there is the model-theory approach of making

graphs and flowcharts, but why not add dimensional metrics to graph

diagrams to represent systems more accurately?

--------------------------------- Atomic Elements -> Mixing pot ->

Distillation/Recombination: A->B->C->D->E -> State Machine Output

Display (Active Graphing = real-time) -> Output Parsing and calculation

of refinements (Empirical) -> Set of contextually adaptive relations:

R1->A, R2->B, R3->C, R4->D, R5->E. -------------------------------------

Copyright 5/11/2005 Justin Coslor How to combine sequences: Draw a set

of Cartesian coordinate system axis, and on the x axis mark off the

points for one sequence, and on the y axis mark off the points for the

sequence you want to combine with it (and if you have three sequences

you want to combine, mark off the third sequence on the z-axis. ...for

more than 3 sequences, use linear algebra). Next draw a box between the

origin and the first point on each sequence; then calculate the length

of the diagonal. Then do the same for the next point in each sequence

and calculate the length of the diagonal. Eventually you will have a

unique sequence that is representative of all of the different sequences

that you combined into one in this manner. For instance, you could

generate a sequence that is the combination of the prime numbers and the

Fibonacci Sequence. In fact, the prime numbers might be a combination of

two or more other sequences in this manner, for all I know. 1/4/2005

Justin Coslor Notes from the book "Connections: The Geometric Bridge

Between Art and Science" + some ideas.

In a meeting with Nehru in India in 1958 he said "The problem of a

comprehensive design science is to isolate specific instances of the

pattern of a general, cosmic energy system and turn these to human use."

The topic of design science was started by architect, designer, and

inventor Buckminster Fuller. The chemical physicist Arthur Loeb, who

considers design science to be the grammar of space. Buy that book, as

well as the book "The Undecidable" by Martin Davis.

Chemist Istvan Hergittai edited two large books on symmetry. He also

edits the journals "symmetry" and "space structures" where I could

submit my paper on the geometry of prime numbers and patterns in

composite partition coloring structures. *Also, send it to Physical

Science Review to solicit scientific applications of my discovery. Send

it to some math journals too. Again, the paper I want to write is called

"Patterns in prime composite partition coloring structures", and it will

be based on that journal entry I had about symmetrically dividing up a

circle into partitions, then labeling the alternating patterns in the

symmetries using individual colors for each primary pattern in the

stack, similar to that game "The Tower of Hanoi". Study the writings of

Thales (Teacher of Pythagoras), who is known as the father of Greek

mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy, and who visited Egypt to learn

its secrets [Turnbull, 1961 "The Great Mathematicians], [Gorman, 1979

Pythagoras - A Life] ---------------------------- Connections page 11.

Figure 1.7 The Ptolemaic scale based on the primes 2, 3, and 5. C=1,

D=8/9, E=4/5, F=3/4, G=2/3, A=3/5, B=8/15, C=1/2.

------------------------- Figure 1.6 The Pythagorean scale derived from

the primes 2 and 3: C=1, space=8/9, D=8/9, space=8/9, E=64/81,

space=243/256, F=3/4, space=8/9, G=2/3, space=8/9, A=16/27, space=8/9,

B=128/243, space=243/256, C'=1/2, space=8/9, D'=4/9, space=8/9,

E'=32/81, space=243/256, F'=3/8, space=8/9, G'=1/3, space=8/9, A'=8/27,

space=8/9, B'=64/243, space=243/256, C"=1/4. ----------------- *1/4/2005

Project:

Someday try writing an electronic music song that makes vivid use of

parallel mathematical algorithms based on the prime numbers, actually

come to think of it, this concept was presented in an episode of Star

Trek Voyager. ---------------------------- 8/26/2004 Justin Coslor Notes

(pg. 1) These are my notes on three papers contributed to the MIT

Encyclopedias of Cognitive Science by Wilfried Sieg in July 1997: Report

CMU-PHIL-79, Philosophy, Methodology, Logic. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

15213-3890. - Formal Systems - Church Turing Thesis - Godel's Theorems

-------------------------------- Notes on Wilfried Sieg's "Properties of

Formal Systems" paper: Euclid's Elements -> axiomatic-deductive method.

Formal Systems = "Mechanical" regimentation of the inference steps along

with only syntactic statements described in a precise symbolic language

and a logical calculus, both of which must be recursive (by the

Church-Turing Thesis). Meaning Formal Systems use just the syntax of

symbolic word statements (not their meaning), recursive logical

calculus, and recursive symbolic definitions of each word.

Frege in 1879: "a symbolic language (with relations and

quantifiers)" + an adequate logical calculus -> the means for the

completely formal representation of mathematical proofs. Fregean frame

-> mathematical logic ->Whitehead & Russell's "Principia Mathematica" ->

metamathematical perspective <- Hilbert's "Grundlagen der Geometrie"

1899 *metamathematical perspective -> Hilbert& Bernays "Die Prizipien

der Mathematik" lectures 1917- 1918 -> first order logic = central

language + made a suitable logical calculus. Questions raised:

Completeness, consistency, decidability. Still active. Lots of progress

has been made in these areas since then. **Hilbert & Bernays "Die

Prizipien der Mathematik" lectures 1917-1918 -> mathematical logic.

Kinds of completeness: Quasi-empirical completeness of Zermelo Fraenkel

set theory, syntactic completeness of formal theories, and semantic

completeness = all statements true in all models. - Sentential logic

proved complete by Hilbert and Bernays (1918) and Post (1921). - First

order logic proved complete by Godel (1930). "If every finite subset of

a system has a model, so does the systems." But first order logic has

some non-standard models.

Hilbert's Entsheidungsproblem proved undecidable by Church & Turing.

It was the decision problem for first order logic. So the "decision

problem" proved undecidable, but it lead to recursion theoretic

complexity of sets, which lead to classification of 1. arithmetical, 2.

hyper-arithmetical, and 3. analytical hierarchies. It later lead to

computational complexity classes. So they couldn't prove what could be

decided in first order logic, but they could classify the complexity of

modes of computation using first order logic. ---In first order logic,

one can classify the empirical and computational complexity of syntactic

configurations whose formulas and proofs are effectively decidable by a

Turing Machine. I'm not positive about this next part. ...but, such

syntactic configurations (aka software that eventually halts) are

considered to be formed systems. In other words, ,one cannot classify

the empirical and computational complexity of software that never halts

(or hasn't halted), using first order logic. The Entsheidungsproblem

(First order logic Decision Problem) resulted in model theory, proof

theory, and computability thoery. It required "effective methods" of

decision making to be precisely defined. Or rather, it required

effective methods of characterizing what could or couldn't be decided in

first-order logic.

The proof of the completeness theorem resulted in the relativity of

"being countable" which in turn resulted in the Skolem paradox. ***I

believe that paradoxes only occur when the context of a logic is

incomplete or when it's foundations scope is not broad enough.

Semantic arguments in geometry yielded "Relative Consistency

Proofs". Hilbert used "finitist means" to establish the consistency of

formal systems. Ackerman, von Neumann, and Herbrand used a very

restricted induction principle to establish the consistency of number

theory. Modern proof theory used "constructivist" means to prove

significant parts of analysis. Insights have been gained into the

"normal form" of proofs in sequent and natural deduction calculi. So

they all wanted to map the spectrum of unbreakable reason. Godel firmly

believed that the term "formal system' or 'formalism' should never be

used for anything but software that halts.

------------------------------------- 9/1/2004 Justin Coslor Notes on

Wilfried Sieg's "Church-Turing Thesis" paper:

Church re-defined the term "effective calculable function" (of

positive integers) with the mathematically precise term "recursive

function". Kleen used the term "recursive" in "Introduction to

Metamathematics, in 1952. Turing independently suggested identifying

"effectively calculable functions" as functions whose values can be

computed (mechanically) using a Turing Machine.Turing & Church's theses

were, in effect, equivalent, and so jointly they are referred to as the

Church-Turing Thesis. Metamathematics takes formally presented theories

as objects of mathematical study (Hilbert 1904), and it's been pursued

since the 1920's, which led to precisely characterizing the class of

effective procedures, which led to the Entsheidungsproblem, which was

solved negatively relative to recursion (****but what about for

non-recursive systems?). Metamathematics also led to Godel's

Incompleteness Theorems (1931), which apply to all formal systems, like

type theory of Principia Mathematica or Zermalo-Fraenkel Set Theory,

etc. Effective Computability: So it seems like they all wanted

infallable systtems (formal systems), and the were convinced that the

way to get there required a precise definition of effective

calculability. Church and Kleen thought it was equivalent to

lambda-definability, and later prove that lambda-definability is

equivalent to recursiveness (1935-1936).

Turing thought effective calculability could be defined as anything

that can be calculated on a Turing Machine (1936). Godel defined the

concept of a (general) recursive function using an equational calculus,

but was not convinced that all effectively calculable functions would

fall under it. Post (*my favorite definition...*) in 1936 made a model

that is strikingly similar to Turing's, but didn't provide any analysis

in support of the generality of his model. But Post did suggest

verifying formal theories by investigating ever wider formulations and

reducing them to his basic formulation. He considered this method of

identifying/defining effectively calculable functions as a working

hypothesis.

Post's method is strikingly similar to my friend Andrew J.

Dougherty's thesis of artificial intelligence, which is that at a

certain point, the compactness of a set of functions is maximized

through optimization and at that point, the complexity of their

informational content plateaus, unless you keep adding new functions. So

his solution to Artificial Intelligence is to assimilate all of the

known useful functions in the world, and optimize them to the plateau

point of complexity (put the information in lowest terms), and to then

use that condensed information set/tool in exploring for new functions

to add, so that the rich depth of the problem solving and information

seeking technology can continually improve past any plateau points.

(in 1939) Hilbert and Bernays showed that deductively formalized

functions require that their proof predicates to be primitive recursive.

Such "reconable" functions are recursive and can be evaluated in a very

restricted number of theoretic formalism. Godel emphasized that

provability and definability depend on the formalism considered. Godel

also emphasized that recursiveness or computability have an absoluteness

property not shared by provability or definability, and other

metamathematical notions.

My theory is a bottom-up approach for pattern discovery and adaptive

reconceptualization between the domains of different contexts, and can

provide the theoretical framework for abductive reaasoning, necessary

for the application of my friend Andrew J. Dougherty's thesis. Perhaps

my theories could be abductively formalized? My theories do not require

empiricism (deduction), to produce new elements that are

primitive-recursive to produce new elements that are primitive-recursive

(circular-reasoning-based/symbolic/repet

used in building and calculating statements and structures, that can add

new information. To me, "meaning" implies having an "appreciation" for

the information and functions and relations, at least in part; and that

this "appreciation" is obtained through recognition of the information

(and functions' and relations') utility or relative utility via use or

simulation experience within partially- defined contexts. I say

"partially-defined" contexts because by Godel's Incompleteness Theorems,

an all-encompassing ultimate context cannot be completely defined since

the definition itself (and it's definer would have to be part of that

context, which isn't possible because it would have to be infinitely

recursive and thus never fully representable.

Turing invented a mechanical method for operating symbolically. His

invention's concepts provided the mechanical means for running

simulations. Andrew J. Dougherty and I have created the concepts for

mechanically creating new simulations to run until all possible

simulations that can be created in good intention, that are helpful and

fair for all, exceeds the number of such programs that can be possibly

used in all of existence, in all time frames forever, God willing.

Turing was a uniter not a divider and he demanded immediate

recognizability of symbolic configurations, so that basic computation

steps need not be further subdivided. *But there are limitations in

taking input at face value. Sieg in 19944, inspired by Turing's 1936

paper formulated the following boundedness conditions and locality

limitations of computors: (B.1) there is a fixed bound for the number of

symbolic configurations a computor can immediately recognize; (B.2)

there is a fixed bound for the number of a computor's internal states

that need to be taken into account; -- therefore he can carry out only

finitely many different operations. These operations are restricted by

the following locality conditions: (L.1) only elements of observed

configurations can be changed. (L.2) the computor can shift his

attention from one symbolic configuration to another only if the second

is within a bounded distance from the first. *Humans are capable of more

than just mechanical processes. ---------------------------------- Notes

on Wilfried Sieg's "Godel's Theorems" paper: Kurt Godel established a

number of absolutely essential facts: - completeness of first order

logic - relative consistency of the axiom of choice - generalized

continuum hypothesis - (And relevant to the foundations of mathematics:)

*His two Incompleteness Theorems (a.k.a. Godel's Theorems.

In the early 20th century dramatic development of logic in the

context of deep problems in the foundations in mathematics provided for

the first time the means to reflect mathematical practice in formal

theories. 1. - One question asked was: "Is there a formal theory such

that mathematical truth is co- extensive with provability in that

theory?" (Possibly... See Russell's type theory P of Principia

Mathematica and axiomatic set theory as formulated by Zermelo...) - From

Hilbert's research around 1920 another question emerged: 2. "Is the

consistency of mathematics in its formalized presentation provable by

restricted mathematical, so-called finitist means? *To summarize

informally: 1. Is truth co-extensive with provability? 2. Is consistency

provable by finitist means? Godel proved the second question to be

negative for the case of formalizably finitist means. Godel's

Incompleteness theorems: - If P is consistent (thus recursive), then

there is a sentence sigma in the language of P, such that neither sigma

nor its negation not-sigma is provable in P. Sigma is thus independent

of P. (Is sigma the dohnut hole of reason that fits into the center of

the circular reasoning (into the center of, but independent from the

recursion)?) - If P is consistent, then cons, the statement in the

language of P that expresses the consistency of P, is not provable in P.

Actually Godel's second theorem claims the unprovability of that second

(meta) mathematical meaningful statement noted on pg. 7. Godel's first

incompleteness theorem's purpose is to actually demonstrate that some

syntactically true statements can be semantically false. He possibly did

this to show that formal theories are not adequate by themselves to

fully describe true knowledge, at least with knowledge that is

represented by numbers, that is. It illustrates how it is possible to

lie with numbers. In other words, syntax and semantics are mutually

exclusive, and Godel's second Incompleteness Theorem demonstrates that.

In other words the symbolically representative nature of language makes

it possible to lie and misinterpret.

Godel liked to explain how every consistently formal system that

contains a certain amount of number theory can be rigorously proven to

contain undecidably arithmetical propositions, including proving that

the consistency of systems within such a system is non-demonstratable;

and that this can all be proven using a Turing Machine.

Godel thought "the human mind (even within the realm of pure

mathematics) infinitely surpasses the power of any finite machine."

**But what about massively parallel Quantum supercomputers? Keep in mind

the boundary and limitation conditions that Sieg noted in his

Church-Turing Thesis paper of dimensional minds in relatable

timelines... (Computors). 8/26/2004 Justin Coslor Concepts that I'll

need to study to better understand logic and computation: Readings:

Euclid's Elements Principia Mathematica Completeness: quasi-empirical

completeness, syntactic completeness, semantic completeness consistency

decidability recursion theoretic complexity of sets classification

hierarchies computational complexity classes modes of computation model

theory proof theory computability theory relative consistency proofs

consistency of formal systems consistency of number theory modern proof

theory constructivist proofs semantic arguments in geometry analysis

sequent and natural deduction calculi recursive functions

Metamathematics Type Theory Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory effective

computability Lambda-definability investigating ever-wider formulations

primitive recursive proof predicates provability and definability

meaning: [11/11/2004 Justin Coslor -- Meaning depends on goal-subjective

relative utility. In other words, Experience leading up to perspective

filters and perspective relational association buffers.] utility and

relative utility simulation deductively formalized functions boundedness

conditions locality limitations formalizably finitist means choice,

continuum, foundations syntax & semantics incompleteness undecidable

arithmetical propositions hierarchies: arithmetical, hyper-arithmetical

(is hyper-arithmetical where all of the nodes' relations are able to be

retranslated to the perspective of any particular node?), and analytical

hierarchies hierarchical complexity computational complexity Graph

Theory Knowledge Representation Epistemology Pattern Search,

Recognition, Storage, and retrieval Appreciation

----------------------------------------

This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

----------------------------------------

### Book 2 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

--------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

--------------------------------------

------------------------

Book II:

Networks of Questions

------------------------

2/28/98 Everything I know about questions

6/17/2005 Question Networks: option questions v.s. spectrum questions

5/25/2005 Question expectation templates and question context intersections

5/24/2005 Question asking systems

5/10/2005 Re-defining basic question thought forms

5/11/2005 Writing Tips

10/20/2004 Regarding Education

6/1/2005 Choice

5/31/2005 Creativity

5/28/2005 Intuitions

8/13/2005 Ideas and Probabilities

------------------------

Book II:

Networks of Questions

------------------------

=======================

Everything I know about questions.

=======================

By Justin Coslor

justincoslor@gmail.com

(These ideas are all copyright by Justin Coslor on their respective

dates. I very much want to share these ideas, but I may want to work in

collaboration on related projects, so I withhold all intellectual

property rights to this material. The work in this document is just a

small selection of my ideas. Please do not steal my work via Tempest

equipment or by any other means. If you are interested (due to tempest

surveillance since I haven't shown anyone this,) and wish to

collaborate, feel free to contact me at the above email address, and I

will keep your technological secrets as long as you don't exploit me.

Also, I'm egalitarian and I don't build weapons. Let's get that strait.

Realize, I'm living on food stamps and measley disability stipend that

barely pays the rent.) 2/28/98 Standard Inferences About actions: who

what happened why when where how. Most everything else just uses one or

a couple of these inferences. 10/6/2003 Query As far as questions are

concerned... It seems like there are yes/no questions, option questions,

spectrum questions, ind-depth (and short) descriptive questions,

computational questions, essay questions, etc. Some are subjective (of

opinion), some are neutral, some are definitive, some are explanatory,

some are geometrical/visual, some are mathematical, some are of finite

domain, some are impossible, some are biased, some are traps, some are

falsely/inaccurately stated, some are open-ended, some are

meaningless/pointless, some are direct, some are indirect, some are of

infinite domain (a snapshot), some are time/space sensitive, some are

quantitative, some are qualitative, some are recursive. 8/1/2004

Questions (a re-write) Questions can be used to define agendas; or

indicate knowledge; gaps; or inquire about attributes, associations, and

relations; or speculate; or to demonstrate something or make a

statement; or be used for introspection or inspection; or to infer,

deduce, or search for the elements of a pattern or context or its

system(s) or relations; or to map assumptions (an assumption being the

context that defines a set of beliefs); or to analyze and re-analyze

data and information. 3/15/2005 Networks of Questions

In considering ideas and information that is new to me, I ask

networks of questions. The questions can be framed as dependency charts.

Now what is a good way to understand dependency charts? List out the

major nodes (most well-connected nodes) as open-ended definitions, and

form lexicons out of the interconnected definitions. Next map out the

rest of the nodes axiomatically using those definition structures. Turn

this into a software for common sense perception. Maybe make a web

crawler cognition engine that can learn the meaning behind things so

that it can solve problems by figuring out new ways of thinking about

things (adapting the context of question/perception networks). 3/15/2005

Experimentation Sometimes experimentation is necessary to solve problems

and answer questions, because some nodes of information or questions or

contextual perception networks are otherwise unreachable, and often

entirely unknown to exist. 4/15/2005 Question Networks, continued...

Abductive reasoning: When does a function discover or prove an axiom?

What metric makes analogy recognizable? Do recursive lexicons have the

potential for infinite macro-scale growth? Do they have the potential

for infinite micro-scale growth? Or will they all be governed primarily

by the initial categories? Form networks of questions to gain valuable

perspectives on topical and problem data. Model question engines in a

careful evolutionary goal manner with substainability and capability and

necessity as the primary objectives. Map the spectrum of inquiry.

Expectations->Intentions->Experimentation (scientific

combinations)->Dependency Chart Gaps and Representation

Gaps->Formulation of questions incorporating "known" data. 5/4/2005

Answers We're surrounded by answers, but they're all meaningless and

often impossible to even detect without knowing at least some of the

questions that they are derived from. Without this question/answer

connection, there is no consciousness, awareness would not exist.

Copyright 5/10/2005 Justin Coslor Re-defining basic question

thought-forms: Why? = Is there a reason for how this came to be, and

what is it? What? = The existence of this shall be called by a name that

needs to be defined, and we are inquiring about that. When? = This

occurred or shall occur at what time and day? How? = By what process

does this function? Notice that I had to use "what" in every one of

these (except I tried not to use "what" in it's own definition, which

was difficult). Therefore "what" is the most important thought form to

focus on. "What" is the algebraic domain of the relation "that", or

"this", or "these", or "those"; and the range is unknown, and is

entirely unbounded. "That", is a pointer to a specific instance of

something in existence (whether it be in physical or Platonic reality).

The difference between Platonic objects and physical objects is that

Platonic objects are just pointers to other pointers, whereas physical

objects are pointers that point to themselves in a loop. Physical

objects can bound and/or link (like a chain) other physical objects

because if we geometrize the representation of the pointers we have

physics, since the pointers loop. We exist partially in physical

reality, and partially in Platonic reality since we can make conversions

between the two. It's like the difference between particles and waves.

Copyright 6/17/2005 Justin Coslor Question Networks: Option questions

v.s. spectrum questions

A lot of ambiguity is in every question. For instance, if you asked

a question today you'd get one answer most likely, but if you asked that

same question 10,000 years from now you'd probably get a much different

answer. The scope of a question can be narrow or it cana be wide. With a

narrow scope, a question might be a basic question that can be modified

by many options, or it can be a bunch of cases, as in specific

questions. Those are option questions. They lay out perspective question

options.

When the scope is very general or comprehensive of a lot of

possibilities, then it is a spectrum question because it is intended to

explore a range of possibilities that are within the same domain. Option

questions seek to explore multiple questions that are not necessarily of

the same domain. Copyright 5/25/2005 Justin Coslor Question expectation

templates and question context intersections

Questions contain an expectation template of the kind or class of

answers that thet inquisitor is looking for. Often times though, the

answers that are found or generated, or the answers that are of the most

use, do not match the question's expectation template. Often times,

answers that ar suitable cannot be derived or located until the question

is elaborated, generalized, or otherwise modeled using different

representation, such as analogical equivalencies of its objects,

objectives, contexts, and relations.

Every question is the intersection of several contexts, where behind

the scenes, each context has its own unique expectation template; such

as: - 1. The type of question: who, what, where, when, why, how, and its

structure and methods. - 2. The semantic purpose of the question

indicated by the question's structure: to define a context, to define a

pattern or variable property, to state an open-ended knowledge structure

and indicate the unknowns and data access points, to explore a domain or

a range, etc. Or to state facts alongside the question, to indicate

expectation parameters of the answer(s). - 3. The setting of the

question is object(s) and relation(s). Associated objects and relations

can be explicit or implied, but does result in expectation parameters. -

4. The existential time frame or solidity or transitory frame cycle of

the question's objects and relations in regard to their setting is

another context involved in definitive consideration of answer

expectation parameters. - 5. - 6. . . etc. There may be many more

foundational contexts that intersect in the formation and existence of

every question. Copyright 5/24/2005 Justin Coslor Question asking

systems Question -> Perception of meaning of question -> Search and

answer retrieval -> answer formulation -> interpretation of answer. In

short, QUESTION -> ANSWER(S).

The more methods of knowledge representation that are available to

model the perception of the meaning of the question, the more depth and

breadth the search scope will have in the answer retrieval process, and

the experimental data combining buffer will have more possibilities to

form experimental combination answers with. If the answers are

experimental, then they may need to be tested or proven valid. Not all

valid answers are useful though, and not all questions can be modeled

accurately. Question-Answer systems and Question asking systems are

subject to priority systems, in their exploration of patterns in

contexts. Every question or series of questions is a rough draft of the

question that will produce or point to the desired answer that contains

the right level of detail of suitable content. Copyright 5/10/2005

Justin Coslor Re-defining basic question thought-forms: Why? = Is there

a reason for how this came to be, and what is it? What? = The existence

of this shall be called by a name that needs to be defined, and we are

inquiring about that. When? = This occurred or shall occur at what time

and day? How? = By what process does this function? Notice that I had to

use "what" in every one of these (except I tried not to use "what" in

it's own definition, which was difficult). Therefore "what" is the most

important thought form to focus on. "What" is the algebraic domain of

the relation "that", or "this", or "these", or "those"; and the range is

unknown, and is entirely unbounded. "That", is a pointer to a specific

instance of something in existence (whether it be in physical or

Platonic reality). The difference between Platonic objects and physical

objects is that Platonic objects are just pointers to other pointers,

whereas physical objects are pointers that point to themselves in a

loop. Physical objects can bound and/or link (like a chain) other

physical objects because if we geometrize the representation of the

pointers we have physics, since the pointers loop. We exist partially in

physical reality, and partially in Platonic reality since we can make

conversions between the two. It's like the difference between particles

and waves... Copyright 5/11/2005 Justin Coslor Writing Tips

When I want to write, to figure out what to write I try to figure

out a priority system, where I aim to invent the most important new idea

that I'm either interested in (topically) or that is very important but

that is only interesting enough to write down for somebody else to

explore. Once I've focused on a topic I start asking questions and map

it out and associate it to other areas and build networks of questions

and answers and arbitrary data.

I have to feel like writing and be relaxed and well hydrated

(slightly caffeinated helps), and it's best when I'm thinking at my best

(not bogged down by emotions) I don't consider this entry an "idea"

since I feel awful and am terribly lonely and depressed and have

heartburn at the moment. I write best when I'm either really really

happy (a bipolar high), or really really depressed (a bipolar low).

10/20/2004 Justin Coslor Regarding Education

If people could be taught first how to learn on their own, and next

how to find and update their sources of information and resources, and

then be taught creative and consistent logic and how to interact in

their chosen forums of discourse, along with some skills as to how they

can negotiate their insights and nurtured talents for wellbeing and

non-harmful prosperity to an extent limited to what they can

successfully and comfortably manage without bloating into the arena of

greed or ill- intent; then they would have a great potential for doing a

lot of good in the world and in the happiness of their daily lives.

Lives lived purposefully. 10/28/2004 Justin Coslor It's important to be

semi-autonomous rather than being just another domino. Copyright

6/1/2005 Justin Coslor Choice

Choice depends on having recognized options to choose from. The

availability of options depends on a system of awareness, and the

explorative mapping of solution spaces and/or experimentally created

generation. Also an evaluation system or metric is necessary for the

selection process to pick a suitable option. The initiation of choice

can be voluntary or forced; and it can be activated out of necessity, or

independently. Copyright 5/31/2005 Justin Coslor Creativity

Creative processes start out with a chosen medium, and then a random

process is activated that generates a lot of possibilities, then it is a

matter of choosing the best or most desirable possibilities and

elaborating on them and linking them. That is what creativity means to

me. The creator may also have several goals or requirements in mind, and

be aware of juggling prerequisites. Copyright 5/28/2005 Justin Coslor

Intuitions

Intuitions are sequences of inspiration, and are part possibility

thinking, part logical thinking, and part random chance phenomenon.

Intuitive truth requires proof. Copyright 8/13/2005 Justin Coslor Ideas

and Probabilities

Ideas change probabilities, and ideas come from experimentation:

search, sort, and shuffle (grouping and storing patterns in contexts).

Ideas guide courses of action and affect expectations, of which

reactions are based on, and those are some of the probabilities ideas

can change, but they can also pave the way for new systems and

developments.

Intentions guide experimentation, and logic guides methodology.

Axioms define logic and modes of proof. Innate programming (instinct)

and use of methodology in real-time guides intentions.

Useful ideas change contexts dramatically, and in doing so, many of

the patterns in those contexts are able to form lots of new associations

and possibilities. The most sweeping ideas are at the axiom level, and

as new axioms are added, contexts expand and develop greater depth and

greater interconnectivity.

--------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

--------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

--------------------------------------

------------------------

Book II:

Networks of Questions

------------------------

2/28/98 Everything I know about questions

6/17/2005 Question Networks: option questions v.s. spectrum questions

5/25/2005 Question expectation templates and question context intersections

5/24/2005 Question asking systems

5/10/2005 Re-defining basic question thought forms

5/11/2005 Writing Tips

10/20/2004 Regarding Education

6/1/2005 Choice

5/31/2005 Creativity

5/28/2005 Intuitions

8/13/2005 Ideas and Probabilities

------------------------

Book II:

Networks of Questions

------------------------

=======================

Everything I know about questions.

=======================

By Justin Coslor

justincoslor@gmail.com

(These ideas are all copyright by Justin Coslor on their respective

dates. I very much want to share these ideas, but I may want to work in

collaboration on related projects, so I withhold all intellectual

property rights to this material. The work in this document is just a

small selection of my ideas. Please do not steal my work via Tempest

equipment or by any other means. If you are interested (due to tempest

surveillance since I haven't shown anyone this,) and wish to

collaborate, feel free to contact me at the above email address, and I

will keep your technological secrets as long as you don't exploit me.

Also, I'm egalitarian and I don't build weapons. Let's get that strait.

Realize, I'm living on food stamps and measley disability stipend that

barely pays the rent.) 2/28/98 Standard Inferences About actions: who

what happened why when where how. Most everything else just uses one or

a couple of these inferences. 10/6/2003 Query As far as questions are

concerned... It seems like there are yes/no questions, option questions,

spectrum questions, ind-depth (and short) descriptive questions,

computational questions, essay questions, etc. Some are subjective (of

opinion), some are neutral, some are definitive, some are explanatory,

some are geometrical/visual, some are mathematical, some are of finite

domain, some are impossible, some are biased, some are traps, some are

falsely/inaccurately stated, some are open-ended, some are

meaningless/pointless, some are direct, some are indirect, some are of

infinite domain (a snapshot), some are time/space sensitive, some are

quantitative, some are qualitative, some are recursive. 8/1/2004

Questions (a re-write) Questions can be used to define agendas; or

indicate knowledge; gaps; or inquire about attributes, associations, and

relations; or speculate; or to demonstrate something or make a

statement; or be used for introspection or inspection; or to infer,

deduce, or search for the elements of a pattern or context or its

system(s) or relations; or to map assumptions (an assumption being the

context that defines a set of beliefs); or to analyze and re-analyze

data and information. 3/15/2005 Networks of Questions

In considering ideas and information that is new to me, I ask

networks of questions. The questions can be framed as dependency charts.

Now what is a good way to understand dependency charts? List out the

major nodes (most well-connected nodes) as open-ended definitions, and

form lexicons out of the interconnected definitions. Next map out the

rest of the nodes axiomatically using those definition structures. Turn

this into a software for common sense perception. Maybe make a web

crawler cognition engine that can learn the meaning behind things so

that it can solve problems by figuring out new ways of thinking about

things (adapting the context of question/perception networks). 3/15/2005

Experimentation Sometimes experimentation is necessary to solve problems

and answer questions, because some nodes of information or questions or

contextual perception networks are otherwise unreachable, and often

entirely unknown to exist. 4/15/2005 Question Networks, continued...

Abductive reasoning: When does a function discover or prove an axiom?

What metric makes analogy recognizable? Do recursive lexicons have the

potential for infinite macro-scale growth? Do they have the potential

for infinite micro-scale growth? Or will they all be governed primarily

by the initial categories? Form networks of questions to gain valuable

perspectives on topical and problem data. Model question engines in a

careful evolutionary goal manner with substainability and capability and

necessity as the primary objectives. Map the spectrum of inquiry.

Expectations->Intentions->Experimentatio

combinations)->Dependency Chart Gaps and Representation

Gaps->Formulation of questions incorporating "known" data. 5/4/2005

Answers We're surrounded by answers, but they're all meaningless and

often impossible to even detect without knowing at least some of the

questions that they are derived from. Without this question/answer

connection, there is no consciousness, awareness would not exist.

Copyright 5/10/2005 Justin Coslor Re-defining basic question

thought-forms: Why? = Is there a reason for how this came to be, and

what is it? What? = The existence of this shall be called by a name that

needs to be defined, and we are inquiring about that. When? = This

occurred or shall occur at what time and day? How? = By what process

does this function? Notice that I had to use "what" in every one of

these (except I tried not to use "what" in it's own definition, which

was difficult). Therefore "what" is the most important thought form to

focus on. "What" is the algebraic domain of the relation "that", or

"this", or "these", or "those"; and the range is unknown, and is

entirely unbounded. "That", is a pointer to a specific instance of

something in existence (whether it be in physical or Platonic reality).

The difference between Platonic objects and physical objects is that

Platonic objects are just pointers to other pointers, whereas physical

objects are pointers that point to themselves in a loop. Physical

objects can bound and/or link (like a chain) other physical objects

because if we geometrize the representation of the pointers we have

physics, since the pointers loop. We exist partially in physical

reality, and partially in Platonic reality since we can make conversions

between the two. It's like the difference between particles and waves.

Copyright 6/17/2005 Justin Coslor Question Networks: Option questions

v.s. spectrum questions

A lot of ambiguity is in every question. For instance, if you asked

a question today you'd get one answer most likely, but if you asked that

same question 10,000 years from now you'd probably get a much different

answer. The scope of a question can be narrow or it cana be wide. With a

narrow scope, a question might be a basic question that can be modified

by many options, or it can be a bunch of cases, as in specific

questions. Those are option questions. They lay out perspective question

options.

When the scope is very general or comprehensive of a lot of

possibilities, then it is a spectrum question because it is intended to

explore a range of possibilities that are within the same domain. Option

questions seek to explore multiple questions that are not necessarily of

the same domain. Copyright 5/25/2005 Justin Coslor Question expectation

templates and question context intersections

Questions contain an expectation template of the kind or class of

answers that thet inquisitor is looking for. Often times though, the

answers that are found or generated, or the answers that are of the most

use, do not match the question's expectation template. Often times,

answers that ar suitable cannot be derived or located until the question

is elaborated, generalized, or otherwise modeled using different

representation, such as analogical equivalencies of its objects,

objectives, contexts, and relations.

Every question is the intersection of several contexts, where behind

the scenes, each context has its own unique expectation template; such

as: - 1. The type of question: who, what, where, when, why, how, and its

structure and methods. - 2. The semantic purpose of the question

indicated by the question's structure: to define a context, to define a

pattern or variable property, to state an open-ended knowledge structure

and indicate the unknowns and data access points, to explore a domain or

a range, etc. Or to state facts alongside the question, to indicate

expectation parameters of the answer(s). - 3. The setting of the

question is object(s) and relation(s). Associated objects and relations

can be explicit or implied, but does result in expectation parameters. -

4. The existential time frame or solidity or transitory frame cycle of

the question's objects and relations in regard to their setting is

another context involved in definitive consideration of answer

expectation parameters. - 5. - 6. . . etc. There may be many more

foundational contexts that intersect in the formation and existence of

every question. Copyright 5/24/2005 Justin Coslor Question asking

systems Question -> Perception of meaning of question -> Search and

answer retrieval -> answer formulation -> interpretation of answer. In

short, QUESTION -> ANSWER(S).

The more methods of knowledge representation that are available to

model the perception of the meaning of the question, the more depth and

breadth the search scope will have in the answer retrieval process, and

the experimental data combining buffer will have more possibilities to

form experimental combination answers with. If the answers are

experimental, then they may need to be tested or proven valid. Not all

valid answers are useful though, and not all questions can be modeled

accurately. Question-Answer systems and Question asking systems are

subject to priority systems, in their exploration of patterns in

contexts. Every question or series of questions is a rough draft of the

question that will produce or point to the desired answer that contains

the right level of detail of suitable content. Copyright 5/10/2005

Justin Coslor Re-defining basic question thought-forms: Why? = Is there

a reason for how this came to be, and what is it? What? = The existence

of this shall be called by a name that needs to be defined, and we are

inquiring about that. When? = This occurred or shall occur at what time

and day? How? = By what process does this function? Notice that I had to

use "what" in every one of these (except I tried not to use "what" in

it's own definition, which was difficult). Therefore "what" is the most

important thought form to focus on. "What" is the algebraic domain of

the relation "that", or "this", or "these", or "those"; and the range is

unknown, and is entirely unbounded. "That", is a pointer to a specific

instance of something in existence (whether it be in physical or

Platonic reality). The difference between Platonic objects and physical

objects is that Platonic objects are just pointers to other pointers,

whereas physical objects are pointers that point to themselves in a

loop. Physical objects can bound and/or link (like a chain) other

physical objects because if we geometrize the representation of the

pointers we have physics, since the pointers loop. We exist partially in

physical reality, and partially in Platonic reality since we can make

conversions between the two. It's like the difference between particles

and waves... Copyright 5/11/2005 Justin Coslor Writing Tips

When I want to write, to figure out what to write I try to figure

out a priority system, where I aim to invent the most important new idea

that I'm either interested in (topically) or that is very important but

that is only interesting enough to write down for somebody else to

explore. Once I've focused on a topic I start asking questions and map

it out and associate it to other areas and build networks of questions

and answers and arbitrary data.

I have to feel like writing and be relaxed and well hydrated

(slightly caffeinated helps), and it's best when I'm thinking at my best

(not bogged down by emotions) I don't consider this entry an "idea"

since I feel awful and am terribly lonely and depressed and have

heartburn at the moment. I write best when I'm either really really

happy (a bipolar high), or really really depressed (a bipolar low).

10/20/2004 Justin Coslor Regarding Education

If people could be taught first how to learn on their own, and next

how to find and update their sources of information and resources, and

then be taught creative and consistent logic and how to interact in

their chosen forums of discourse, along with some skills as to how they

can negotiate their insights and nurtured talents for wellbeing and

non-harmful prosperity to an extent limited to what they can

successfully and comfortably manage without bloating into the arena of

greed or ill- intent; then they would have a great potential for doing a

lot of good in the world and in the happiness of their daily lives.

Lives lived purposefully. 10/28/2004 Justin Coslor It's important to be

semi-autonomous rather than being just another domino. Copyright

6/1/2005 Justin Coslor Choice

Choice depends on having recognized options to choose from. The

availability of options depends on a system of awareness, and the

explorative mapping of solution spaces and/or experimentally created

generation. Also an evaluation system or metric is necessary for the

selection process to pick a suitable option. The initiation of choice

can be voluntary or forced; and it can be activated out of necessity, or

independently. Copyright 5/31/2005 Justin Coslor Creativity

Creative processes start out with a chosen medium, and then a random

process is activated that generates a lot of possibilities, then it is a

matter of choosing the best or most desirable possibilities and

elaborating on them and linking them. That is what creativity means to

me. The creator may also have several goals or requirements in mind, and

be aware of juggling prerequisites. Copyright 5/28/2005 Justin Coslor

Intuitions

Intuitions are sequences of inspiration, and are part possibility

thinking, part logical thinking, and part random chance phenomenon.

Intuitive truth requires proof. Copyright 8/13/2005 Justin Coslor Ideas

and Probabilities

Ideas change probabilities, and ideas come from experimentation:

search, sort, and shuffle (grouping and storing patterns in contexts).

Ideas guide courses of action and affect expectations, of which

reactions are based on, and those are some of the probabilities ideas

can change, but they can also pave the way for new systems and

developments.

Intentions guide experimentation, and logic guides methodology.

Axioms define logic and modes of proof. Innate programming (instinct)

and use of methodology in real-time guides intentions.

Useful ideas change contexts dramatically, and in doing so, many of

the patterns in those contexts are able to form lots of new associations

and possibilities. The most sweeping ideas are at the axiom level, and

as new axioms are added, contexts expand and develop greater depth and

greater interconnectivity.

--------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

--------------------------------------

### Book 1 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

----------------------

Book I:

Patterns In Contexts

----------------------

8/25/2005 Stuff that occurred to me while going through some of my

old journal entries (about eight pages worth).

8/22/2005 Numbers & Patterns Across Contexts

5/1/2005 Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations

8/24/2005 Properties

8/24/2005 Patterns In Contexts: Neural Nets As Priority Systems

10/8/1999 Patterns In Contexts: a computational model for representing

information metaphorically through abductive reasoning

8/5/2005 Augmenting Ideas: Generating New Perspectives on Information

8/6/2005 Epistemology Systems

5/23/2005 Some definitions for Patterns In Contexts Theory

8/2/2005 Cliff Partitions

5/23/2005 Object-oriented processing

5/27/2005 Simulated Models and Utility Axioms

5/22/2005 Operation Spaces continued - Tomographic Data Structures

5/21/2005 Operation Spaces: Grids V.S. Networks

5/14/2005 Key axioms and branch axioms in pattern collections

11/7/2004 Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets

9/23/2004 Am I reinventing the wheel?

8/20/2004 Programming

8/4/2005 Programming Languages

9/22/2004 Patterns In Contexts Cognition Kernel

6/13/2004 Complexity

6/5/2004 Linker Patterns

5/31/2004 Patterns In Contexts Cognition

9/7/2000 Knowledge Mining

7/13/2005 Pattern Occurances

7/5/2005 ePIC Goal Representation

6/3/2005 Cross-Domain Relations in Analogical Relations

6/3/2005 Patterns In Context and Question Asking Systems for

Object-Oriented Programming

5/30/2005 Complexity Progressions

9/7/2004 Metaphoric Operations on Patterns Across Contexts

8/23/2004 Information Theory Quotes

12/25/2004 Metaphoric Operations

1/9/2005 Visual Dictionaries and Axiomatic Abductive Simulation

8/7/2005 Patterns In Contexts: 3D Engine

1/9/2005 Graphical Representation and Visual Heuristics

7/20/2005 Creativity & Understanding

7/17/2005 Concepts

7/8/2005 Measurement Systems

7/2/2005 Re-contextualized Patterns

6/25/2005 Observing patterns and differences

6/24/2005 Patterns Matching

6/20/2005 Remote-Controlled Contexts Via Pre-Processor Switchboards

6/12/2005 Definitions

6/5/2005 Geometric Abstractions

6/4/2005 Index of Topics

6/4/2005 Abstraction

6/3/2005 Analogical Recursions

5/25/2005 Implicit V.S. Explicit Knowledge

5/16/2005 Analogy, Metaphor, and Examples

5/4/2005 Sight

4/25/2003 Computer Vision

5/6/2005 Rules Are Behavioral Expectations

1/7/2005 Categories: Part 1

11/7/2004 Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets

9/12/2004 Some Thoughts on Information Theory

10/22/2004 Some Methods of Proof

8/12/2004 Axiom Notes

6/8/2004 Contexts

6/5/2004 Perception

8/10/2005 Perception -- continued from 6/5/2004....

5/17/2003 A.I. Notes

10/20/2004 Mission Statement

----------------------

Book I:

Patterns In Contexts

----------------------

Copyright 8/25/2005 Justin Coslor

Stuff that occurred to me while going through some of my old journal entries

(about eight pages worth).

Analogies mimic patterns across contexts via cross-domain relations.

That's the basis of Analogical Reasoning. Every pattern in every context

is unique to the properties and axioms of the contexts they exist in.

I've written this book without doing a lick of research or reading

(except where indicated on a few entries), as an experiment to see if I

could generate some new foundations of knowledge and understanding. Some

experts say I succeeded.

A symmetry is an example of an internal algebra. Unique symmetries are

atomic repetitions, and are the simplest form of patterns, distinct from

perceptually apparently random chaos. (I don't believe in ultimate

randomness).

Analogical mimicing results in similar, yet distinctly different patterns.

All truth is but an approximation of a deeper truth. Understanding is

subject to computational complexity of the perceiver and the data forms and

content perceived.

Knowledge is the quest of discovery, and understanding is the growth of

the perceiver. It's how possibilities happen through careful navigation.

There are no dead ends.

Mark fundamental landmark differences in analogically mimiced patterns,

for possible classification category augmentations (for navigation and

data retrieval purposes). Beware of oversimplification of data streams

in order to fit a pattern into a perceptual mold.

Even if my ideas overlap with existing knowledge, they provide a new way

of understanding that knowledge, and that is valuable because my ideas

are not based on mimicry since I haven't studied topics related to them

much (except a college philosophy course and K-13 math). These ideas

exist for the most part in their own context. They can be no doubt eventually

be linked to ideas in other contexts though. Lexicons can often be linked to

external contexts.

Copyright 8/22/2005 Justin Coslor

Numbers & Patterns Across Contexts

Metaphorically speaking, prime numbers are injective and composite numbers

are surjective, when translating functions from one context to another.

Similarly, single-repetition patterns are injective and composite

patterns are surjective, when translating relations from one context to

another. This is an essential part of analogical reasoning.

Copyright 5/1/2005 Justin Coslor

Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations.

(See diagram.)

1. All variables have properties.

2. All properties are independent of their variable's context(s).

3. All properties have some combination of qualitative relations,

quantitative relations, existential locations, and existential

conditions.

4. Every variable exists within a context and can vary

from context to context.

5. Contexts are composed of networks of patterns, patterns are composed of

networks of variables, and variables are composed of networks of properties.

6. Information can be represented as patterns in contexts, and in that way it

can be represented metaphorically through analogical reasoning and abductive

reasoning. Relations of various kinds, location(s), and condition(s) (apon and

of) exist at all of the various levels, and those are the data access

points.

As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby declare it

universally free for use and modification, except I don't condone it's

use in weapon systems or for deception of any kind. This legal agreement

cannot be modified ever, and all modifications of this logic and/or data are

bound by this same agreement. You may sell applications and/or services that

use this logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself

and you may not try to prevent others from understanding or using the

logic in any way except if they try to use it for deception or military

weapon applications. Sincerely, Justin Coslor. May 1st, 2005.

Copyright 8/24/2005 Justin Coslor

Properties

These are first-level definitions of some useful kinds of properties, any of

which can be networked together to create relations and variables and

patterns and contexts that may exist in physical and/or platonic reality:

----------------------------------

* qualitative identifiers: Categorical names and cross-references.

* qualitative factors: Qualitative pieces of composite patterns.

* quantitative identifiers: Cardinalities (orderings), scalers, and surjective

equalities.

* quantitative factors: Representational methods of measurement of dimension

sets.

* states: Observable distinct configurations that mark and increment step

counts.

* conditions: Dependencies that distinctly configure each state.

* cycle counts: A tally that is increased with each repetition of a process.

* recursions: A self-defined process or network (an internal algebra), or a

function that calls itself.

* repetitions: An algebra, atomic elements that repeat, composite patterns

that repeat, or symmetries.

* activity level: The number of cycles per step (positive, negative, random,

or null).

* step counts: A tally that is increased as conditions of each state

transition is reached.

* location: A place in a memory grid where identifiable data is stored.

* positions: The sequence coordinates of variable in N-dimensional orderings.

* orientations: The perspective that data maps are observed from: This may be

contextual, or spatially framed position maps, and perspectives may even

have translation conditions of their own.

------------------------

As you can see, activity level is just one kind of property, and priority

systems such as neural nets can be based on that property. Other kinds

of systems can be based on other properties.

------------------------

* Relations are the juxtaposition of infrastructures, which result in an

output.

Copyright 8/24/2005 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Contexts: Neural Nets As Priority Systems

Neural nets are essentially priority systems for allocating and

de-allocating priorities of networked elements such as variables on a grid.

Each network can be considered a context, and can be said to be a network of

patterns composed of variables and relations. If the patterns are

functions, then the priority of each pattern determines the level of activity

(cycles per step) of each pattern's function(s).

Some priority level results in a random level of activity, and the other

priority levels result in either positive levels of activity, negative

(reverse) levels of activity, and an undefined priority setting results

in no activity.

Example:

Context: ABCDEFG * R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8 == a network of patterns (see diagram).

Where each pattern == (a variable)(a relation Rn), and the level of activity

of each pattern is:

(undefined, -3, -2, -1, random, 1, 2. 3)(a variable)(a relation Rn),

and the activity level determines how many cycles per step that the

relation Rn operates on the variable, and the pattern it is linked

to. These values could be anything, this is just an example.

Activity level is one type of property of the variable.

***Variables are composed of networks of properties.

***Patterns are composed of networks of variables and relations.

***Contexts are composed of networks of patterns and relations to other

contexts. Properties can be things like qualitative and quantitative

identifiers and factors, states, conditions, cycle counts, recursions

and repetitions, activity level (cycles per step), step counts, locations,

positions, orientations, etc.

Patterns in Contexts:

a computational model for representing information metaphorically

through abductive reasoning.

All ideas herein are Copyright by Justin Coslor on their respective dates.

These notes are a progression of the concepts in the order they occured to me.

10/8/99 Invent a digital method or circuit (fast physical algorithm) for

mimicking a pattern. Do it by modeling the pattern's relationships

metaphorically (as a metaphor of existing memory or experience).

If circular reasoning is involved, what is the least experience or innate

memory required to start the circular reasoning engine?

Topic: Circular reasoning engines (in logic and computation).

11/19/1999 The definitive nature of knowledge. This occured to me as a

pseudo-sophomore at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA USA.

(It's a first draft so please forgive it's sketchyness.)

All knowledge=information, which can be represented as metaphors. Metaphors

are applied to specific contexts and general contexts=multiple contexts.

A. All knowledge is metaphors applied to >= 1 context.

B. A metaphor is a set of associations (links, patterns) that can or is

applied to a context.

A single context...A single specific context...general/nonspecific contexts.

C. A context is a set of restrictions (restrictions on information,

associations, links, patterns, sometimes even contexts).

Therefore the statement A is equivalent to this statement:

"Each piece of knowledge is a set of associations that can be applied to >= 1

set(s) of restrictions."

The use of this I had in mind is to make a computer software that could

understand and manipulate (and maybe even apply) metaphors. Many other ideas

occurred to me today too, possibly due to doing yogi breathing and meditation

exercises and taking vitamins since my health had been suffering.

10/31/2003 Epistemology Framework for Artificial Intelligence "Patterns in

Contexts" continued...

* A pattern is a collection of symmetries, where each partition section of

data of every symmetry in the collection corresponds to another partition

section of data in that collection, or sometimes corresponds to a piece

or pieces of data in another collection (or other collections) which may or

may not be part of a similar symmetry in that other collection.

If data has recognizable features, it is a pattern. Repetition is what

makes a symmetry, and is what makes a pattern's features recognizable.

Unique partition sections of data are the atomic elements that a pattern's

features are composed of. A symmetry is a type of repetition,

but a repetition isn't always a symmetry (see metaphor definition below).

* A context is a map of patterns within (thus bounded by) either a set or

stream of data in which other patterns are ignored or are not apparent.

Or a context bounded by a larger pattern than the map itself

(which itself is a pattern that may or may not be part of the larger pattern),

such as the ordinal of the map or a pattern larger than the boundaries

of the scope. There can be many parallel streams, waves, or sets of data

in, traveling through, across, or around the self-updating mapping of

patterns which is chosen to be the context.

Sometimes the corrresponding partitions of data that make up a repetition

are translated by some pattern with each iteration, such as in a methaphor.

Yet similarity remains apparent (identifyable by some means).

Again, I believe that information is patterns in contexts, and that

information is metaphoric in nature. Tip: If confused by this write-up

of my premise, try reading the sentence in reverse order then back through

again.

11/24/2003

Information is a symphony of symbolism and symmetry.

12/23/2003

Information, by it's very nature, is a division. Yet it strives to become

whole again, and at the very least, to become balanced.

4/7/2004 Category Theory: Abductive context changing using identified

metaphoric patterns. Some dimension additions for alternating or specializing

the application of a pattern or set of patterns:

- Location

- Relative rate, relative timeline framework

- Newly recognized relations found under sequential and parallelly recursive

brute force and intuitively adaptive experimental logic search strategies --

Yields hypothetical considerations which can be temporally prioritized and

recursively checked and updated from state to state and organized

intelligently by current 1. depth, 2. branch size, 3. branch cardinality

(alpha-numeric, etc), 4. task growth rate, and 5. average task completion rate

(for scaling computability).

When you figure out why a variable is a variable in a particular way, that

understanding becomes a new relation to consider, which in effect and affect

either increases or decreases the dimensionality of the variable's context.

Some dimensions that are added usually increase task completion rate (such as

specialization) other dimensions that ar added usually increase task growth

rate (such as broadening the context or broadening the number of class

categories to consider). Generalization can in some cases merge categories,

classes, and/or contexts, or blur them for simplicity, and can increase or

decrease completion rate.

Generalization is useful for experimentation.

All truth is but an approximation of a deeper truth.

A pattern is like a function, and a context is like a field.

Each has relations, variables (when thought of metaphorically),

and often the potential for variations and unconsidered variables of

dimensionality.

5/15/2004

A working definition of the mystery of consciousness might be ascribed to the

interplay between 1. perspective, 2. priorities, 3. intentions, and

4. awareness; all of which depend on the flexibility, state, and mechanisms of

belief held by the subject.

5/16/2004

My data symmetry section analysis technique for perception through patterns in

contexts may be able to play a key role in automating axiom and theorem

discovery for any given context (i.e. contexts such as the integers, the

reals, wavefield analysis, map data, behavioral intention charts,

language/speech modeling and representation, transform sequences, etc.).

Any pattern discovered within a particular context can be applied to any of

the known axioms and theorems of that context, and patterns that are

discovered can sometimes be related to undiscovered axioms in that context.

Anytime an axiom or theorem is discovered in a context, the entire context is

redefined (as well as its subcontexts), and in doing so, its scope is

narrowed. Choose -> Search -> Experiment -> Classify -> Test -> Prove.

Choose/define context -> search for patterns -> searchfor patterns that relate

discovered patterns -> postulate a classification for each discovered

relation.

For each relation, if a classification category does not exist that

closely matches the relation, then further experimentation, context choosing

(add and/or subtract context dimensions), and pattern searching must be done,

starting with the characteristics of all partially matched categories, until

an accurate or exact classification or category definition can be derived.

After the relation's category is realized, search for more examples of that

relation and derrive a proof of it. If the relation can be proven to be

applicable to all patterns in a given context and all subsets of that context,

it can be said to be an axiom of that context.

8/3/2004

Context can be thought of as a network as well as a shell that encompasses

abstract nodes. The context of a set is merely its powerset, that is, until

relations ar applied. I don't believe in randomness, but I do believe that

some contexts are larger or deeper than the scope of our perceptions.

8/4/2004

A context can also be thought of as a network of patterns, or even the network

of relations that tlinks patterns. But when relations are applied to a

context, it becomes an organism. An organism that is capable of translation

(metaphoric operations), modification (adaptationn), division

(duplication/reproduction/partitioning, and/or growth and association with

other contexts.

8/5/2004

There are patterns, and they exist within and between/across contexts, and

there are relations that act as reasoning engines that operate on the systems

of patterns and contexts.

Patterns can have analogue distortion, digital distortion, or metaphoric

distortion. Contexts can be approximations of larger contexts, and

elaborations or extensions of smaller contets or extensions of other contexts

in general There can be relatively unique (somewhat unique, minimal

commonality) patterns and contexts. Note: the word "commonality" is based on

the greek root "monality", which is the "commonality" of the prime numbers.

Each prime number is a "co-monality." This can be visualized in terms of

geometry, to some extent. Every prime number is balanced, and is symmetrical,

and contains a unique number of dimensions, which are also unique kinds

of dimensions. Patterns and contexts and relations can also be symmetry pieces

of other patterns and contexts and relations, regardless of whether or not

they are distorted in any given state or piece or part or linkage.

8/30/2004

Every context is founded on its own set of axioms and theorems, and adding an

axiom to or from a context's foundation fundamentally changes the context

profoundly, yet some structures may remain un-affected.

(*Note many of these notes may become invalid or ridiculous as you read more,

so mental filtering may be necessary.)

8/23/2004

This is a quote from my journal.

""Metaphor" is a relational model of recursion, where the circular

reasoning (in recursive definitions & recursive functions) cross-relates

the elements of definitions & functions from multiple (or different)

contexts. That is why cross-domain relations are so crucial to the metaphoric

representation of knowledge and knowledge systems (logics)."

8/26/2004

"I also believe that information is metaphoric in nature (has algebraic

interconnectivity), and that it can be represented as a composition of

patterns in contexts, where the contexts themselves can be patterns, and the

atomic elements of each pattern are composed of symmetry sections

(partitiopns of data, where each partition is part of a local or dislocated

repetition (a symmetry, and algebra)). And it is only through the repetition

of a data section that part of a pattern can become recognizable from

apparently random white noise. Randomness and white noise are probably

patterns that are larger than the scope of our perceptions, so the data

appears random.

And I say that metaphors can be represented geometrically because all of

the prime numbers (the balance points in the universe) are symmetrical when

represented geometrically, and it is likely through primarily symmetrical

sensory and cognitive structures that our minds can interpret information.

And I think of metaphors not as A=B, but more like the similarity of the

juxtaposition of A's elements in the context of B, and B's elements in

the context of A, in terms of general systems theory.

I equate truth with workable patterns that become more and more refined

and defined as they get used. I believe that all truth that we are capable

of perceiving is but a small approximation of the whole truth. And that

the truth/patterns that we are capable of using is often subject to perception

within varying contexts. But there seem to exist connections between

information none-the-less, through whatever means. Possibly since (in my

opinion) everything came from oneness)."

9/13/2004

Scope & Context -> Boundaries and Restrictions/Limitations

Class -> Purpose

Type -> Syntax

Pattern Definitions -> Semantics

Data Element Groups -> Configurations (Data Maps & Dependencies)

9/22/2004 Patterns in Contexts Cognition Kernal

Database -> Metabase -> Context Rotator -> Experiment Application Field

Expandable

Adaptable

Translatable

Summarizable subjectively/objectively

======>

Metaphoric Linkers

Patterns Toolkit

Augmentation Socket Parameters

Analysis Scope Dimensionality

of (Input/Internal perspective "eyes")

Geometry & quantitative & qualitative properties of simultaneous interrupts

and their instantaneous functional interrelations and interactions

across multivariate sequence states (such as time & symmetry equivalencies).

*Every set state is but an approximation of the possible combinatorial

translations.

11/20/2004 Epistemology thoughts on Metaphor Abduction

Metaphors hide cross-domain relations between generalized nouns,

adjectives, and systems within a semi-subjective context of perspective.

The descriptive mappings of metaphors and multi-layered metaphoric operations

are generallymore foundational than their analogical counterparts, as the

metaphoric objects and relational context is generalized (from set, type, and

categorical specifics), which simplifies the computational complexity of the

models' qualitative factors, and provides new bases for consideration and

re-application of data, relations, and knowledge. Metaphor generation provides

the architectural basis and objective of considering newe relations and data

experimentatiopn for deriving and arriving at new models of understanding.

data --> context unknown

patterns --> hypothetical contexts

relations --> categorical context parsing

metaphoric relations --> cross-domain functions across contexts

specific knowledge --> contextual scope focusing/narrowing

analogies --> applies metaphoric relations to different examples of specific

knowledge for partial transitivity

new knowledge --> modifies existing contexts to incorporate new axioms.

4/6/2005 Prioritization and choice in decision systems

(Part of a reasoning engine.)

----------------------

New action (such as prioritization or actual action)

^---^

Evaluaction ->criteria

^---^

outcome

^---^

choice

^---^

initiative factor(s)

^---^

prioritization

^---^

evaluation-->criteria

^---^

possibilities

----------------

4/24/2005

Inventing industries with patterns in contexts

What the world needs more of in order to support the ever rising

population levels, is more industries. An entire industry can be created

simply by developing a new kind of alagorithm, or an algorithm that creates a

niche for people to fill with services or products.

**********************

An algorithm can be developed by applying an axiom to a new context.

**********************

This may require forming or describing a new context or kind of context, with

intentions and expectations and attributes or properties in mind, as axoms are

chosen and adapted to make that possible. Theorems can then be derived from

those axioms, that are specific to that context, and when possible, they can

be metaphorically related to theorems in other contexts. This is the basis for

the patterns in contexts model for creating new information. It relates

directly to abductive reasoning, analogical reasoning, and cross-domain

relations.

Axioms depend on which dimensions they can exist in and apply to.

For they are the links that connect different dimensions, parts of dimensions,

and sets of dimensions, with the goal of unique lowest-terms representation.

Usually they incorporate at least some implicit knowledge or material

structure in their model.

Copyright 5/1/2005 Justin Coslor

Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations.

(See diagram.)

1. All variables have properties.

2. All properties are independent of their variable's context(s).

3. All properties have some combination of qualitative relations, quantitative

relations, existential locations, and existential conditions.

4. Every variable exists within a context and can vary from context to

context.

5. Contexts are composed of networks of patterns, patterns are composed of

networks of variables, and variables are composed of networks of properties.

6. Information can be represented as patterns in contexts, and in that way it

can be represented metaphoricly through analogical reasoning and abductive

reasoning. Relations of various kinds, location(s), and condition(s) (apon and

of) exist at all of the various levels, and those are the data access points.

As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby declare it

universally free for use and modification, except I don't condone it's use in

weapon systems or for deception of any kind. This legal agreement cannot be

modified ever, and all modifications of this logic and/or data are bound by

this same agreement. You may sell applications and/or services that use this

logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself and you may

not try to prevent others from understanding or using the logic in any way

except if they try to use it for deception or military weapon applications.

Sincerely, Justin Coslor. May 1st, 2005.

Copyright 8/5/2005 Justin Coslor

Augmenting Ideas: Generating New Perspectives on Information

Today in the 61C Cafe I was talking to my friend Jason Bacasa telling him

about how I come up with ideas. Besides keeping an ever growing network of

questions in the back of my mind, I take a topic or generate a topic by

combining keywords, and then think about how that topic is typically

represented, then I try to epistemologically dissect that representation and

then rebuild the content using different, if not more foundational

contextualization of those concepts. Then I go off on a tangent exploring the

most interesting parts by associating other concepts, patterns, contexts,

and operations to the new representation of the concepts in the original

topic.

It is often very valuable to have alternative representations of ideas

and concepts and topics because each representation can yield a useful

perception. If there is any word sense ambiguity, or use of metaphor,

then each alternative representation can yield many perceptions, each of

which could uncover previously unseen or unconsidered aspects of the topics,

ideas, and concepts. So in the end, exploring and mapping out alternative

representations of concepts, ideas, and topics is a way to augment their

knowledge base, by generating new perspectives on the information, which

can generate entirely new contexts, which can generate entirely new

knowledge bases, by treating all information metaphorically. People are

currently very good at metaphoric interpretation and analogical reasoning.

Computer programs currently are not. It's the next step towards

computational methods of abductive (round-about scenic-route) reasoning.

Anyway, Jason said I should make a program that does what I do, i.e.:

a program that recontextualizes information from different perspectives

of association, sort of like a choose-your-own-adventure story, but more like

a choose-your-own-perspective program. Like a computer program that generates

alternative representations of ideas, topics, and concepts. Or even more

generally, a computer program that generates alternative representations of

patterns (thoughtforms) in a variety of contexts (settings).

Copyright 8/6/2005 Justin Coslor

Epistemology Systems

Categories, and complete dictionaries as foundations. Quantified objects

(and systems) can be juxtaposed into relations that balance alternative

representations of objects and systems via a structural or syntactic

methodology that acts as a transformation into some of the possible

alternative representations of the quantified objects and systems.

Algebras as alternative representations of information. Algebras can

rename, or point to representations of information, as well as interconnect

and dissect informational objects and systems. All objects and systems

are named.

Simulations, recontextualizations, and "polymachines" as alternative

models of systems.

Proof is contextual, in other words: proof is dependent on perspective and

representation. In much larger contexts than the original context in which

something was proven, most "proof" becomes incomplete or uncompatible, and

sometimes even false if more foundational epistemological structures are

found to have been overlooked. Proof is complete, logically consistent

introspection of perceptions of concepts.

Any given proof is only applicable to specific axiom sets. I.E. a proof

based on one axiom set may be incomplete or uncompatible or even false in a

context composed of a different set of axioms. Therefore concepts must be

analogically translated into other contexts and their translations must be

formed concurrently with their proof validity in their new context, as a

best-fit categorical search procedure. The proof is a complete, concise

system, so the proof in it's new context can be considered to be a

polymachine, since it is an alternative representation of that system. A

polymachine is a set of cross-domain relations that operate on

analogically-matched patterns from an original context to a new context, and

represents an alternative form of a system in a different context.

Polymachines are created by inductive, deductive, or (in the case of

analogically translated proofs) abductive reasoning. Cross-domain relations

are relations that analogically match the domain of a relation in one context

to the domain of a relation in another context whose range approximates the

same infrastructure and quantitative parameters while leaving the qualitative

parameters categorically open-ended; they are a form of analogical reasoning.

Input Devices->Internal model buffer->Association and repetition

filter->Analysis/comparison engine->Perceptions on experience->Algebraic

Conceptualization->Character sets and dictionaries, or number systems and

axiom sets -> statements, arguments, inquiries, propositions, implications,

operations, filtrations, combinations, exegesis, dissertation, assignments,

contextualizations, templates, associations, compositions, dissections,

introspections, modifications, adaptations, introductions, translations,

transformations, distortion, refinement, recontextualization, proof,

mapping, search, buffering, sorting, indexing, encoding, decoding,

regulation, pattern formulation, trans-substantiation (joke), frollick.

Copyright 5/23/2005 Justin Coslor

Some definitions for patterns in contexts theory

Metaphoric objects are informational objects defined by their

relational properties. In relational contexts, sub-contexts of each

property are independent of the application context. Qualitative factors

are computed by mapping and defining a lexicon of their properties.

Qualitative factors are reflective and algebraic usually. Quantitative factors

are computed by counting and performing materialistic operations on them,

and mapping them in that way. Quantitative factors are materialistic and

geometric usually.

Copyright 8/2/2005 to 8/3/2005 Justin Coslor

Cliff Partitions

Cliff partitions are perceptual references that distinguish deeply layered

patterns from surface patterns, much like a cliff wall bordering the ocean.

In the ocean, every couple of feet down an ocean wall is a new layer, much

like how layers of pixel groups can be laid out on a visual canvas, with some

stacked up several layers high on an edge.

Cliff partitions are essential markers of where a topology has a steep

slope that may or may not be an overhanging awning above a hidden hollow or

cave. In topology, cliff partitions are useful for analyzing the depth

perception of a view.

In linguistics, cliff partitions may indicate a sentence that is placed in

the wrong order, or it may indicate a sudden change of topic, or a jump from

one perspective of a context to a deeper or more superficial depth of

perspective of that same context. Cliff partitions in linguistics may also

indicate the boundaries of a given context, where one context ends and another

begins. Cliff partitions are only conceptual perceptual references in

linguistic domains, as writers and speakers linearly paint a nonlinear

picture with their words.

Copyright 5/23/2005 Justin Coslor

Object-oriented processing

Grids (a.k.a. manifolds), networks, and gridded networks all can house

patterns in contexts of information data sectors as the representation of

knowledge (knowledge is information that contains meaning). Grids, networks,

and gridded networks are materialistic operation spaces for knowledge

representation, whereas the notion of "patterns in contexts" are the Platonic

operation spaces that form the meaning behind the scenes on the materialistic

operation spaces. Identifying the representation of knowledge in an operation

space as "patterns in contexts" and specifying the details allows us to work

with the information in an object-oriented manner.

Copyright 5/27/2005 Justin Coslor

Simulated Models and Utility Axioms

If a network or grid is composed of N elements, then it is capable of

simulating every possible permutation of those elements by forming internal

networks and sub-networks (& grids). Grid networks allow for an infinite

number of combinations to be simulated though, but only some simulations are

of any use. Maybe there are utility axioms that can be defined to tell us what

classes of models contain useful representations. It seems like some factors

that might determine whether or not a model is useful would be:

1. Compatibility with existing useful models.

2. Novel representation or novel perspective.

3. Incorporation of new information.

4. Novel capability.

5. Ability to link two or more other models together.

6. Ability to prune other models.

There may be many more factors directly related to evaluating the worthiness

of a model. Simulation allows for recontextualization of models and problems

and systems.

Copyright 5/22/2005 Justin Coslor

Operation Spaces continued - Tomographic Data Structures

In the gridded network system, as described previously, a multidimensional

array is built between selection of nodes in a network, where elements of this

array can be used to build internal networks between the primary node anchors

of the array, or between other nodes in other networks --as in cross-domain

relations. This process can repeat to an infinite depth, in the order of

network node to array anchor to array node to tomographic network to

cross-domain relation network to array grid, cyclically. This is a way of

creating tomographic data structures of an infinite depth and of infinite

permutations, due to the potential for infinite depth, all without adding any

extra primary nodes. Every array element and every node represents a relation

to or between their anchors or parent nodes.

Copyright 5/21/2005 Justin Coslor

Operation Spaces: Grids V.S. Networks

Rows and columns and layers are dimensions of a grid, but dimensions can

also be parts of an N-dimensional array. Each of the dimensional intersections

form a unique partition that relates or is categorized by it's parent sets'

position along their own sequences. So in this way, elemenets on a grid

(i.e. in an array) come from multiple parents, wheras elemenets in a network

can often come from only one parent (an injective branch). However, in some

networks, such as where a planar geometry can exist by the interconnection of

more than two nodes, multiple parents can be a grid of subspaces between the

nodes on the plane that they make, and in those subspaces multivariable

position and quantized quality relations can be said to exist, that are

anchored to multiple origin points (each vertex be treated as an origin,

and angles between them only serve to define the partitioning of the planar

grid). I'll call this kind of transformation of a network "a subspace grid

of vertices". Maybe this combination of a grid network can enhance the

operation space by making any nodes on a network able to be related to

eachother, in grid format, between particular data sections on the subspace

grid as well as between other primary nodes.

The other kind of operation space is the Swiss cheese like structure that

surrounds a subspace geometrized grid transformed network. The inner edge of

that space is where one context ends and other contexts may begin to exist.

Copyright 5/14/2005 Justin Coslor

Key axioms and branch axioms in pattern collections.

Patterns are composed of smaller parts, with the smallest parts being

repetitions of unique elements in which no sub-patterns are apparent; also,

these smallest parts exist and their repetitions make them algebraicly

recognizable due to certain axioms, which act as fundamental truths

(self-evident assumptions) for which no proof is said to be needed.

This being said, we can say that all patterns that are unique in some

manner must contain at least some unique axioms, and if we look at a

collection of basic patterns and determine what is unique about each one

and what is in common between them, and then figure out how those

similarities and differences ar ordered on an axiomatic level, we may discover

key axioms and branch axioms which can be represented in a nodal network

graph.

The value of this is that we can then understand, at the most basic level,

what makes a pattern exist, what makes a pattern recognizable and similar to

other patterns, and what makes a pattern unique.

We can use that understanding to select axioms suitable to generate a set

of patterns with a measurable degree of flexibility/adaptability, to use

in constructing a system of perception, similar to a painter mixing paints on

an artists pallete, while he mixes concepts in his mind's eye.

Copyright 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets:

If categorical names have been assigned to finite elements in a domain,

the rest of the data in the set can be hypothetically considered to be

relations or parts of relations (on those elements and elements not in that

buffered data set). Or they may be elements of categories you don't yet

recognize or know of yet.

9/23/2004 Justin Coslor

Am I reinventing the wheel?

Today while studying a diagrammatic map on "Can Computers Think?" that

Seth Casana gave me I learned of work that has already been done in Artificial

Intelligence that is very similar to some of the concepts that I came up with

on my own.

For instance, there has been work done in the area of making computer

software that can understand "analogies". That is very similar to my concept

of "metaphoric operations". Also, in 1989 in seems, Keith Holyoak and

Paul Thagard created ACME, which is a connectionist network that discovers

"cross domain analogical mappings." That soundsd just like my concept of

"cross domain relations for alternative route mathematics", that I have

written about prior to reading anything about it, and I came up with it all on

my own earlier this year. Here are some Analogy Systems:

Copycat - Douglas Hofstadter and Melanie Mitchell 1995.

SME - Brian Falkenhaimer, K. Forbus, and D. Gentner, 1990.

ACME - Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard, 1989.

8/20/2004 Justin Coslor

Programming

In the preface to the introductory computer programming book

"The Little Lisper" second edition ISBN 0-574-21955-2 it says: (that in LISP)

"the primary programming activity is the creation of (potentially) recursive

definitions." Now to me, that sounds like the main task (and goal) is to map

out and/or define patterns that are either finite or infinite and to put them

into a relational context that is capable of transforming incoming data

patterns by relating them to stored data patterns, so that the output can be

1. represented, 2. stored, and 3. used/manipulated. I believe this because

nothing is more recursive than a pattern (nothing is less recursive than a

pattern as well, except that which is totally random). Patterns always exist

within a context or contexts, otherwise they are not recognizable and look

like random garbage (see Godel's Theorems). On page vii it also says that

"LISP is the medium of choice for people who enjoy free style and flexibility.

LISP was initially conceived as a theoretical vehicle for recursion theory and

for symbolic algebra." (and likely Lambda Calculus & the EMACS environment for

Artificial Intelligence)... LISP syntax looks very similar to my old nonlinear

style of thought notation, with its parenthesis within parenthesis (which was

good for scaling depth on tangents and concept descriptions).

Copyright 8/4/2005 Justin Coslor

Programming Languages

"Programming languages are formal languages that have been designed

to express computations." - How to Think Like a Computer Scientist -

Java Edition

In other words, programming languages are mappings of balanced processes.

The flow of any kind of process can be mapped, if not only approximated by a

systematic contextualization of patterns and relations involved in the

process. Every system is like a state machine in motion, where the elements

and operators are encapsulated by their interconnectivity via

contextualization, which is a form of perspective of finite scope.

Formal languages have fully defined axioms, and are consistent and

complete in the mechanics of their methodology. But what is the methodology of

mappings of balanced processes in general? The universality concept applies to

them: they are consistent and complete because they are balanced about a tight

contextualization, where the interconnectivity of the process's elements acts

like a fulcrum (when thought of quantitatively), with no element left

unconnected. That's why patterns in any context can be transformed through

operations into different patterns, so long as there is a method of

representing both sets of patterns. The balance comes from having multiple

methods of representing each state of the elements in the process. The mapping

comes from being able to contextualize the processes, which is only possible

if the processes have finite scope, and are completely defined (thus

interconnected), and must be systematic (thus logically consistent) in

order to be precisely mappable with regularity throughout their states of

operation.

Copyright 9/22/2004 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Context Cognition Kernel

[Database]-> [Metabase]-> [Context Rotator]-> [Experiment Application Field]

-----------------------

The following are *a. Subjectively and *b. Objectively

1. Expandable,

2. Adaptable,

3. Translatable, &

4. Summarizable:

------------------------

Metaphoric Linkers

------------------------

Pattern Toolkit

------------------------

Augmentation Socket Parameters

------------------------

*Considerations:

-----------------

I. Analysis

II. Scope Dimensionality (of input/internal perspective "eyes")

III. Geometry & Quantitative & Qualitative properties of simultaneous

interrupts and their instantaneous functional interrelations and interactions

across multivariate sequence states (such as time & symmetry equivalences).

**Every set state is but an approximation of the possible combinatorial

translations.

Copyright 6/13/2004 Justin Coslor

Complexity

Commercial or proprietary software is surjective or injective, but free

open-source software is bijective.

Part of the FRDCSA Tutorial (Free Research Database Cluster Study and

Apply) on frdcsa.org says a blurb from an ACM paper about measuring the power

of a set of axioms in order to measure the information contained within the

set of theorems that can be deduced from those axioms. It says that one can

only get out of a axiom sets what one puts in. The paper says something like:

"If a set of theorems constitutes t bits of unique information, and the set of

axioms that the theorems are based on contains less than t bits of unique

information, then it is impossible to deduce those theorems from that set of

axioms."

My friend Andrew J. Dougherty of FRDCSA says that to understand the

general necessity of having more software, simply replace "theorems" with

"problems", and "axioms" with "programs", and "deduce" with "solve" in the

previous statement. Doing that we get: "If a set of problems constitutes t

bits of unique information, and a set of programs contains less than t bits of

unique information, then it is impossible to solve these problems using just

that set of programs. By "problems", I think he means "explicitly defined

problems", because an explicitly defined problem is a program that has yet to

be executed. Abduction may be necessary to define all of the elements and

operators of a problem in the process of turning a problem into a program.

I say, replace "theorems" with "context", and "axioms" with "patterns",

and "solve" with "create". This yields: "If a set of contexts constitutes t

bits of unique information, and the set of patterns that the contexts are

based on contains less than t bits of unique information, then it is

impossible to create those contexts from that set of patterns."

Copyright ?/5/2004 Justin Coslor

This is part of my method of knowledge representation for my

epistemological representation of artificial intelligence through Patterns in

Contexts. Contexts come from patterns that are combined. There can be patterns

noticed in the cross-examination of different contexts, but those "patterns"

are elements of a greater scope of context than any of the contexts being

cross-examined, that is to say, when those cross-context patterns are not

noticable when only examining any one of those contexts in relation to itself.

This method of knowledge representation may hopefully prove to be useful in

the abductive search for new axioms within and across representable contexts.

A context is represented by its systems of patterns (a.k.a. it's system of

axioms).

Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor

New patterns can be discovered by experimenting with data sets: analyzing

them in relation to metaphoric operations on other data sets. Metaphoric

operations are operations that translate, juggle, predict/locate, and/or

transform specified elements across specified contexts.

Copyright 6/7/2004 Justin Coslor

New metaphors can be discovered by combining axioms that come from

multiple number sets, orderings, and/or algebras. Metaphors are esoteric

relations. The application of a metaphoric operation on a data set sometimes

results in the discovery of new axioms through the new perspective's set of

relations brought about by the application of esoteric relations.

Metaphoric perception is all about cross-domain relations. This is because

the application of metaphors brings about both:

1. relations between the range of the metaphor and the range of all applicable

operations (operations of applications) of the data set, and

2. new cross-domain relations (new domain perspectives) for both the

operations of potentially all applications of the data set; and sometimes new

cross-domain relations and new ranges for the system and set of relations

that algebraically defines the metaphor (when applying the unmatched relations

that are not bijective of the operations of applications of the data set)

metaphorically (i.e. algebraicly to the metaphor).

Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor

Linker patterns

Linker patterns require both an observation buffer (that is at least of

equal size to the sum of the contexts to be linked), and linker patterns

require an operation buffer that is at least as big as the observation buffer

(though far larger is necessary for some observations, even though the amount

of data that ends up in the operation buffer may be far less, in some

instances, than the amount of data filtered out of the sum of the contexts

into the observation buffer).

Data gets filtered out of every applicable context by the linker

pattern's "filter specifications", right into the linker pattern's

observation buffer. Then the linker pattern's set of metaphoric patterns

operates on the observation buffer one at a time or in parallel, but inside

the operation buffer.

The linker pattern contains a set of metaphoric patterns whose elements

are referenced algebraically to the applicable data elements present in the

observation buffer for every possible metaphoric pattern combination present

in the linker pattern innately.

Metaphors which are algebraically a complete set of elements to

applicable/valid data elements are used in the observation buffer, then inside

the operation buffer they perform their calculation (translating, juggling,

and/or transforming of the data section by the metaphor) and the linker

pattern then places the output in an organized form (so it can be referenced

later), and those outputs are placed into a buffer called "the unified

context" of the original contexts. This "unified context" includes the linker

pattern's filter specifications and metaphor set that was used (i.e. the set

that was computable).

Linker patterns can duplicate themselves to divide up the work of

applying their metaphoric pattern sets to the observation buffers' data (and

they update each other with each successful operation).

Each linker pattern is like a mobile set of operators that copies select

groups of contexts and gives birth to unified contexts (which are new

contexts). It is each linker pattern's unique set of filter specifications

that differentiates one linker pattern from another.

New axioms and theorems that are found elsewhere and within each operation

are found and get added to the metaphor set after the valid discovered

patterns are provably generalized. They are placed in all of the linker

patterns.

Linker patterns can also update each other's set of metaphoric patterns by

sharing ones the other doesn't have, and copying new ones from the other.

The observation buffer performs general quantifier type matching.

Copyright 5/31/2004 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Context Cognition

A context is any specified number set, ordering, or system of numbers that

is representative of something (symbolic).

Take the desired outcome (the goal) and break it down into unique aspects.

Treat each aspect as an element of a context that contains it, or as an

element of several contexts that contain it. each element/aspect may have its

own unique context at first. We will be striving to find the pattern or

patterns that link all aspects of the goal into one context.

A "linker pattern" can be a linker of the contexts that each of the

elements of our goal exist within. Such a pattern links contexts together by

assigning a system of translating, juggling, predicting/locating, and/or

transforming the specified elements across their specified contexts.

This "linker pattern" is metaphoric, and can act as the "unified context" in

which we will search for the aspects of our goal, as well as search for

alternate routes to each of these aspects (for optimization).

After this experimental search has completed and an optimal cross-domain

relation search for shorter routes to each aspect has been completed, we will

have generated the optimal route map to our goal.

Cross-domain relations can also be thought of as possible associations, or

simply as patterns. They can very explicitly depict ambiguous relationships,

such as when they are used with graph theory. Cross-domain relations are

a little bit like surjective and bijective networks in logic but where two

domains lead to the same range in a number set, even when the domains come

from different contexts. They can also be thought of as alternative routes.

Cross-domain relations can be searched for that relate aspects of our goal

that are also aspects of goals that have different unified contexts than our

goal. It's important to mark the optimal routes out of the cross-domain

relations, but keep the other relations (possible routes) for use in future

goal structures. By linking multiple goals in this manner, we expand our

network of understanding.

Copyright 9/7/2000 Justin Coslor

Knowledge Mining

Maybe amassing huge intelligent databases that can draw conclusions and

make abstractions and predictions towards goals that can recognize & ask for

specific data it needs to output one or more units of truth, which could help

demystify fields of study and help major breakthroughs occur, if not by simply

abstracting and relating so much specific data and general patterns in so many

areas; to help bring everything to one's fingertips. A massively parallel

search and correlation engine:

The computer has to be able to understand a goal enough to figure out how

to better understand that goal, so that it can design it's own searches

(determine its own search criteria), and know what a conclusion would look

like and would require to be complete enough to make an abstraction.

What is the criteria of a conclusion? Is a conclusion just one particular

perspective in every situation? How can the perspective be intelligently

shifted and rotated in a search to generate and array of complimentary

conclusions? At what point does the difference in goals generate opposing

conclusions? (i.e. when do conclusions become apparently contradicting when

using the same set of data...) Taking this into account, what difference

in goals produces contradictory conclusions (perceptions) when searching

(parsing) intersecting sets of data?

Input something like a handbook of chemistry and physics, with a goal of

making valid correlations that are not a listed part of that original data

set. Start out with general patterns like input types, leading to language

semantic patterns, leading to patterns of contextual settings, leading to

metaphoric patterns between contexts, *leading to applications of the

generalized raw data to the metaphoric patterns, leading to generalized

predictions of the outcome of the previous step*, parsing the conclusions

listed in the raw data and matching it to the metaphoric mold (the pattern and

logic) that led the contained data elements (or equivalents) to that listed

conclusion. . .in short: enable the software to understand how the data

elements were led to the conclusion listed in the raw data, so that those

patterns (metaphoric molds or logic operations) can be understood enough to be

applied to the raw data in different permutations (ways) to uncover

conclusions of previously unconsidered possibilities. Those patterns and

derivation/discovery methods could also be used as a guide for designing

new patterns built from recombining the old patterns with unique data.

And since unique data almost always is unique due to its being composed of

at least some unique patterns; parsing the old (known) patterns from new

(unknown) patterns might make it easier to clarify what exactly the new

pattern is or at least how it operates (or at the very least, its function).

This is knowledge mining. . .One form of artificial intelligence.

Circular Reasoning:

I aught to look up the dictionary definition of a bunch of the key words

in this.. Hey, why not all of the words? A number could correspond to the

number of words the dictionary definition of each word had to reference

(on every level of the tree of lookup words, each branch pausing when it ends

up at it's own word (a loop)) until the parts of the world applicable to the

context of the base word have been described (mapped)), until an upper limit

has been reached on each word. The highest number out of all of the words will

be the number of words in the applicable dictionary to the context of that

paragraph (no repeats). It will be a complete system of circular reasoning.

A complete system of circular reasoning is where every word in a

dictionary is mapped to at least one other word in that dictionary. Some may

be mapped to every word in that dictionary. A complete system of circular

reasoning is one unit. It is aversion/perspective model of a truth. And

different ones can be combined to build complex systems of truth. Like

mitochondria building cells building structures.

Copyright 7/13/2005 Justin Coslor

Pattern Occurrences

Some patterns are designed or brought about intentionally, and other

patterns are brought about naturally, and others are brought about as an

unintentional consequence of bringing about intentional patterns, such

as in unintentional contexts that are created as a result of layering

patterns, and grouping patterns, and modifying patterns.

Some patterns occur naturally according to certain variable probabilities

specific to their contexts, while others are subject to haphazard creation,

randomness, and free will.

Copyright 7/14/2005 Justin Coslor

Since all patterns are composed of repetitions, and since the repetitions

are what makes the parts recognizable, and since anything that is recognizable

can be considered a pattern, the reference pieces for the parts of each

pattern can be local, as part of the pattern's context, or the reference

pieces can be remote, as part of other contexts that are accessible to the

perception system. The reference pieces are instances of the repetitions that

make the parts recognizable, and are usually cataloged by order of exposure to

them, as well as by associations.

When new patterns are encountered they are either recognized (thus

categorizable), or they are unrecognizable (thus not categorizable) because

their parts and properties are unknown, or they are partially recognized (thus

potentially categorizable and partly referencable). If the pattern is

new and it is recognized, then its parts are already known but are arranged in

a new configuration and with potentially new properties due to the novel

association of its parts.

So basically, once the perception system is exposed to contexts, the

pattern matching/classification system begins its task of dissecting new

patterns into reference pieces, and classifying recognizable patterns into

association contexts and utility contexts, and assigning priority ratings to

everything so that the perception system can decide what to pay attention to.

Priority ratings get constantly updated, and depend on how much bandwidth and

processing power the perception system and reasoning engine have available.

The reasoning engine does all of the heavy calculations, task and priority

assignments, memory management, simulation modeling, and most of the decision

making.

Copyright 7/5/2005 Justin Coslor

ePIC Goal Representation

(ePIC = electronic Patterns In Contexts)

A goal is an abstract construct, and the attainment of a goal is to fill

in all of the details of the goal either:

1. in Platonic Reality (information space), or

2. in physical reality (matter configuration space).

If the details have been filled in in Platonic Reality, then the result is a

simulation. If the details have been filled in in physical reality, then the

result is a working model. A prototype can be a preliminary model or

preliminary simulation.

The abstract construct of a goal is the starting point for changing your

reality in some way. One need only be able to partially perceive of the

abstraction to initiate the existence of the goal, but to fully specify it, a

viable plan needs to be formulated. Usually there are unknown variables in

every abstract goal, and specifying each variable becomes an iterative

process. Often the abstract goal can be stated in the form of a question, and

is the result of the questions that arose from some problem. Often times

further questioning of the problem impetus is necessary to specify the goal

and in doing so, the problem gets solved as the unknowns become decided or

calculated.

Many goals are qualitative/categorical subjective/objective priority

system calculations, that rely on preference, perspective, universal truths,

contextual restrictions, and contextual properties. However, all problems,

goals, and solutions can be represented as patterns in contexts, such as

undecided patterns in partially determined contexts, that evolve through

storing and grouping of categorical, qualitative, and quantitative patterns

across different contexts into an experimental buffer/model space towards the

sufficiently representative construct or construction of networks of

systems of patterns, that satisfy the objectives of the problem and goal,

in the context of the final form of the problem and goal.

The Patterns In Contexts concept is an epistemological language,

which I strongly believe can be used to represent anything, any concept,

and any information of any kind, including first person, second person,

third person information in past present or future tense,

and it adapts well into any other language.

Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor

Cross-Domain Relations in Analogical Relations

A true cross-domain relation would have two domains that each lead to the

same range. Analogical relations do something very similar to this, however

not quite. In an analogical relation, the relation between the domain and

range of one context is mimicked across a somewhat similar domain and range in

a different context (only some properties need to be similar for the analogy

to be formed, since a barely recognizable similarity needs to exist).

The result is like having generalized an abstraction of the two

domains and the relation, and using that abstraction to perform the

abstracted relation on the second domain in the other context.

--------------------------------\

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

--------------------------------

----------------------

Book I:

Patterns In Contexts

----------------------

8/25/2005 Stuff that occurred to me while going through some of my

old journal entries (about eight pages worth).

8/22/2005 Numbers & Patterns Across Contexts

5/1/2005 Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations

8/24/2005 Properties

8/24/2005 Patterns In Contexts: Neural Nets As Priority Systems

10/8/1999 Patterns In Contexts: a computational model for representing

information metaphorically through abductive reasoning

8/5/2005 Augmenting Ideas: Generating New Perspectives on Information

8/6/2005 Epistemology Systems

5/23/2005 Some definitions for Patterns In Contexts Theory

8/2/2005 Cliff Partitions

5/23/2005 Object-oriented processing

5/27/2005 Simulated Models and Utility Axioms

5/22/2005 Operation Spaces continued - Tomographic Data Structures

5/21/2005 Operation Spaces: Grids V.S. Networks

5/14/2005 Key axioms and branch axioms in pattern collections

11/7/2004 Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets

9/23/2004 Am I reinventing the wheel?

8/20/2004 Programming

8/4/2005 Programming Languages

9/22/2004 Patterns In Contexts Cognition Kernel

6/13/2004 Complexity

6/5/2004 Linker Patterns

5/31/2004 Patterns In Contexts Cognition

9/7/2000 Knowledge Mining

7/13/2005 Pattern Occurances

7/5/2005 ePIC Goal Representation

6/3/2005 Cross-Domain Relations in Analogical Relations

6/3/2005 Patterns In Context and Question Asking Systems for

Object-Oriented Programming

5/30/2005 Complexity Progressions

9/7/2004 Metaphoric Operations on Patterns Across Contexts

8/23/2004 Information Theory Quotes

12/25/2004 Metaphoric Operations

1/9/2005 Visual Dictionaries and Axiomatic Abductive Simulation

8/7/2005 Patterns In Contexts: 3D Engine

1/9/2005 Graphical Representation and Visual Heuristics

7/20/2005 Creativity & Understanding

7/17/2005 Concepts

7/8/2005 Measurement Systems

7/2/2005 Re-contextualized Patterns

6/25/2005 Observing patterns and differences

6/24/2005 Patterns Matching

6/20/2005 Remote-Controlled Contexts Via Pre-Processor Switchboards

6/12/2005 Definitions

6/5/2005 Geometric Abstractions

6/4/2005 Index of Topics

6/4/2005 Abstraction

6/3/2005 Analogical Recursions

5/25/2005 Implicit V.S. Explicit Knowledge

5/16/2005 Analogy, Metaphor, and Examples

5/4/2005 Sight

4/25/2003 Computer Vision

5/6/2005 Rules Are Behavioral Expectations

1/7/2005 Categories: Part 1

11/7/2004 Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets

9/12/2004 Some Thoughts on Information Theory

10/22/2004 Some Methods of Proof

8/12/2004 Axiom Notes

6/8/2004 Contexts

6/5/2004 Perception

8/10/2005 Perception -- continued from 6/5/2004....

5/17/2003 A.I. Notes

10/20/2004 Mission Statement

----------------------

Book I:

Patterns In Contexts

----------------------

Copyright 8/25/2005 Justin Coslor

Stuff that occurred to me while going through some of my old journal entries

(about eight pages worth).

Analogies mimic patterns across contexts via cross-domain relations.

That's the basis of Analogical Reasoning. Every pattern in every context

is unique to the properties and axioms of the contexts they exist in.

I've written this book without doing a lick of research or reading

(except where indicated on a few entries), as an experiment to see if I

could generate some new foundations of knowledge and understanding. Some

experts say I succeeded.

A symmetry is an example of an internal algebra. Unique symmetries are

atomic repetitions, and are the simplest form of patterns, distinct from

perceptually apparently random chaos. (I don't believe in ultimate

randomness).

Analogical mimicing results in similar, yet distinctly different patterns.

All truth is but an approximation of a deeper truth. Understanding is

subject to computational complexity of the perceiver and the data forms and

content perceived.

Knowledge is the quest of discovery, and understanding is the growth of

the perceiver. It's how possibilities happen through careful navigation.

There are no dead ends.

Mark fundamental landmark differences in analogically mimiced patterns,

for possible classification category augmentations (for navigation and

data retrieval purposes). Beware of oversimplification of data streams

in order to fit a pattern into a perceptual mold.

Even if my ideas overlap with existing knowledge, they provide a new way

of understanding that knowledge, and that is valuable because my ideas

are not based on mimicry since I haven't studied topics related to them

much (except a college philosophy course and K-13 math). These ideas

exist for the most part in their own context. They can be no doubt eventually

be linked to ideas in other contexts though. Lexicons can often be linked to

external contexts.

Copyright 8/22/2005 Justin Coslor

Numbers & Patterns Across Contexts

Metaphorically speaking, prime numbers are injective and composite numbers

are surjective, when translating functions from one context to another.

Similarly, single-repetition patterns are injective and composite

patterns are surjective, when translating relations from one context to

another. This is an essential part of analogical reasoning.

Copyright 5/1/2005 Justin Coslor

Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations.

(See diagram.)

1. All variables have properties.

2. All properties are independent of their variable's context(s).

3. All properties have some combination of qualitative relations,

quantitative relations, existential locations, and existential

conditions.

4. Every variable exists within a context and can vary

from context to context.

5. Contexts are composed of networks of patterns, patterns are composed of

networks of variables, and variables are composed of networks of properties.

6. Information can be represented as patterns in contexts, and in that way it

can be represented metaphorically through analogical reasoning and abductive

reasoning. Relations of various kinds, location(s), and condition(s) (apon and

of) exist at all of the various levels, and those are the data access

points.

As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby declare it

universally free for use and modification, except I don't condone it's

use in weapon systems or for deception of any kind. This legal agreement

cannot be modified ever, and all modifications of this logic and/or data are

bound by this same agreement. You may sell applications and/or services that

use this logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself

and you may not try to prevent others from understanding or using the

logic in any way except if they try to use it for deception or military

weapon applications. Sincerely, Justin Coslor. May 1st, 2005.

Copyright 8/24/2005 Justin Coslor

Properties

These are first-level definitions of some useful kinds of properties, any of

which can be networked together to create relations and variables and

patterns and contexts that may exist in physical and/or platonic reality:

----------------------------------

* qualitative identifiers: Categorical names and cross-references.

* qualitative factors: Qualitative pieces of composite patterns.

* quantitative identifiers: Cardinalities (orderings), scalers, and surjective

equalities.

* quantitative factors: Representational methods of measurement of dimension

sets.

* states: Observable distinct configurations that mark and increment step

counts.

* conditions: Dependencies that distinctly configure each state.

* cycle counts: A tally that is increased with each repetition of a process.

* recursions: A self-defined process or network (an internal algebra), or a

function that calls itself.

* repetitions: An algebra, atomic elements that repeat, composite patterns

that repeat, or symmetries.

* activity level: The number of cycles per step (positive, negative, random,

or null).

* step counts: A tally that is increased as conditions of each state

transition is reached.

* location: A place in a memory grid where identifiable data is stored.

* positions: The sequence coordinates of variable in N-dimensional orderings.

* orientations: The perspective that data maps are observed from: This may be

contextual, or spatially framed position maps, and perspectives may even

have translation conditions of their own.

------------------------

As you can see, activity level is just one kind of property, and priority

systems such as neural nets can be based on that property. Other kinds

of systems can be based on other properties.

------------------------

* Relations are the juxtaposition of infrastructures, which result in an

output.

Copyright 8/24/2005 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Contexts: Neural Nets As Priority Systems

Neural nets are essentially priority systems for allocating and

de-allocating priorities of networked elements such as variables on a grid.

Each network can be considered a context, and can be said to be a network of

patterns composed of variables and relations. If the patterns are

functions, then the priority of each pattern determines the level of activity

(cycles per step) of each pattern's function(s).

Some priority level results in a random level of activity, and the other

priority levels result in either positive levels of activity, negative

(reverse) levels of activity, and an undefined priority setting results

in no activity.

Example:

Context: ABCDEFG * R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8 == a network of patterns (see diagram).

Where each pattern == (a variable)(a relation Rn), and the level of activity

of each pattern is:

(undefined, -3, -2, -1, random, 1, 2. 3)(a variable)(a relation Rn),

and the activity level determines how many cycles per step that the

relation Rn operates on the variable, and the pattern it is linked

to. These values could be anything, this is just an example.

Activity level is one type of property of the variable.

***Variables are composed of networks of properties.

***Patterns are composed of networks of variables and relations.

***Contexts are composed of networks of patterns and relations to other

contexts. Properties can be things like qualitative and quantitative

identifiers and factors, states, conditions, cycle counts, recursions

and repetitions, activity level (cycles per step), step counts, locations,

positions, orientations, etc.

Patterns in Contexts:

a computational model for representing information metaphorically

through abductive reasoning.

All ideas herein are Copyright by Justin Coslor on their respective dates.

These notes are a progression of the concepts in the order they occured to me.

10/8/99 Invent a digital method or circuit (fast physical algorithm) for

mimicking a pattern. Do it by modeling the pattern's relationships

metaphorically (as a metaphor of existing memory or experience).

If circular reasoning is involved, what is the least experience or innate

memory required to start the circular reasoning engine?

Topic: Circular reasoning engines (in logic and computation).

11/19/1999 The definitive nature of knowledge. This occured to me as a

pseudo-sophomore at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA USA.

(It's a first draft so please forgive it's sketchyness.)

All knowledge=information, which can be represented as metaphors. Metaphors

are applied to specific contexts and general contexts=multiple contexts.

A. All knowledge is metaphors applied to >= 1 context.

B. A metaphor is a set of associations (links, patterns) that can or is

applied to a context.

A single context...A single specific context...general/nonspecific contexts.

C. A context is a set of restrictions (restrictions on information,

associations, links, patterns, sometimes even contexts).

Therefore the statement A is equivalent to this statement:

"Each piece of knowledge is a set of associations that can be applied to >= 1

set(s) of restrictions."

The use of this I had in mind is to make a computer software that could

understand and manipulate (and maybe even apply) metaphors. Many other ideas

occurred to me today too, possibly due to doing yogi breathing and meditation

exercises and taking vitamins since my health had been suffering.

10/31/2003 Epistemology Framework for Artificial Intelligence "Patterns in

Contexts" continued...

* A pattern is a collection of symmetries, where each partition section of

data of every symmetry in the collection corresponds to another partition

section of data in that collection, or sometimes corresponds to a piece

or pieces of data in another collection (or other collections) which may or

may not be part of a similar symmetry in that other collection.

If data has recognizable features, it is a pattern. Repetition is what

makes a symmetry, and is what makes a pattern's features recognizable.

Unique partition sections of data are the atomic elements that a pattern's

features are composed of. A symmetry is a type of repetition,

but a repetition isn't always a symmetry (see metaphor definition below).

* A context is a map of patterns within (thus bounded by) either a set or

stream of data in which other patterns are ignored or are not apparent.

Or a context bounded by a larger pattern than the map itself

(which itself is a pattern that may or may not be part of the larger pattern),

such as the ordinal of the map or a pattern larger than the boundaries

of the scope. There can be many parallel streams, waves, or sets of data

in, traveling through, across, or around the self-updating mapping of

patterns which is chosen to be the context.

Sometimes the corrresponding partitions of data that make up a repetition

are translated by some pattern with each iteration, such as in a methaphor.

Yet similarity remains apparent (identifyable by some means).

Again, I believe that information is patterns in contexts, and that

information is metaphoric in nature. Tip: If confused by this write-up

of my premise, try reading the sentence in reverse order then back through

again.

11/24/2003

Information is a symphony of symbolism and symmetry.

12/23/2003

Information, by it's very nature, is a division. Yet it strives to become

whole again, and at the very least, to become balanced.

4/7/2004 Category Theory: Abductive context changing using identified

metaphoric patterns. Some dimension additions for alternating or specializing

the application of a pattern or set of patterns:

- Location

- Relative rate, relative timeline framework

- Newly recognized relations found under sequential and parallelly recursive

brute force and intuitively adaptive experimental logic search strategies --

Yields hypothetical considerations which can be temporally prioritized and

recursively checked and updated from state to state and organized

intelligently by current 1. depth, 2. branch size, 3. branch cardinality

(alpha-numeric, etc), 4. task growth rate, and 5. average task completion rate

(for scaling computability).

When you figure out why a variable is a variable in a particular way, that

understanding becomes a new relation to consider, which in effect and affect

either increases or decreases the dimensionality of the variable's context.

Some dimensions that are added usually increase task completion rate (such as

specialization) other dimensions that ar added usually increase task growth

rate (such as broadening the context or broadening the number of class

categories to consider). Generalization can in some cases merge categories,

classes, and/or contexts, or blur them for simplicity, and can increase or

decrease completion rate.

Generalization is useful for experimentation.

All truth is but an approximation of a deeper truth.

A pattern is like a function, and a context is like a field.

Each has relations, variables (when thought of metaphorically),

and often the potential for variations and unconsidered variables of

dimensionality.

5/15/2004

A working definition of the mystery of consciousness might be ascribed to the

interplay between 1. perspective, 2. priorities, 3. intentions, and

4. awareness; all of which depend on the flexibility, state, and mechanisms of

belief held by the subject.

5/16/2004

My data symmetry section analysis technique for perception through patterns in

contexts may be able to play a key role in automating axiom and theorem

discovery for any given context (i.e. contexts such as the integers, the

reals, wavefield analysis, map data, behavioral intention charts,

language/speech modeling and representation, transform sequences, etc.).

Any pattern discovered within a particular context can be applied to any of

the known axioms and theorems of that context, and patterns that are

discovered can sometimes be related to undiscovered axioms in that context.

Anytime an axiom or theorem is discovered in a context, the entire context is

redefined (as well as its subcontexts), and in doing so, its scope is

narrowed. Choose -> Search -> Experiment -> Classify -> Test -> Prove.

Choose/define context -> search for patterns -> searchfor patterns that relate

discovered patterns -> postulate a classification for each discovered

relation.

For each relation, if a classification category does not exist that

closely matches the relation, then further experimentation, context choosing

(add and/or subtract context dimensions), and pattern searching must be done,

starting with the characteristics of all partially matched categories, until

an accurate or exact classification or category definition can be derived.

After the relation's category is realized, search for more examples of that

relation and derrive a proof of it. If the relation can be proven to be

applicable to all patterns in a given context and all subsets of that context,

it can be said to be an axiom of that context.

8/3/2004

Context can be thought of as a network as well as a shell that encompasses

abstract nodes. The context of a set is merely its powerset, that is, until

relations ar applied. I don't believe in randomness, but I do believe that

some contexts are larger or deeper than the scope of our perceptions.

8/4/2004

A context can also be thought of as a network of patterns, or even the network

of relations that tlinks patterns. But when relations are applied to a

context, it becomes an organism. An organism that is capable of translation

(metaphoric operations), modification (adaptationn), division

(duplication/reproduction/partitioning, and/or growth and association with

other contexts.

8/5/2004

There are patterns, and they exist within and between/across contexts, and

there are relations that act as reasoning engines that operate on the systems

of patterns and contexts.

Patterns can have analogue distortion, digital distortion, or metaphoric

distortion. Contexts can be approximations of larger contexts, and

elaborations or extensions of smaller contets or extensions of other contexts

in general There can be relatively unique (somewhat unique, minimal

commonality) patterns and contexts. Note: the word "commonality" is based on

the greek root "monality", which is the "commonality" of the prime numbers.

Each prime number is a "co-monality." This can be visualized in terms of

geometry, to some extent. Every prime number is balanced, and is symmetrical,

and contains a unique number of dimensions, which are also unique kinds

of dimensions. Patterns and contexts and relations can also be symmetry pieces

of other patterns and contexts and relations, regardless of whether or not

they are distorted in any given state or piece or part or linkage.

8/30/2004

Every context is founded on its own set of axioms and theorems, and adding an

axiom to or from a context's foundation fundamentally changes the context

profoundly, yet some structures may remain un-affected.

(*Note many of these notes may become invalid or ridiculous as you read more,

so mental filtering may be necessary.)

8/23/2004

This is a quote from my journal.

""Metaphor" is a relational model of recursion, where the circular

reasoning (in recursive definitions & recursive functions) cross-relates

the elements of definitions & functions from multiple (or different)

contexts. That is why cross-domain relations are so crucial to the metaphoric

representation of knowledge and knowledge systems (logics)."

8/26/2004

"I also believe that information is metaphoric in nature (has algebraic

interconnectivity), and that it can be represented as a composition of

patterns in contexts, where the contexts themselves can be patterns, and the

atomic elements of each pattern are composed of symmetry sections

(partitiopns of data, where each partition is part of a local or dislocated

repetition (a symmetry, and algebra)). And it is only through the repetition

of a data section that part of a pattern can become recognizable from

apparently random white noise. Randomness and white noise are probably

patterns that are larger than the scope of our perceptions, so the data

appears random.

And I say that metaphors can be represented geometrically because all of

the prime numbers (the balance points in the universe) are symmetrical when

represented geometrically, and it is likely through primarily symmetrical

sensory and cognitive structures that our minds can interpret information.

And I think of metaphors not as A=B, but more like the similarity of the

juxtaposition of A's elements in the context of B, and B's elements in

the context of A, in terms of general systems theory.

I equate truth with workable patterns that become more and more refined

and defined as they get used. I believe that all truth that we are capable

of perceiving is but a small approximation of the whole truth. And that

the truth/patterns that we are capable of using is often subject to perception

within varying contexts. But there seem to exist connections between

information none-the-less, through whatever means. Possibly since (in my

opinion) everything came from oneness)."

9/13/2004

Scope & Context -> Boundaries and Restrictions/Limitations

Class -> Purpose

Type -> Syntax

Pattern Definitions -> Semantics

Data Element Groups -> Configurations (Data Maps & Dependencies)

9/22/2004 Patterns in Contexts Cognition Kernal

Database -> Metabase -> Context Rotator -> Experiment Application Field

Expandable

Adaptable

Translatable

Summarizable subjectively/objectively

======>

Metaphoric Linkers

Patterns Toolkit

Augmentation Socket Parameters

Analysis Scope Dimensionality

of (Input/Internal perspective "eyes")

Geometry & quantitative & qualitative properties of simultaneous interrupts

and their instantaneous functional interrelations and interactions

across multivariate sequence states (such as time & symmetry equivalencies).

*Every set state is but an approximation of the possible combinatorial

translations.

11/20/2004 Epistemology thoughts on Metaphor Abduction

Metaphors hide cross-domain relations between generalized nouns,

adjectives, and systems within a semi-subjective context of perspective.

The descriptive mappings of metaphors and multi-layered metaphoric operations

are generallymore foundational than their analogical counterparts, as the

metaphoric objects and relational context is generalized (from set, type, and

categorical specifics), which simplifies the computational complexity of the

models' qualitative factors, and provides new bases for consideration and

re-application of data, relations, and knowledge. Metaphor generation provides

the architectural basis and objective of considering newe relations and data

experimentatiopn for deriving and arriving at new models of understanding.

data --> context unknown

patterns --> hypothetical contexts

relations --> categorical context parsing

metaphoric relations --> cross-domain functions across contexts

specific knowledge --> contextual scope focusing/narrowing

analogies --> applies metaphoric relations to different examples of specific

knowledge for partial transitivity

new knowledge --> modifies existing contexts to incorporate new axioms.

4/6/2005 Prioritization and choice in decision systems

(Part of a reasoning engine.)

----------------------

New action (such as prioritization or actual action)

^---^

Evaluaction ->criteria

^---^

outcome

^---^

choice

^---^

initiative factor(s)

^---^

prioritization

^---^

evaluation-->criteria

^---^

possibilities

----------------

4/24/2005

Inventing industries with patterns in contexts

What the world needs more of in order to support the ever rising

population levels, is more industries. An entire industry can be created

simply by developing a new kind of alagorithm, or an algorithm that creates a

niche for people to fill with services or products.

**********************

An algorithm can be developed by applying an axiom to a new context.

**********************

This may require forming or describing a new context or kind of context, with

intentions and expectations and attributes or properties in mind, as axoms are

chosen and adapted to make that possible. Theorems can then be derived from

those axioms, that are specific to that context, and when possible, they can

be metaphorically related to theorems in other contexts. This is the basis for

the patterns in contexts model for creating new information. It relates

directly to abductive reasoning, analogical reasoning, and cross-domain

relations.

Axioms depend on which dimensions they can exist in and apply to.

For they are the links that connect different dimensions, parts of dimensions,

and sets of dimensions, with the goal of unique lowest-terms representation.

Usually they incorporate at least some implicit knowledge or material

structure in their model.

Copyright 5/1/2005 Justin Coslor

Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations.

(See diagram.)

1. All variables have properties.

2. All properties are independent of their variable's context(s).

3. All properties have some combination of qualitative relations, quantitative

relations, existential locations, and existential conditions.

4. Every variable exists within a context and can vary from context to

context.

5. Contexts are composed of networks of patterns, patterns are composed of

networks of variables, and variables are composed of networks of properties.

6. Information can be represented as patterns in contexts, and in that way it

can be represented metaphoricly through analogical reasoning and abductive

reasoning. Relations of various kinds, location(s), and condition(s) (apon and

of) exist at all of the various levels, and those are the data access points.

As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby declare it

universally free for use and modification, except I don't condone it's use in

weapon systems or for deception of any kind. This legal agreement cannot be

modified ever, and all modifications of this logic and/or data are bound by

this same agreement. You may sell applications and/or services that use this

logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself and you may

not try to prevent others from understanding or using the logic in any way

except if they try to use it for deception or military weapon applications.

Sincerely, Justin Coslor. May 1st, 2005.

Copyright 8/5/2005 Justin Coslor

Augmenting Ideas: Generating New Perspectives on Information

Today in the 61C Cafe I was talking to my friend Jason Bacasa telling him

about how I come up with ideas. Besides keeping an ever growing network of

questions in the back of my mind, I take a topic or generate a topic by

combining keywords, and then think about how that topic is typically

represented, then I try to epistemologically dissect that representation and

then rebuild the content using different, if not more foundational

contextualization of those concepts. Then I go off on a tangent exploring the

most interesting parts by associating other concepts, patterns, contexts,

and operations to the new representation of the concepts in the original

topic.

It is often very valuable to have alternative representations of ideas

and concepts and topics because each representation can yield a useful

perception. If there is any word sense ambiguity, or use of metaphor,

then each alternative representation can yield many perceptions, each of

which could uncover previously unseen or unconsidered aspects of the topics,

ideas, and concepts. So in the end, exploring and mapping out alternative

representations of concepts, ideas, and topics is a way to augment their

knowledge base, by generating new perspectives on the information, which

can generate entirely new contexts, which can generate entirely new

knowledge bases, by treating all information metaphorically. People are

currently very good at metaphoric interpretation and analogical reasoning.

Computer programs currently are not. It's the next step towards

computational methods of abductive (round-about scenic-route) reasoning.

Anyway, Jason said I should make a program that does what I do, i.e.:

a program that recontextualizes information from different perspectives

of association, sort of like a choose-your-own-adventure story, but more like

a choose-your-own-perspective program. Like a computer program that generates

alternative representations of ideas, topics, and concepts. Or even more

generally, a computer program that generates alternative representations of

patterns (thoughtforms) in a variety of contexts (settings).

Copyright 8/6/2005 Justin Coslor

Epistemology Systems

Categories, and complete dictionaries as foundations. Quantified objects

(and systems) can be juxtaposed into relations that balance alternative

representations of objects and systems via a structural or syntactic

methodology that acts as a transformation into some of the possible

alternative representations of the quantified objects and systems.

Algebras as alternative representations of information. Algebras can

rename, or point to representations of information, as well as interconnect

and dissect informational objects and systems. All objects and systems

are named.

Simulations, recontextualizations, and "polymachines" as alternative

models of systems.

Proof is contextual, in other words: proof is dependent on perspective and

representation. In much larger contexts than the original context in which

something was proven, most "proof" becomes incomplete or uncompatible, and

sometimes even false if more foundational epistemological structures are

found to have been overlooked. Proof is complete, logically consistent

introspection of perceptions of concepts.

Any given proof is only applicable to specific axiom sets. I.E. a proof

based on one axiom set may be incomplete or uncompatible or even false in a

context composed of a different set of axioms. Therefore concepts must be

analogically translated into other contexts and their translations must be

formed concurrently with their proof validity in their new context, as a

best-fit categorical search procedure. The proof is a complete, concise

system, so the proof in it's new context can be considered to be a

polymachine, since it is an alternative representation of that system. A

polymachine is a set of cross-domain relations that operate on

analogically-matched patterns from an original context to a new context, and

represents an alternative form of a system in a different context.

Polymachines are created by inductive, deductive, or (in the case of

analogically translated proofs) abductive reasoning. Cross-domain relations

are relations that analogically match the domain of a relation in one context

to the domain of a relation in another context whose range approximates the

same infrastructure and quantitative parameters while leaving the qualitative

parameters categorically open-ended; they are a form of analogical reasoning.

Input Devices->Internal model buffer->Association and repetition

filter->Analysis/comparison engine->Perceptions on experience->Algebraic

Conceptualization->Character sets and dictionaries, or number systems and

axiom sets -> statements, arguments, inquiries, propositions, implications,

operations, filtrations, combinations, exegesis, dissertation, assignments,

contextualizations, templates, associations, compositions, dissections,

introspections, modifications, adaptations, introductions, translations,

transformations, distortion, refinement, recontextualization, proof,

mapping, search, buffering, sorting, indexing, encoding, decoding,

regulation, pattern formulation, trans-substantiation (joke), frollick.

Copyright 5/23/2005 Justin Coslor

Some definitions for patterns in contexts theory

Metaphoric objects are informational objects defined by their

relational properties. In relational contexts, sub-contexts of each

property are independent of the application context. Qualitative factors

are computed by mapping and defining a lexicon of their properties.

Qualitative factors are reflective and algebraic usually. Quantitative factors

are computed by counting and performing materialistic operations on them,

and mapping them in that way. Quantitative factors are materialistic and

geometric usually.

Copyright 8/2/2005 to 8/3/2005 Justin Coslor

Cliff Partitions

Cliff partitions are perceptual references that distinguish deeply layered

patterns from surface patterns, much like a cliff wall bordering the ocean.

In the ocean, every couple of feet down an ocean wall is a new layer, much

like how layers of pixel groups can be laid out on a visual canvas, with some

stacked up several layers high on an edge.

Cliff partitions are essential markers of where a topology has a steep

slope that may or may not be an overhanging awning above a hidden hollow or

cave. In topology, cliff partitions are useful for analyzing the depth

perception of a view.

In linguistics, cliff partitions may indicate a sentence that is placed in

the wrong order, or it may indicate a sudden change of topic, or a jump from

one perspective of a context to a deeper or more superficial depth of

perspective of that same context. Cliff partitions in linguistics may also

indicate the boundaries of a given context, where one context ends and another

begins. Cliff partitions are only conceptual perceptual references in

linguistic domains, as writers and speakers linearly paint a nonlinear

picture with their words.

Copyright 5/23/2005 Justin Coslor

Object-oriented processing

Grids (a.k.a. manifolds), networks, and gridded networks all can house

patterns in contexts of information data sectors as the representation of

knowledge (knowledge is information that contains meaning). Grids, networks,

and gridded networks are materialistic operation spaces for knowledge

representation, whereas the notion of "patterns in contexts" are the Platonic

operation spaces that form the meaning behind the scenes on the materialistic

operation spaces. Identifying the representation of knowledge in an operation

space as "patterns in contexts" and specifying the details allows us to work

with the information in an object-oriented manner.

Copyright 5/27/2005 Justin Coslor

Simulated Models and Utility Axioms

If a network or grid is composed of N elements, then it is capable of

simulating every possible permutation of those elements by forming internal

networks and sub-networks (& grids). Grid networks allow for an infinite

number of combinations to be simulated though, but only some simulations are

of any use. Maybe there are utility axioms that can be defined to tell us what

classes of models contain useful representations. It seems like some factors

that might determine whether or not a model is useful would be:

1. Compatibility with existing useful models.

2. Novel representation or novel perspective.

3. Incorporation of new information.

4. Novel capability.

5. Ability to link two or more other models together.

6. Ability to prune other models.

There may be many more factors directly related to evaluating the worthiness

of a model. Simulation allows for recontextualization of models and problems

and systems.

Copyright 5/22/2005 Justin Coslor

Operation Spaces continued - Tomographic Data Structures

In the gridded network system, as described previously, a multidimensional

array is built between selection of nodes in a network, where elements of this

array can be used to build internal networks between the primary node anchors

of the array, or between other nodes in other networks --as in cross-domain

relations. This process can repeat to an infinite depth, in the order of

network node to array anchor to array node to tomographic network to

cross-domain relation network to array grid, cyclically. This is a way of

creating tomographic data structures of an infinite depth and of infinite

permutations, due to the potential for infinite depth, all without adding any

extra primary nodes. Every array element and every node represents a relation

to or between their anchors or parent nodes.

Copyright 5/21/2005 Justin Coslor

Operation Spaces: Grids V.S. Networks

Rows and columns and layers are dimensions of a grid, but dimensions can

also be parts of an N-dimensional array. Each of the dimensional intersections

form a unique partition that relates or is categorized by it's parent sets'

position along their own sequences. So in this way, elemenets on a grid

(i.e. in an array) come from multiple parents, wheras elemenets in a network

can often come from only one parent (an injective branch). However, in some

networks, such as where a planar geometry can exist by the interconnection of

more than two nodes, multiple parents can be a grid of subspaces between the

nodes on the plane that they make, and in those subspaces multivariable

position and quantized quality relations can be said to exist, that are

anchored to multiple origin points (each vertex be treated as an origin,

and angles between them only serve to define the partitioning of the planar

grid). I'll call this kind of transformation of a network "a subspace grid

of vertices". Maybe this combination of a grid network can enhance the

operation space by making any nodes on a network able to be related to

eachother, in grid format, between particular data sections on the subspace

grid as well as between other primary nodes.

The other kind of operation space is the Swiss cheese like structure that

surrounds a subspace geometrized grid transformed network. The inner edge of

that space is where one context ends and other contexts may begin to exist.

Copyright 5/14/2005 Justin Coslor

Key axioms and branch axioms in pattern collections.

Patterns are composed of smaller parts, with the smallest parts being

repetitions of unique elements in which no sub-patterns are apparent; also,

these smallest parts exist and their repetitions make them algebraicly

recognizable due to certain axioms, which act as fundamental truths

(self-evident assumptions) for which no proof is said to be needed.

This being said, we can say that all patterns that are unique in some

manner must contain at least some unique axioms, and if we look at a

collection of basic patterns and determine what is unique about each one

and what is in common between them, and then figure out how those

similarities and differences ar ordered on an axiomatic level, we may discover

key axioms and branch axioms which can be represented in a nodal network

graph.

The value of this is that we can then understand, at the most basic level,

what makes a pattern exist, what makes a pattern recognizable and similar to

other patterns, and what makes a pattern unique.

We can use that understanding to select axioms suitable to generate a set

of patterns with a measurable degree of flexibility/adaptability, to use

in constructing a system of perception, similar to a painter mixing paints on

an artists pallete, while he mixes concepts in his mind's eye.

Copyright 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets:

If categorical names have been assigned to finite elements in a domain,

the rest of the data in the set can be hypothetically considered to be

relations or parts of relations (on those elements and elements not in that

buffered data set). Or they may be elements of categories you don't yet

recognize or know of yet.

9/23/2004 Justin Coslor

Am I reinventing the wheel?

Today while studying a diagrammatic map on "Can Computers Think?" that

Seth Casana gave me I learned of work that has already been done in Artificial

Intelligence that is very similar to some of the concepts that I came up with

on my own.

For instance, there has been work done in the area of making computer

software that can understand "analogies". That is very similar to my concept

of "metaphoric operations". Also, in 1989 in seems, Keith Holyoak and

Paul Thagard created ACME, which is a connectionist network that discovers

"cross domain analogical mappings." That soundsd just like my concept of

"cross domain relations for alternative route mathematics", that I have

written about prior to reading anything about it, and I came up with it all on

my own earlier this year. Here are some Analogy Systems:

Copycat - Douglas Hofstadter and Melanie Mitchell 1995.

SME - Brian Falkenhaimer, K. Forbus, and D. Gentner, 1990.

ACME - Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard, 1989.

8/20/2004 Justin Coslor

Programming

In the preface to the introductory computer programming book

"The Little Lisper" second edition ISBN 0-574-21955-2 it says: (that in LISP)

"the primary programming activity is the creation of (potentially) recursive

definitions." Now to me, that sounds like the main task (and goal) is to map

out and/or define patterns that are either finite or infinite and to put them

into a relational context that is capable of transforming incoming data

patterns by relating them to stored data patterns, so that the output can be

1. represented, 2. stored, and 3. used/manipulated. I believe this because

nothing is more recursive than a pattern (nothing is less recursive than a

pattern as well, except that which is totally random). Patterns always exist

within a context or contexts, otherwise they are not recognizable and look

like random garbage (see Godel's Theorems). On page vii it also says that

"LISP is the medium of choice for people who enjoy free style and flexibility.

LISP was initially conceived as a theoretical vehicle for recursion theory and

for symbolic algebra." (and likely Lambda Calculus & the EMACS environment for

Artificial Intelligence)... LISP syntax looks very similar to my old nonlinear

style of thought notation, with its parenthesis within parenthesis (which was

good for scaling depth on tangents and concept descriptions).

Copyright 8/4/2005 Justin Coslor

Programming Languages

"Programming languages are formal languages that have been designed

to express computations." - How to Think Like a Computer Scientist -

Java Edition

In other words, programming languages are mappings of balanced processes.

The flow of any kind of process can be mapped, if not only approximated by a

systematic contextualization of patterns and relations involved in the

process. Every system is like a state machine in motion, where the elements

and operators are encapsulated by their interconnectivity via

contextualization, which is a form of perspective of finite scope.

Formal languages have fully defined axioms, and are consistent and

complete in the mechanics of their methodology. But what is the methodology of

mappings of balanced processes in general? The universality concept applies to

them: they are consistent and complete because they are balanced about a tight

contextualization, where the interconnectivity of the process's elements acts

like a fulcrum (when thought of quantitatively), with no element left

unconnected. That's why patterns in any context can be transformed through

operations into different patterns, so long as there is a method of

representing both sets of patterns. The balance comes from having multiple

methods of representing each state of the elements in the process. The mapping

comes from being able to contextualize the processes, which is only possible

if the processes have finite scope, and are completely defined (thus

interconnected), and must be systematic (thus logically consistent) in

order to be precisely mappable with regularity throughout their states of

operation.

Copyright 9/22/2004 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Context Cognition Kernel

[Database]-> [Metabase]-> [Context Rotator]-> [Experiment Application Field]

-----------------------

The following are *a. Subjectively and *b. Objectively

1. Expandable,

2. Adaptable,

3. Translatable, &

4. Summarizable:

------------------------

Metaphoric Linkers

------------------------

Pattern Toolkit

------------------------

Augmentation Socket Parameters

------------------------

*Considerations:

-----------------

I. Analysis

II. Scope Dimensionality (of input/internal perspective "eyes")

III. Geometry & Quantitative & Qualitative properties of simultaneous

interrupts and their instantaneous functional interrelations and interactions

across multivariate sequence states (such as time & symmetry equivalences).

**Every set state is but an approximation of the possible combinatorial

translations.

Copyright 6/13/2004 Justin Coslor

Complexity

Commercial or proprietary software is surjective or injective, but free

open-source software is bijective.

Part of the FRDCSA Tutorial (Free Research Database Cluster Study and

Apply) on frdcsa.org says a blurb from an ACM paper about measuring the power

of a set of axioms in order to measure the information contained within the

set of theorems that can be deduced from those axioms. It says that one can

only get out of a axiom sets what one puts in. The paper says something like:

"If a set of theorems constitutes t bits of unique information, and the set of

axioms that the theorems are based on contains less than t bits of unique

information, then it is impossible to deduce those theorems from that set of

axioms."

My friend Andrew J. Dougherty of FRDCSA says that to understand the

general necessity of having more software, simply replace "theorems" with

"problems", and "axioms" with "programs", and "deduce" with "solve" in the

previous statement. Doing that we get: "If a set of problems constitutes t

bits of unique information, and a set of programs contains less than t bits of

unique information, then it is impossible to solve these problems using just

that set of programs. By "problems", I think he means "explicitly defined

problems", because an explicitly defined problem is a program that has yet to

be executed. Abduction may be necessary to define all of the elements and

operators of a problem in the process of turning a problem into a program.

I say, replace "theorems" with "context", and "axioms" with "patterns",

and "solve" with "create". This yields: "If a set of contexts constitutes t

bits of unique information, and the set of patterns that the contexts are

based on contains less than t bits of unique information, then it is

impossible to create those contexts from that set of patterns."

Copyright ?/5/2004 Justin Coslor

This is part of my method of knowledge representation for my

epistemological representation of artificial intelligence through Patterns in

Contexts. Contexts come from patterns that are combined. There can be patterns

noticed in the cross-examination of different contexts, but those "patterns"

are elements of a greater scope of context than any of the contexts being

cross-examined, that is to say, when those cross-context patterns are not

noticable when only examining any one of those contexts in relation to itself.

This method of knowledge representation may hopefully prove to be useful in

the abductive search for new axioms within and across representable contexts.

A context is represented by its systems of patterns (a.k.a. it's system of

axioms).

Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor

New patterns can be discovered by experimenting with data sets: analyzing

them in relation to metaphoric operations on other data sets. Metaphoric

operations are operations that translate, juggle, predict/locate, and/or

transform specified elements across specified contexts.

Copyright 6/7/2004 Justin Coslor

New metaphors can be discovered by combining axioms that come from

multiple number sets, orderings, and/or algebras. Metaphors are esoteric

relations. The application of a metaphoric operation on a data set sometimes

results in the discovery of new axioms through the new perspective's set of

relations brought about by the application of esoteric relations.

Metaphoric perception is all about cross-domain relations. This is because

the application of metaphors brings about both:

1. relations between the range of the metaphor and the range of all applicable

operations (operations of applications) of the data set, and

2. new cross-domain relations (new domain perspectives) for both the

operations of potentially all applications of the data set; and sometimes new

cross-domain relations and new ranges for the system and set of relations

that algebraically defines the metaphor (when applying the unmatched relations

that are not bijective of the operations of applications of the data set)

metaphorically (i.e. algebraicly to the metaphor).

Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor

Linker patterns

Linker patterns require both an observation buffer (that is at least of

equal size to the sum of the contexts to be linked), and linker patterns

require an operation buffer that is at least as big as the observation buffer

(though far larger is necessary for some observations, even though the amount

of data that ends up in the operation buffer may be far less, in some

instances, than the amount of data filtered out of the sum of the contexts

into the observation buffer).

Data gets filtered out of every applicable context by the linker

pattern's "filter specifications", right into the linker pattern's

observation buffer. Then the linker pattern's set of metaphoric patterns

operates on the observation buffer one at a time or in parallel, but inside

the operation buffer.

The linker pattern contains a set of metaphoric patterns whose elements

are referenced algebraically to the applicable data elements present in the

observation buffer for every possible metaphoric pattern combination present

in the linker pattern innately.

Metaphors which are algebraically a complete set of elements to

applicable/valid data elements are used in the observation buffer, then inside

the operation buffer they perform their calculation (translating, juggling,

and/or transforming of the data section by the metaphor) and the linker

pattern then places the output in an organized form (so it can be referenced

later), and those outputs are placed into a buffer called "the unified

context" of the original contexts. This "unified context" includes the linker

pattern's filter specifications and metaphor set that was used (i.e. the set

that was computable).

Linker patterns can duplicate themselves to divide up the work of

applying their metaphoric pattern sets to the observation buffers' data (and

they update each other with each successful operation).

Each linker pattern is like a mobile set of operators that copies select

groups of contexts and gives birth to unified contexts (which are new

contexts). It is each linker pattern's unique set of filter specifications

that differentiates one linker pattern from another.

New axioms and theorems that are found elsewhere and within each operation

are found and get added to the metaphor set after the valid discovered

patterns are provably generalized. They are placed in all of the linker

patterns.

Linker patterns can also update each other's set of metaphoric patterns by

sharing ones the other doesn't have, and copying new ones from the other.

The observation buffer performs general quantifier type matching.

Copyright 5/31/2004 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Context Cognition

A context is any specified number set, ordering, or system of numbers that

is representative of something (symbolic).

Take the desired outcome (the goal) and break it down into unique aspects.

Treat each aspect as an element of a context that contains it, or as an

element of several contexts that contain it. each element/aspect may have its

own unique context at first. We will be striving to find the pattern or

patterns that link all aspects of the goal into one context.

A "linker pattern" can be a linker of the contexts that each of the

elements of our goal exist within. Such a pattern links contexts together by

assigning a system of translating, juggling, predicting/locating, and/or

transforming the specified elements across their specified contexts.

This "linker pattern" is metaphoric, and can act as the "unified context" in

which we will search for the aspects of our goal, as well as search for

alternate routes to each of these aspects (for optimization).

After this experimental search has completed and an optimal cross-domain

relation search for shorter routes to each aspect has been completed, we will

have generated the optimal route map to our goal.

Cross-domain relations can also be thought of as possible associations, or

simply as patterns. They can very explicitly depict ambiguous relationships,

such as when they are used with graph theory. Cross-domain relations are

a little bit like surjective and bijective networks in logic but where two

domains lead to the same range in a number set, even when the domains come

from different contexts. They can also be thought of as alternative routes.

Cross-domain relations can be searched for that relate aspects of our goal

that are also aspects of goals that have different unified contexts than our

goal. It's important to mark the optimal routes out of the cross-domain

relations, but keep the other relations (possible routes) for use in future

goal structures. By linking multiple goals in this manner, we expand our

network of understanding.

Copyright 9/7/2000 Justin Coslor

Knowledge Mining

Maybe amassing huge intelligent databases that can draw conclusions and

make abstractions and predictions towards goals that can recognize & ask for

specific data it needs to output one or more units of truth, which could help

demystify fields of study and help major breakthroughs occur, if not by simply

abstracting and relating so much specific data and general patterns in so many

areas; to help bring everything to one's fingertips. A massively parallel

search and correlation engine:

The computer has to be able to understand a goal enough to figure out how

to better understand that goal, so that it can design it's own searches

(determine its own search criteria), and know what a conclusion would look

like and would require to be complete enough to make an abstraction.

What is the criteria of a conclusion? Is a conclusion just one particular

perspective in every situation? How can the perspective be intelligently

shifted and rotated in a search to generate and array of complimentary

conclusions? At what point does the difference in goals generate opposing

conclusions? (i.e. when do conclusions become apparently contradicting when

using the same set of data...) Taking this into account, what difference

in goals produces contradictory conclusions (perceptions) when searching

(parsing) intersecting sets of data?

Input something like a handbook of chemistry and physics, with a goal of

making valid correlations that are not a listed part of that original data

set. Start out with general patterns like input types, leading to language

semantic patterns, leading to patterns of contextual settings, leading to

metaphoric patterns between contexts, *leading to applications of the

generalized raw data to the metaphoric patterns, leading to generalized

predictions of the outcome of the previous step*, parsing the conclusions

listed in the raw data and matching it to the metaphoric mold (the pattern and

logic) that led the contained data elements (or equivalents) to that listed

conclusion. . .in short: enable the software to understand how the data

elements were led to the conclusion listed in the raw data, so that those

patterns (metaphoric molds or logic operations) can be understood enough to be

applied to the raw data in different permutations (ways) to uncover

conclusions of previously unconsidered possibilities. Those patterns and

derivation/discovery methods could also be used as a guide for designing

new patterns built from recombining the old patterns with unique data.

And since unique data almost always is unique due to its being composed of

at least some unique patterns; parsing the old (known) patterns from new

(unknown) patterns might make it easier to clarify what exactly the new

pattern is or at least how it operates (or at the very least, its function).

This is knowledge mining. . .One form of artificial intelligence.

Circular Reasoning:

I aught to look up the dictionary definition of a bunch of the key words

in this.. Hey, why not all of the words? A number could correspond to the

number of words the dictionary definition of each word had to reference

(on every level of the tree of lookup words, each branch pausing when it ends

up at it's own word (a loop)) until the parts of the world applicable to the

context of the base word have been described (mapped)), until an upper limit

has been reached on each word. The highest number out of all of the words will

be the number of words in the applicable dictionary to the context of that

paragraph (no repeats). It will be a complete system of circular reasoning.

A complete system of circular reasoning is where every word in a

dictionary is mapped to at least one other word in that dictionary. Some may

be mapped to every word in that dictionary. A complete system of circular

reasoning is one unit. It is aversion/perspective model of a truth. And

different ones can be combined to build complex systems of truth. Like

mitochondria building cells building structures.

Copyright 7/13/2005 Justin Coslor

Pattern Occurrences

Some patterns are designed or brought about intentionally, and other

patterns are brought about naturally, and others are brought about as an

unintentional consequence of bringing about intentional patterns, such

as in unintentional contexts that are created as a result of layering

patterns, and grouping patterns, and modifying patterns.

Some patterns occur naturally according to certain variable probabilities

specific to their contexts, while others are subject to haphazard creation,

randomness, and free will.

Copyright 7/14/2005 Justin Coslor

Since all patterns are composed of repetitions, and since the repetitions

are what makes the parts recognizable, and since anything that is recognizable

can be considered a pattern, the reference pieces for the parts of each

pattern can be local, as part of the pattern's context, or the reference

pieces can be remote, as part of other contexts that are accessible to the

perception system. The reference pieces are instances of the repetitions that

make the parts recognizable, and are usually cataloged by order of exposure to

them, as well as by associations.

When new patterns are encountered they are either recognized (thus

categorizable), or they are unrecognizable (thus not categorizable) because

their parts and properties are unknown, or they are partially recognized (thus

potentially categorizable and partly referencable). If the pattern is

new and it is recognized, then its parts are already known but are arranged in

a new configuration and with potentially new properties due to the novel

association of its parts.

So basically, once the perception system is exposed to contexts, the

pattern matching/classification system begins its task of dissecting new

patterns into reference pieces, and classifying recognizable patterns into

association contexts and utility contexts, and assigning priority ratings to

everything so that the perception system can decide what to pay attention to.

Priority ratings get constantly updated, and depend on how much bandwidth and

processing power the perception system and reasoning engine have available.

The reasoning engine does all of the heavy calculations, task and priority

assignments, memory management, simulation modeling, and most of the decision

making.

Copyright 7/5/2005 Justin Coslor

ePIC Goal Representation

(ePIC = electronic Patterns In Contexts)

A goal is an abstract construct, and the attainment of a goal is to fill

in all of the details of the goal either:

1. in Platonic Reality (information space), or

2. in physical reality (matter configuration space).

If the details have been filled in in Platonic Reality, then the result is a

simulation. If the details have been filled in in physical reality, then the

result is a working model. A prototype can be a preliminary model or

preliminary simulation.

The abstract construct of a goal is the starting point for changing your

reality in some way. One need only be able to partially perceive of the

abstraction to initiate the existence of the goal, but to fully specify it, a

viable plan needs to be formulated. Usually there are unknown variables in

every abstract goal, and specifying each variable becomes an iterative

process. Often the abstract goal can be stated in the form of a question, and

is the result of the questions that arose from some problem. Often times

further questioning of the problem impetus is necessary to specify the goal

and in doing so, the problem gets solved as the unknowns become decided or

calculated.

Many goals are qualitative/categorical subjective/objective priority

system calculations, that rely on preference, perspective, universal truths,

contextual restrictions, and contextual properties. However, all problems,

goals, and solutions can be represented as patterns in contexts, such as

undecided patterns in partially determined contexts, that evolve through

storing and grouping of categorical, qualitative, and quantitative patterns

across different contexts into an experimental buffer/model space towards the

sufficiently representative construct or construction of networks of

systems of patterns, that satisfy the objectives of the problem and goal,

in the context of the final form of the problem and goal.

The Patterns In Contexts concept is an epistemological language,

which I strongly believe can be used to represent anything, any concept,

and any information of any kind, including first person, second person,

third person information in past present or future tense,

and it adapts well into any other language.

Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor

Cross-Domain Relations in Analogical Relations

A true cross-domain relation would have two domains that each lead to the

same range. Analogical relations do something very similar to this, however

not quite. In an analogical relation, the relation between the domain and

range of one context is mimicked across a somewhat similar domain and range in

a different context (only some properties need to be similar for the analogy

to be formed, since a barely recognizable similarity needs to exist).

The result is like having generalized an abstraction of the two

domains and the relation, and using that abstraction to perform the

abstracted relation on the second domain in the other context.

--------------------------------\

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

--------------------------------

### Book 1 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

---------------------------------------------------------

Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Context and Question Asking Systems for Object-Oriented

Programming

The patterns in contexts model of knowledge representation and question

asking systems based on forming networks of questions and networks of patterns

in networks contexts can be used to make a profoundly sophisticated

object-oriented programming system capable of doing analogical reasoning,

deductive reasoning, as well as induction and recursions that are simply not

representable in other systems. In this system there is a constant

acceleration of computational complexity, all of which is progressively

designed to simplify the system while augmenting abilities and understanding.

Copyright 5/30/2005 Justin Coslor

Complexity Progressions

Every state of a complex pattern can be said to be the result of a

progressive augmentation of the previous state or model/version by a new or

repeated pattern, or by multiple patterns. That is, unless data loss has

occurred due to random deletion or a random addition process.

Copyright 5/31/2005 Justin Coslor

Pattern Details & Randomness

Every pattern is the iterative accumulation of modulations and

augmentations of sub-patterns, right down to the atomic repetitions that

are the first forms that are recognizable from randomness.

Atomic repetitions may come in a wide variety of non-interoperable modes

of partitioning, each of which is subject to a unique perception system that

is capable of buffering and filtering its own particular spectrum of atomic

repetitions that are partitioned from patterns and randomness that are

unrecognizable to that mode.

Randomness comes in two main forms: there is randomness that is compatible

with the partition mode of a given perspective system, thus being countable or

measurable via the mathematical comparison of the atomic repetitions of that

mode (because it is just a randomization of those atomic repetitions);

and the other kind of randomness is composed of randomized patterns that are

partitioned in modes other than that which is compatible with the

current perspective system.

It is undecidable whether or not there exists a randomness that cannot be

partitioned by any mode of perspective, i.e. a randomness that is not the

randomization of some set of patterns or atomic repetitions.

Copyright 9/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Metaphoric Operations on Patterns Across Contexts

I want to learn LISP and use it to make an intelligent agent capable

of doing metaphoric operations on patterns across contexts.

2/17/2005 Update by Justin Coslor:

I guess now, most Artificial Intelligence Programming is starting to

be done in Java since it is cross-platform and simple to use.

Copyright 9/8/2004 Justin Coslor

To do this, the sub-agents will need to be able to research raw data

configuration sets to look for algebraic repetition that can be considered to

be patterns in the sea of cached buffered inputed/observed/recognized

elements.

In order to recognize something, it will have to have a known set of

basic recursions (repetitions) to begin with. The prime numbers ar a good

source to start out with (since they are the natural balance points in the

universe).

Then it will need to try to describe each data configuration set

(data map) whose atomic repetition symmetries can be characterized or

parsed. This description will be known as the pattern's type, and

patterns with similar types will be grouped into classes.

To describe a metaphoric operation will require generalizing the

differences between each type description in a particular class, and

then mapping the observed relations (between each of these types) in the

form of a nodal network. That nodal network will be a metaphoric object

that summarizes the class.

Create metaphoric objects for all of the classes in the context (aka

scope) of your total original cached raw data. Then form relations

between different metaphoric objects, and combine and reconfigure

different metaphoric objects, with the original metaphoric objects being

treated as axioms of that particular context. The metaphoric object

relations can be treated as templates for filtering other raw data

contexts in the search for known patterns which contain their own

distinct uniqueness, that will will warrant the generation of new types

in new classes. Every context has its own types in their own classes.

In other words, every raw data set has its own patterns in their own

contexts. This is how to relate different raw data sets to extract their

relational axioms, and the combination and reconfiguration of different

contexts' axiom sets (metaphoric objects) is what I call metaphoric

operations.

Copyright 8/23/2004 by

Justin Coslor.

Information Theory Quotes

""Metaphor" is a relational model of recursion, where

the circular reasoning (in recursive definitions &

recursive functions) cross-relates the elements of

definitions & functions from multiple (or different)

contexts. That is why cross-domain relations are so

crucial to the metaphoric representation of knowledge

and knowledge systems (logics)."

Copyright 8/26/2004 by Justin Coslor:

"I also believe that information is metaphoric in

nature (has algebraic interconnectivity), and that it

can be represented as a composition of patterns in

contexts, where the contexts themselves can be

patterns, and the atomic elements of each pattern are

composed of symmetry sections (partitions) of data,

where each partition is part of a local or dislocated

repetition (a symmetry, an algebra). And it is only

through the repetition of a data section that part of

a pattern can become recognizable from apparently

random white noise. Randomness and white noise are

probably patterns that are larger than the scope of

our perceptions, so the data appears random. And I say

that metaphors can be represented geometrically

because all of the prime numbers (the balance points

in the universe) are symmetrical when represented

geometrically, and it is likely through primarily

symmetrical sensory and cognitive structures that our

minds can interpret information. And I think of metaphors

not as A = B, but more like the similarity of the

juxtaposition of A's elements in the context of B, and

B's elements in the context of A, in terms of general

systems theory.

I equate truth with workable patterns that become

more and more refined and defined as they get

used. I believe that all truth that we are capable of

perceiving is but a small approximation of the whole

truth. And that the truth/patterns that we are capable

of using is often subject to perception within varying

contexts. But there seem to exist connections between

information none-the-less, through whatever means.

Possibly since (in my opinion) everything came from

oneness)."

Here's another quote from my journal Copyright

11/24/2003 by Justin Coslor:

"Information is a symphony of symbolism and symmetry."

Here's another journal entry Copyright 12/23/2003 by Justin

Coslor:

"Information, by it's very nature, is a division. Yet

it strives to become whole again, and at the very

least, to become balanced."

12/25/2004

::Metaphoric Operations::

Metaphors are geometrical, in a sense, that is to say they follow mathematical

geometries. That is to say, metaphors can be thought of in terms of

geometrical patterns and systems. This is because metaphors can be diagrammed,

and diagrams have a relative/nodal/graph-theoretic logic about them, and

through the logic of their patterns and systems they can be recognizable as

having a sort of relational geometry (at least in the unseen

Platonic-reality). Patterns have an algebraic repetition at their foundation,

and the most basic repetitions are symmetries. The most basic symmetries can

be perceived through prime numbers, in that they are the fundamental building

blocks of more complex symmetrical and a-symmetrical structures. A-symmetrical

structures are constructed out of symmetrical structures, just as non-prime

numbers (composite numbers) are constructed out of prime numbers and

relations/functions. Metaphoric operations are relational templates that are

axiomatic, adaptable, reconfigurable, and versatile. This is because they are

collections of relations whose options have been generalized to optimize those

qualities for relating similar, and different qualitative domains across

contexts. Each context's qualities' relations are unique to that context's set

of axioms. One might say that domains are qualitative, while the domain's

ranges can be qualitative OR quantitative. Metaphoric operations relate

different consistent, recursively complete, contexts by copying or moving

elements from each context into the separate but more versatile context of the

metaphoric template. Once the elements have leave their original context,

their original context's axiom set(s) may be altered, as well as some of the

context itself (and sub-contexts, if any are relevant). Metaphoric contexts

may only need to copy some of the axioms of their element's original contexts,

because they have axioms of their own that help to allow for the relation of

the axioms that are buffered in from multiple other contexts. The metaphoric

template's original axioms also help to relate the qualitative elements which

are the current primary focuses, that were constructed out of relevant axioms

from the external contexts. New knowledge is created when the qualitative

elements' axioms sets are adapted to form new qualitative elements and

relations out of the augmentation of the metaphoric template's context's axiom

sets, by the elements' external axiom sets. With metaphors, anything that

isn't explicitly cross-domain related is ignored. Qualities are itemized as

they are noticed or as they are deemed relevant. Personally, I feel like the

diagram of metaphoric operations is a lot prettier than the description...

Copyright 12/25/2004 by Justin M. Coslor

Copyright 1/9/2005 Justin Coslor

Visual Dictionaries and Axiomatic Abductive Simulations

Maybe as part of building the logical framework for a systematic visual

dictionary, we could try representing each image both as a set of angular or

situational perspectives; but also I think it's important to try to axiomatize

the image properties into contexts, and by doing so we can do abductive

creative constructions (and abstractions of those to some approximate goals),

such as by perceiving each image as a series of nodes (graph theory vertices)

and connections that are all linked together both contextually in the physical

space, and conceptually in the historical-timeline/platonic interaction space.

By doing this, the heuristic (guess-work) training can be semi-automized

and the intelligence data on the scenario objects can have a far deeper

meaning and farther reaching applications. Deepening the understanding of

content and its abductive recombinations and metaphoric

transcombinations, both increases the potential for creating new applications

and tools, and increases the versatility and effectiveness of existing tools

and applications. Deepening understanding of content creates new contexts and

reconceptualizes stuff by augmenting axiom sets that the contexts are based

on.

Copyright 1/21/2005 Justin Coslor

Axiomatic Visual-Layer Interpretation

Forming stronger linkages between axiom sets deepens the meaning of

content of all structures that are based on those axioms. It can also

complicate things by cluttering the contexts that those structures act

within if the linkages are formed sub-optimally. Such is the case of an

image with ambiguous layering. This has applications to steganography,

computer vision, and virtual-reality educational environments, etc.

Copyright 8/7/2005 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Contexts: 3D Engine

I think Java3D, combined with some inexpensive virtual reality equipment,

will be the ideal environment for exploring Patterns In Contexts theory

visually. Critical to that is a software that is able to parse video data into

2D objects and build 3D geometric reconstructions of those objects along

with the parameters of their observable range of motion, and do heuristic

guessing at the backsides of the objects that are hidden from view or just

make the 2D objects into 3D avatars that always face you regardless of which

side of theme you are on. That way, video data can be geometerized and

represented as Patterns In Contexts, and 3D worlds can much more easily be

created by mixing together objects and behaviors from an enormous archive of

experience (from video sources) that is all parsed and sorted categorically by

a visual dictionary that maps adjectives and nouns and verbs to pattern

properties such as qualitative geometric relations, axiomatically defined

variables and operations, and contextually associated references of objects

and their pattern groupings. Each entry of the visual dictionary will contain

an up-to-date list of all objects in the pattern archive that contain the

geometric or otherwise visual property defined by that visual dictionary

entry. Scale, color, orientation, state, position, and quantitative data in

many cases can be ignored by the visual dictionary, unless the entry is

directly intended to describe one or more of those properties.

Copyright 1/9/2005 Justin Coslor

Graphical Representation and Visual Heuristics

Make a website loaded with graphs, diagrams, flowcharts, and simplified

geometric reconstructions of stuff, events, places, flows, tools, intellectual

understanding, interpretations and translations, programs, systems, etc. Call

it "mapworld" or "graphworld." Make webcrawling intelligent agents that

generate extensive thorough, and systematic visual dictionaries online.

Similarly, there should be a webpage utility where you can enter the

URL (Uniform Resource Locator = website address) to some text or copy/paste

in some text directly and it could try to abstract visual perceptions of the

text content's meaning and represent it in the form of a diagram or graph,

etc. It could also try researching images on the internet that are related to

the text. I realize that the second part might be difficult, since there

aren't very many visual dictionaries in existance yet, and computer vision and

machine learning technologies may not be that advanced yet (but maybe they

are...?). Heuristics (guess-work on visual data and in language processing is

just a matter of logical deduction, manual training of Bayesian statistical

and Connectionist techniques, and

metaphoric/analogical/cross-domain-relational mappings across contexts,

to bridge systems not yet adapted to each other.

Copyright 7/20/2005 Justin Coslor

Creativity & Understanding

Language is permutations of semantics, governed by syntax and context,

with meaningful intention.

So....

What is the language of creativity?

What are its semantics?

What is its syntax?

What is its context?

The language of creativity always contains either:

1. new semantics or new permutations of semantics, and/or

2. new syntax, and/or

3. new context.

*Creativity does not always convey meaningful intention.

The semantics of creativity are new patterns and/or old patterns thought

of in new ways (recontextualized patterns). The syntax of creativity is

either internally defined by the language of the format (if the format is

known), or else (if the format is new) it is externally defined by the

naturally occurring partitions and connections of the organic objects and

systems of developments of the natural universe, or by the connections and

partitions present in the diagonalizations of synthesized patterns juxtaposed

through a relational operator or operation, and/or the diagonalization of the

juxtaposition of synthesized patterns and natural patterns juxtaposed through

a relational operator or operation, and/or the diagonalization of the

juxtaposition of natural patterns juxtaposed through a relational operator or

operation.

The context of creativity is always at least partially new. Creative

expressions composed entirely of entirely new patterns (not just modified

ones) in entirely new contexts with external syntax that has never before been

known of and that is unrelatable to known syntax will always appear random and

entirely undecipherable unless the person or interpretation program is capable

of analogical abductive reasoning. However there will be no conclusive proof

that the analogies drawn will be correct. The analogies may be qualitatively

correct in the metaphoric sense, but they will never be proven quantitatively

correct to the knowledge of the analyst. There has to be some decoding method,

key, or common ground known to the analyst in order to decipher such a

creative expression.

Copyright 7/17/2005 Justin Coslor

Concepts

Layers of states and states of layers (As in "finite element state

machines" and similar systems):

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Art

Video

Writing

Talking

Scent

Taste

Touch

------------------

Mathematics -> connections and differences in maps of possibilities

Philosophy -> depth of possibility maps models of truth progressing

Science and Technology -> exploration of possibilities through careful

experimentation and adaptation to discoveries

-------------------------------

Can you think of more? It is definitely possible.

Look for stuff like those descriptions. Juxtapose operators and abductively

reason into applications.

Copyright 7/8/2005 Justin Coslor

Measurement Systems

In measurement, two or more quantities or qualities are compared to one

another, such as a unit of measure applied to a starting point and ending

point of another object. When a unit of measure is undefined, you look for the

minimum unit(s) of commonality between the objects and mark the overlap points

and the center-points between the starting and ending points, and the center

points between those points, etc. If any number systems or other patterns are

used as division or counting units (such as prime numbers), as well as

center-point binary tree parsing, we realize that "all measurement is really

comparison by parsing or partitioning". The units of the partitioning or

parsing can be native common denominators of the observer's perception system

and the object.

The intersection of the juxtaposition of multiple objects is another

native unit of parsing, which itself can be parsed into smaller units via a

number system or other pattern. Common ground or compatibility is necessary

for comparison, and since measurement is a form of comparison, measurement is

an act of perception adaptation via parsing or partitioning. It's the act of

trying to perceive of an object via the perception system of something

else, and often times perception systems miss a lot because there are often

lots of valid ways for a particular observer to perceive of things, and it's

an undecidable problem about whether a perception system is not recognizing

other undefined potential aspects of the object, let alone know what it is not

perceiving through its axioms and atomic units of partitioning, and methods of

parsing and grouping, and methods of determining anchor points,

interpretation, starting and ending points, edge detection, pattern layering,

and buffer sizes and contextualization, etc.

Active measuring is when ea system's partitioning structure and

methodology/reasoning system is constantly updated as something is being

measured. An example of active measuring is a system capable of learning, such

as an adaptive or evolutionary perception system, such as an artificially

intelligent reasoning system or human being. A perception system that is

merely adaptive but not evolutionary is autonomous or semi-autonomous, but not

intelligent, since it only knows the context that it currently exists in. By

storing perception systems adapted to multiple contexts, a system can then

often map out the commonalty and differences between each context and form a

general common-sense perception system which can be analyzed inductively,

deductively, and abductively by its reasoning engine.

Analysis via comparison of the domains and ranges of functions that exist

in different contexts is an abductive reasoning process since it is a form of

analogical reasoning. Once again common ground must be mapped between the

functions being compared or else an external perception system will have

to artificially map its units onto both functions so that compatible parsing

and partitioning can proceed in a measurable, if not blind (thus artificially

simulated) representation.

Passive measuring is when the measurement and perception system's

reasoning engine is not updated by internal induction, deduction, or abduction

during measurement, nor after measurement. Passive measurement is merely

mechanical and not adaptive or evolutionary.

Copyright 7/2/2005 Justin Coslor

Re-contextualized Patterns

It's interesting how patterns and their implications change as their raw

data is re-contextualized and/or perceived from different perspective systems

and contexts. The parameters of each context shapes the possibilities of its

patterns' applications, implications, and recognized states of existence.

Often times the possibilities of contexts overlap, and are subjective in

the sense that there may exist several possible ways to perceive of and

interpret a context, where each way may have equal or varying levels of

probable truth in its systems, depending on the perspective system and

intentions/expectations of the observer and/or the controller.

Copyright 6/25/2005 Justin Coslor

Observing patterns and differences

Combining my poem about "Sight" with my poem about "Reasoning Engines",

leaves me thinking about the line "from color comes shape" and the line about

"thinking as storing and grouping knowledge", and how it takes a pattern to

perceive of a pattern, such as one colored shape outlining or juxtaposing

against another colored shape, and how each of these shapes (and color

information) gets stored as a piece of knowledge (a pattern), and how both are

grouped together by their situational context. The differences between them

are patterns not origininally apparent in either piece of knowledge prior to

their comparison, unless those patterns are stored in the perceiver's virtual

knowledge base from prior experience or innate programming.

So you can try grouping every atomic pattern with every other atomic

pattern (time allowing), and as long as you're working with more than a

one-dimensional medium, the differences between each atomic pattern being

compared one-to-one will constitute a unique atomic pattern. This sort of

comparison is one way of coming up with new knowledge in mediums that exist in

two-dimensional (or greater) qualitative and/or quantitative and/or

conditional mediums, and mediums that combine different types of properties.

* Comparing unequivalent objects always creates partitions in either one or

both of the objects. The remainder partitions are sometimes entirely knew but

virtual objects. *

------------------

"Sight"

From color comes shape,

and from shape comes size,

we triangulate images

that come into our eyes.

-----------------

"Reasoning Engines"

1. Knowledge as patterns in contexts.

2. Thinking as storing and grouping knowledge.

-----------------

* Language contextualizes perceptions. The language used in each perception

identifies and indicates patterns that have been parsed through comparison. *

Copyright 6/24/2005 Justin Coslor

Pattern Matching

Previously I've written about how if you divide a circle into a

bunch of equiangled sectors and if there is a prime number of sectors

then no symmetrical alternating coloring patterns exist, but if there is

a non-prime number of these equiangled sectors, then you can color in

alternating sectors or groups of sectors to form symmetrical patterns

that correspond to each of the composite number pieces.

To apply this to pattern matching, simply cut the circle so that its

sectors lie in a straight line and then look at the coloring patterns to

match pieces of that linear pattern to strings of numbers, where each

color might be a particular number, or just do it in binary. In this

manner you can make numerical landmarks in raw data streams to look for

patterns within potentially random data.

When only a piece of one of these composite number symmetry patterns

shows up in a linear data stream, that may indicate that other layers of

patterns may be overlapping it. The thing that makes these patterns

recognizable from randomness is the juxtaposition of their unique

alternating prime partition patterns. An individual prime partition

pattern piece that has been linearized is indistinguishable from any

other linear prime partition pattern piece unless you know for sure that

you're seeing the whole thing. But when you juxtapose two or more of

these patterns together in the form of a composite symmetry pattern even

a fragment of that pattern can dramatically narrow down the

possibilities of its origin. Copyright 6/20/2005 Justin Coslor

Remote-Controlled Contexts Via Preprocessor Switchboards (See Diagrams)

Instead of having injective, surjective, and bijective, maybe there

could be a preprocessor module that is bijective that goes in front of

all surjective and injective relations. For a surjective relation: P1 =

surjective ARP1 = bijective ARB = surjective = ACP1B For an injective

relation: ARP2 = bijective P2RB = injective ARB = injective = ACP2RB A

and B are domains P1 and P2 are preprocessors R is a relation, C is a

cross-domain relation.

In effect, the preprocessor becomes a duplicate of the domain

element in A, but independent of the context of A. So since the

preprocessing is done outside of A, you can have single-line inputs from

A, and you can take several domain elements out of their contexts and

perform their relations via remote control.

In the second diagram, the cross-domain relation BCP2 is turned off,

so context D doesn't contain its relation (P2RD) unit P2 gets turned

back on. In that diagram, D is a remote-controlled context via the

preprocessor operations switchboard S.

A, B, and C are each in their own contexts and they combine in

context D. The preprocessor modules allow for simple remote control like

an operations switchboard. Copyright 6/12/2005 Justin Coslor Definitions

Defining something by cataloging it's properties and relations is

blind unless you specify the particular context of the thing, and the

sub-contexts of the properties and relations it is composed of. Context

is both an exoskelletal structure as well as an endoskelletal structure.

Context is is defined by both the external limits as well as the

internal limits. Copyright 6/5/2005 Justin Coslor Geometric Abstractions

When doing abstraction on geometries and photos of patterns (symmetry

formations, repetitions of patterns, and that which is recognizable from

randomness), maybe all that is needed is a map of intersection points

for each level of connectivity: i.e. a map of all points where two lines

intersect, a map of all points where three lines intersect, etc. The

union of all of those maps should form a sufficient geometric

abstraction to recreate a recognizable approximation of the original

model of photo patterns. Copyright 6/4/2005 Justin Coslor Index of

Topics *(Remember to finish adding topics to this index, as it is only a

partial list of ePIC-related topics I've written about so far.) choice

creativity patterns contexts variables properties relations:

quantitative, qualitative, cross-domain, analogical abstraction models

simulations axioms: key, branch knowledge: implicit, explicit,

representation intuitions complexity progressions pattern details

randomness analogical recursions question asking systems question

expectation templates object-oriented processing operation spaces: grids

v.s. networks analogy metaphor examples Copyright 6/4/2005 Justin Coslor

Abstraction

Abstract relations are relations described by descriptions that are

the simplified form of lexicons, where the details have been stripped

and only the categorical data remains, along with some quantitative data

(possibly. . .I'm not sure yet....), such as the dimensions and data

types. Relations are fairly easy to abstract because you can just build

an itemized list of the operators and verbs used on or in the general

context of the domains that use them. Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor

(See example diagrams) If a domain A is cross-domain related to a domain

B analogically, that relation can be injective, or subjective; or if it

is bijective, even if it's bijective to another element in the domain

than the starting point, then we can say that the relation is recursive.

This is an example of analogical recursions, because since all bijective

relations are recursive, and analogical reasoning deals primarily with

cross-domain relations, then all cross-domain relations that are

bijective are analogical recursions. Another form of cross-domain

analogical recursions comes from alternating back and forth through a

set of relations between two or more domains, where the active element

in the active domain is determined by some function on the ordering of

the elements in that domain (a sequence function on the cardinality).

Injective analogical recursions can also exist in a back and forth

system that ultimately loops between the various domains of two or more

contexts. Copyright 5/25/2005 Justin Coslor Implicit V.S. Explicit

Knowledge

In knowledge bases, facts and data are stored in patterns and

contexts explicitly, but that same information may also belong to other

contexts, and can be arranged into different patterns and may have

unidentified relations to patterns in that data set and/or to patterns

not in that data set.

Often times there are multiple hierarchical levels and recursions of

patterns in contexts and sub-contexts in patterns, and bridging across

these levels are more of the same in many cases. Data that is implied

can be treated as though it is hidden, though its role may be very

important in the context of the data that depends on it. In the

perception of questions, lots of implicit patterns and contexts are

necessary to generate and adapt simulated models of the knowledge that

is involved with the possible ways to represent the meaning of the

question, as well as for generating models of the expectation parameters

of the context templates involved with goal search, answer retrieval,

and answer formulation (for discovering or constructing suitable content

of the right level of detail). This is because every question is the

intersection of multiple contexts, or rather every question is an

attempt at adapting multiple contexts into compatibility, and thus

unknowns must be declared. Copyright 5/16/2005 Justin Coslor Analogy,

Metaphor, and Examples Now due to my lack of a dictionary on hand I'll

create some of my own definitions (the names can be changed later). An

analogy is like half of a metaphor. An analogy gives an elaborated

example of a relation, whereas a metaphor gives an example of a relation

across multiple contexts (a cross-domain relation). An example of an

analogy is like saying: An apple is like an onion. Both rot, and are

edible. An example of a metaphor is: Apple is to onion as postman is to

salesman. An analogy is essentially a simile plus a moral or

explanation/elaboration. A metaphor may describe the same relation(s) as

an analogy in that it juxtaposes two or more pieces of information. This

is similar to generating a unique diagonal length from a box generated

by using one sequence or variable quantification as the x axis and

another sequence or variable quantification as the y axis to produce a

unique qualitative variable or sequence... Add more dimensions to the

diagonalization to combine more variables or sequences or functions...

Then just rotate the diagonal axis until it is horizontal. But metaphor

goes a step farther and presents another example of that relation, but

in a different context. *Examples are contextualizations of patterns. A

relation between qualitative variables is thus a diagonalization of

their quantitative mappings. In this way, qualitative mappings can be

represented geometrically. Patterns are composed of variables and

relations between variables. **Variables are usually qualitative

property sets that have been quantitatively mapped into juxtaposition

with their enumerated algebraic repetitions. Juxtaposition via

diagonalization is a form of an operator. ***Operators are forms of

juxtaposition of variables and patterns. Addition sequentially

juxtaposes variables and patterns on a grid. Subtraction is the opposite

of addition, as it removes variables and patterns from a grid.

Multiplication sequentially adds to columns of categories, one category

at a time. Division de-references and parses columns of categorical

values, and is the opposite of multiplication. Addition, subtraction,

multiplication, division, 2D geometry, trigonometry, algebra, calculus,

etc, ... all are operations that can be performed on a grid. Change the

operation space (i.e. change the context), and the axioms that these

operations are based on may no longer apply; but some may, and those are

the axioms we want to collect for a wide range of adaptability, and can

be used in forming general systems theory grids and networks.

As far as I know about operation spaces, there are grids and there

are networks. Each can be within each, they can come in many different

forms, and translations are possible between them, but the translation

between a grid and a network always relies on a core set of axioms that

are in common between the two data structures. Copyright 5/4/2005 Justin

Coslor (Based on a theory I had around the year 2000) Sight --------

From color comes shape, and from shape comes size, we triangulate images

that come into our eyes. --------------------------- Fall 2001 to

4/25/2003 Justin Coslor My fundamental theorem of Computer Vision: I

believe that from color comes shape and from shape comes size;

comparatively/relatively/contexually. I'll have to read about the

cognition of vision to fill in the details and check out software and

plasticware/firmware/hardware models of visual perception. Learn known

mathematical techniques. Copyright 5/6/2005 Justin Coslor Rules Are

Behavioral Expectations Here are some types of rules: Laws, priorities,

environmental limitations (physics), trends, norms, common sense,

personal limitations, societal beliefs, personal beliefs, lazy

tendencies & optimizations, conditions, terms of use or license

agreement, policy, ethics, morals, probability judgments, priority

judgments, game theoretic strategy, preemptive negotiation, real-time

negotiation, post hoc proc negotiation, design considerations,

navigational control, pattern guidelines, pattern maps, mathematical

modeling and calculation, combination possibilities, case-by-case

possibilities; forum dimensionality, axioms, theorems, and restrictions;

units and parsing and sorting methods and requirements; activation,

deactivation, and flow control theory, network access methods, network

exchange methods, network dynamics. Here are some qualifiers for those

kinds of rules: Global, situational, regional, local, continuous,

temporal, static, dynamic, linear, parallel, hierarchical, symmetric,

independent, context specific, general, intentional, unintentional,

conscious/unconscious, automatic, manual, modal, type, categorical. Find

an ontology that lists concepts related to a given concept, in a

hyper-linked format. Similar to encyclopedia references (see

Wikipedia.org) or book topical references in the public library's card

catalog. Copyright 1/7/2005 Justin Coslor Categories: Part 1 Even if

categories get proven to be inaccurate (*Are accuracy proofs based on

any subjective information?), then useful information about the

compatibility of the data elements can be discovered as parameters get

refined. Ultimately, it is the compatibility of the elements, both in

and between data sets, that makes the fundamental definitions of the

categories. Copyright 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor Hypothetical Relation

Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets: If categorical names have been

assigned to finite elements in a domain, the rest of the data in the set

can be hypothetically considered to be relations or parts of relations

(on those elements and elements not in that buffered data set). Or they

may be elements of categories you don't yet recognize or know of yet.

Guessing about Neural Architectures... This is a journal entry,

Copyright 9/12/2004 by Justin Coslor.

I could be totally wrong about this, but it is currently presumed,

by me at least, that neural architectures tune to, receive, translate,

and transmit various wavelengths of patterned energy configurations. The

tuning functions may be in one unit, the receivers/input devices may be

in another unit; the translation/manipulation apparatus may be in

another unit; the translation/manipulation apparatus may operate in a

unit of its own, and the transmission/re- communication apparatus may be

in a unit of its own as well.

There is likely data loss in the imperfections and limitations of

the tuning apparatus, the receiving apparatus, and the re-transmission

apparatus successively; however, the translation/manipulation apparatus

may apply experience-based heuristics to fill in the holes and sharpen

or simplify the distortions and puzzles in the data field. Each cluster

of nodes, as well as the relation nodes themselves sometimes perform

negotiations for syntactic and semantic consistency. Such negotiations

are likely interfaces composed of multi-purpose reconfigurable general

cellular nodes. Meaning might be derived from information streams by

creating translations and equivalence representations in other classes

and other contexts, and by defining and rating utility functions and

organizing them in such a way that their priority can easily be

determined relevant to the general function of the class of relations

they belong to in generalized/easily-specialized contexts. The neat

thing about information, rather than cause and effect, is that it can be

re-conceptualized and re-contextualized and re-framed/re-patterned.

10/22/2004 Justin Coslor (after reading pg. 11 âModern Algebraâ by

Gilbert and Vanstone) Some methods of Proof: - Assumptions (context) -

Examples of problems or experience - Critical questions of interest -

Representative language choice -Translation/Mapping -> same or different

context? - Inventory of context axioms - Define critical question's

search scope - Assume all questions are somewhat answerable - Convert

other knowledge into current representation and abstract relationships

without regard to hierarchical depth - Group compatible relationships -

Mark partial compatibilities as overlapping sub-contexts - Hypothesize

mappings that assume each relationship to be the answer to a series of

questions - Look for hypothesized questions similar to questions of

interest - If found, remap original examples in terms of those similar

mappings of hypothesized questions - Define inconsistencies and address

them - Represent conclusion - Explore relations of conclusion to other

contexts - Blah blah blah, I should study more. 8/12/2004 Justin Coslor

Axiom Notes (Here are some note I took at the public library today.)

Structuring XML Documents / David Megginson CLP MAIN SCI&TECH QA76.76H94

M44 1998 The National Strategy To Secure Cyberspace February 2003

http://www.gpoaccess.gov - Perhaps people and machines should be trying

to prove the limits of proof. - There are many shapes of non-Euclidean

geometric reality. - Perhaps quanta of energy is a form of matter that

exists on non-Euclidean spiral and tubular planes? Maybe quanta breaks

off from matter and electrons that exist on non-Euclidean spherical

planes during orbit changes and altitude changes? I read part of the end

of the book Thinking about [TLC] LOGO: A graphic look at computing with

ideas. pg. 206&207 ISBN 0-03-064116-0 Each set of axioms is based on a

unique working model of the universe. (Regardless of the completeness of

the model.) In many cases, there is some overlap between different sets

of axioms, because many contexts have some properties and/or patterns

that are in common. Metaphoric operations describe the relations between

the properties and/or patterns that are in common between unique

contexts. More than that, each set of axioms attempts to define a

working model of the universe, and that no model of the universe is

complete (hence it is a model) other than the universe itself; and from

within the universe, a model of the universe can only be approximated,

and to a varying degree of accuracy and/or applicability at that.

8/20/2004 Justin Coslor Update: So essentially, a set of axioms is only

as good as the model they attempt to describe. Copyright 6/8/2004 Justin

Coslor Contexts

A context is a relation that defines a group of patterns. A pattern

that is not related to any other patterns is isolated, and can for the

most part be considered "invisible" to other contexts. A context can

also be considered to be a pattern, and can sometimes also be considered

as subject to this "isolation" concept. Patterns that exist within

networks of contexts are the most easily located, since cross-domain

relation-based experimental search and discovery methods need not be

applied to locate or define them, as is necessary in many cases to find

isolated patterns (i.e. island knowledge). Networks can consist of

relations (surjective, injective, and bijective ) and cross-domain

relations (which are potentially multi-node route reverse-surjective

relations). Data turns into knowledge as the patterns and contexts and

networks of contexts are mapped out. Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor

Perception

Every multi-state organization or cognitive organism exists on a

higher plane than it is capable of perceiving, because nothing can

monitor every aspect of itself (unless every cell is symmetrically

identical) since the monitoring devices (sensors, etc), even when

recursive, cannot monitor every aspect of themselves. This is because in

order to perceive of something we must classify it in terms of something

else we have perceived, and since we were born in motion, our

consciousnesses pass forward from state to state, processing information

(perceiving of things in terms of the physical universe) until parts, or

the entirety of our bodies have fully ceased to move (i.e. until the

breakdown of the subparts).

As Godel's theorem implies: "no set can map its powerset". After

some developed mental subparts have broken down, the structures of the

consciousness that they were physically translating may continue to

operate outside of the rest of the brain's physical time-frame. The

latency of the various cognitive architectures in the brain may have a

great deal to do with the relativistic self-observations of

multi-sensory experiences. Since after all, some parts of the mind/body

connection and mind/brain connection operate at near the speed of light

(as electrons flow between the parts of each cell). Copyright 8/10/2005

Justin Coslor Perception -- continued from 6/5/2004.... On 6/5/2004 I

wrote that "The latency of the various cognitive architectures in the

brain may have a great deal to do with the relativistic

self-observations of multi-sensory experiences." In other words, people

think at different rates and depths from time to time, and that can

create recall and encoding obstacles in grouping and interfacing

memories between different cognitive states. However, those kinds of

qualitative and quantitative differences between the contents of

memorized perceptions can create bridges into depthier re-perceptions

for recognition into fine- tuned contexts. 5/17/2003 Justin Coslor A.I.

Notes Today I did a http://Google.com search on OpenCYC

Thought Treasure V.S. OpenCyc came up. I guess both are major

knowledge base ontology management systems, i.e. Reasoning Engines.

Thought Treasure seems to have more stuff for Natural Language

Processing than OpenCyc, but it is only free for noncommercial use. The

Cyc technology though is the world's largest and most complete general

knowledge base and commonsense reasoning engine. The CIA uses it, and

did about 500 man-years worth of data-entry into to. OpenCyc is a much

smaller subset of Cyc, and is open-source.

Cycorp runs opencyc.org, and also makes ResearchCyc for R&D in

academia and industry. Dependencies: none Languages: CycL, SubL, Java

(other API's on the way) Platforms: Linux (Win32 coming soon) Sites:

http://opencyc.org foundry.ai-depot.com/Project/OpenCyc /Amygdala /Fear

/GAUL /Joone /LogicMoo /OpenAI /SigmaPi /Simbrain 10/20/2004 Justin

Coslor Mission Statement

Free open-source software is quite possibly the best hope, in

conjunction with the freely accessible Internet, to give the common

citizens a fighting chance at building foundations for their decendents

in the midst of the mechanized empires of greed that thwart and encroach

on their liberties and livelihoods in their attempts to squeeze and

control the creative potential of supposedly free individuals who might

otherwise be nurtured to blossom as citizens of a humbly selfless and

harmonious planet Earth, that we all know can happen.

-------------------------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

-------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------

Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Context and Question Asking Systems for Object-Oriented

Programming

The patterns in contexts model of knowledge representation and question

asking systems based on forming networks of questions and networks of patterns

in networks contexts can be used to make a profoundly sophisticated

object-oriented programming system capable of doing analogical reasoning,

deductive reasoning, as well as induction and recursions that are simply not

representable in other systems. In this system there is a constant

acceleration of computational complexity, all of which is progressively

designed to simplify the system while augmenting abilities and understanding.

Copyright 5/30/2005 Justin Coslor

Complexity Progressions

Every state of a complex pattern can be said to be the result of a

progressive augmentation of the previous state or model/version by a new or

repeated pattern, or by multiple patterns. That is, unless data loss has

occurred due to random deletion or a random addition process.

Copyright 5/31/2005 Justin Coslor

Pattern Details & Randomness

Every pattern is the iterative accumulation of modulations and

augmentations of sub-patterns, right down to the atomic repetitions that

are the first forms that are recognizable from randomness.

Atomic repetitions may come in a wide variety of non-interoperable modes

of partitioning, each of which is subject to a unique perception system that

is capable of buffering and filtering its own particular spectrum of atomic

repetitions that are partitioned from patterns and randomness that are

unrecognizable to that mode.

Randomness comes in two main forms: there is randomness that is compatible

with the partition mode of a given perspective system, thus being countable or

measurable via the mathematical comparison of the atomic repetitions of that

mode (because it is just a randomization of those atomic repetitions);

and the other kind of randomness is composed of randomized patterns that are

partitioned in modes other than that which is compatible with the

current perspective system.

It is undecidable whether or not there exists a randomness that cannot be

partitioned by any mode of perspective, i.e. a randomness that is not the

randomization of some set of patterns or atomic repetitions.

Copyright 9/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Metaphoric Operations on Patterns Across Contexts

I want to learn LISP and use it to make an intelligent agent capable

of doing metaphoric operations on patterns across contexts.

2/17/2005 Update by Justin Coslor:

I guess now, most Artificial Intelligence Programming is starting to

be done in Java since it is cross-platform and simple to use.

Copyright 9/8/2004 Justin Coslor

To do this, the sub-agents will need to be able to research raw data

configuration sets to look for algebraic repetition that can be considered to

be patterns in the sea of cached buffered inputed/observed/recognized

elements.

In order to recognize something, it will have to have a known set of

basic recursions (repetitions) to begin with. The prime numbers ar a good

source to start out with (since they are the natural balance points in the

universe).

Then it will need to try to describe each data configuration set

(data map) whose atomic repetition symmetries can be characterized or

parsed. This description will be known as the pattern's type, and

patterns with similar types will be grouped into classes.

To describe a metaphoric operation will require generalizing the

differences between each type description in a particular class, and

then mapping the observed relations (between each of these types) in the

form of a nodal network. That nodal network will be a metaphoric object

that summarizes the class.

Create metaphoric objects for all of the classes in the context (aka

scope) of your total original cached raw data. Then form relations

between different metaphoric objects, and combine and reconfigure

different metaphoric objects, with the original metaphoric objects being

treated as axioms of that particular context. The metaphoric object

relations can be treated as templates for filtering other raw data

contexts in the search for known patterns which contain their own

distinct uniqueness, that will will warrant the generation of new types

in new classes. Every context has its own types in their own classes.

In other words, every raw data set has its own patterns in their own

contexts. This is how to relate different raw data sets to extract their

relational axioms, and the combination and reconfiguration of different

contexts' axiom sets (metaphoric objects) is what I call metaphoric

operations.

Copyright 8/23/2004 by

Justin Coslor.

Information Theory Quotes

""Metaphor" is a relational model of recursion, where

the circular reasoning (in recursive definitions &

recursive functions) cross-relates the elements of

definitions & functions from multiple (or different)

contexts. That is why cross-domain relations are so

crucial to the metaphoric representation of knowledge

and knowledge systems (logics)."

Copyright 8/26/2004 by Justin Coslor:

"I also believe that information is metaphoric in

nature (has algebraic interconnectivity), and that it

can be represented as a composition of patterns in

contexts, where the contexts themselves can be

patterns, and the atomic elements of each pattern are

composed of symmetry sections (partitions) of data,

where each partition is part of a local or dislocated

repetition (a symmetry, an algebra). And it is only

through the repetition of a data section that part of

a pattern can become recognizable from apparently

random white noise. Randomness and white noise are

probably patterns that are larger than the scope of

our perceptions, so the data appears random. And I say

that metaphors can be represented geometrically

because all of the prime numbers (the balance points

in the universe) are symmetrical when represented

geometrically, and it is likely through primarily

symmetrical sensory and cognitive structures that our

minds can interpret information. And I think of metaphors

not as A = B, but more like the similarity of the

juxtaposition of A's elements in the context of B, and

B's elements in the context of A, in terms of general

systems theory.

I equate truth with workable patterns that become

more and more refined and defined as they get

used. I believe that all truth that we are capable of

perceiving is but a small approximation of the whole

truth. And that the truth/patterns that we are capable

of using is often subject to perception within varying

contexts. But there seem to exist connections between

information none-the-less, through whatever means.

Possibly since (in my opinion) everything came from

oneness)."

Here's another quote from my journal Copyright

11/24/2003 by Justin Coslor:

"Information is a symphony of symbolism and symmetry."

Here's another journal entry Copyright 12/23/2003 by Justin

Coslor:

"Information, by it's very nature, is a division. Yet

it strives to become whole again, and at the very

least, to become balanced."

12/25/2004

::Metaphoric Operations::

Metaphors are geometrical, in a sense, that is to say they follow mathematical

geometries. That is to say, metaphors can be thought of in terms of

geometrical patterns and systems. This is because metaphors can be diagrammed,

and diagrams have a relative/nodal/graph-theoretic logic about them, and

through the logic of their patterns and systems they can be recognizable as

having a sort of relational geometry (at least in the unseen

Platonic-reality). Patterns have an algebraic repetition at their foundation,

and the most basic repetitions are symmetries. The most basic symmetries can

be perceived through prime numbers, in that they are the fundamental building

blocks of more complex symmetrical and a-symmetrical structures. A-symmetrical

structures are constructed out of symmetrical structures, just as non-prime

numbers (composite numbers) are constructed out of prime numbers and

relations/functions. Metaphoric operations are relational templates that are

axiomatic, adaptable, reconfigurable, and versatile. This is because they are

collections of relations whose options have been generalized to optimize those

qualities for relating similar, and different qualitative domains across

contexts. Each context's qualities' relations are unique to that context's set

of axioms. One might say that domains are qualitative, while the domain's

ranges can be qualitative OR quantitative. Metaphoric operations relate

different consistent, recursively complete, contexts by copying or moving

elements from each context into the separate but more versatile context of the

metaphoric template. Once the elements have leave their original context,

their original context's axiom set(s) may be altered, as well as some of the

context itself (and sub-contexts, if any are relevant). Metaphoric contexts

may only need to copy some of the axioms of their element's original contexts,

because they have axioms of their own that help to allow for the relation of

the axioms that are buffered in from multiple other contexts. The metaphoric

template's original axioms also help to relate the qualitative elements which

are the current primary focuses, that were constructed out of relevant axioms

from the external contexts. New knowledge is created when the qualitative

elements' axioms sets are adapted to form new qualitative elements and

relations out of the augmentation of the metaphoric template's context's axiom

sets, by the elements' external axiom sets. With metaphors, anything that

isn't explicitly cross-domain related is ignored. Qualities are itemized as

they are noticed or as they are deemed relevant. Personally, I feel like the

diagram of metaphoric operations is a lot prettier than the description...

Copyright 12/25/2004 by Justin M. Coslor

Copyright 1/9/2005 Justin Coslor

Visual Dictionaries and Axiomatic Abductive Simulations

Maybe as part of building the logical framework for a systematic visual

dictionary, we could try representing each image both as a set of angular or

situational perspectives; but also I think it's important to try to axiomatize

the image properties into contexts, and by doing so we can do abductive

creative constructions (and abstractions of those to some approximate goals),

such as by perceiving each image as a series of nodes (graph theory vertices)

and connections that are all linked together both contextually in the physical

space, and conceptually in the historical-timeline/platonic interaction space.

By doing this, the heuristic (guess-work) training can be semi-automized

and the intelligence data on the scenario objects can have a far deeper

meaning and farther reaching applications. Deepening the understanding of

content and its abductive recombinations and metaphoric

transcombinations, both increases the potential for creating new applications

and tools, and increases the versatility and effectiveness of existing tools

and applications. Deepening understanding of content creates new contexts and

reconceptualizes stuff by augmenting axiom sets that the contexts are based

on.

Copyright 1/21/2005 Justin Coslor

Axiomatic Visual-Layer Interpretation

Forming stronger linkages between axiom sets deepens the meaning of

content of all structures that are based on those axioms. It can also

complicate things by cluttering the contexts that those structures act

within if the linkages are formed sub-optimally. Such is the case of an

image with ambiguous layering. This has applications to steganography,

computer vision, and virtual-reality educational environments, etc.

Copyright 8/7/2005 Justin Coslor

Patterns In Contexts: 3D Engine

I think Java3D, combined with some inexpensive virtual reality equipment,

will be the ideal environment for exploring Patterns In Contexts theory

visually. Critical to that is a software that is able to parse video data into

2D objects and build 3D geometric reconstructions of those objects along

with the parameters of their observable range of motion, and do heuristic

guessing at the backsides of the objects that are hidden from view or just

make the 2D objects into 3D avatars that always face you regardless of which

side of theme you are on. That way, video data can be geometerized and

represented as Patterns In Contexts, and 3D worlds can much more easily be

created by mixing together objects and behaviors from an enormous archive of

experience (from video sources) that is all parsed and sorted categorically by

a visual dictionary that maps adjectives and nouns and verbs to pattern

properties such as qualitative geometric relations, axiomatically defined

variables and operations, and contextually associated references of objects

and their pattern groupings. Each entry of the visual dictionary will contain

an up-to-date list of all objects in the pattern archive that contain the

geometric or otherwise visual property defined by that visual dictionary

entry. Scale, color, orientation, state, position, and quantitative data in

many cases can be ignored by the visual dictionary, unless the entry is

directly intended to describe one or more of those properties.

Copyright 1/9/2005 Justin Coslor

Graphical Representation and Visual Heuristics

Make a website loaded with graphs, diagrams, flowcharts, and simplified

geometric reconstructions of stuff, events, places, flows, tools, intellectual

understanding, interpretations and translations, programs, systems, etc. Call

it "mapworld" or "graphworld." Make webcrawling intelligent agents that

generate extensive thorough, and systematic visual dictionaries online.

Similarly, there should be a webpage utility where you can enter the

URL (Uniform Resource Locator = website address) to some text or copy/paste

in some text directly and it could try to abstract visual perceptions of the

text content's meaning and represent it in the form of a diagram or graph,

etc. It could also try researching images on the internet that are related to

the text. I realize that the second part might be difficult, since there

aren't very many visual dictionaries in existance yet, and computer vision and

machine learning technologies may not be that advanced yet (but maybe they

are...?). Heuristics (guess-work on visual data and in language processing is

just a matter of logical deduction, manual training of Bayesian statistical

and Connectionist techniques, and

metaphoric/analogical/cross-domain-relational mappings across contexts,

to bridge systems not yet adapted to each other.

Copyright 7/20/2005 Justin Coslor

Creativity & Understanding

Language is permutations of semantics, governed by syntax and context,

with meaningful intention.

So....

What is the language of creativity?

What are its semantics?

What is its syntax?

What is its context?

The language of creativity always contains either:

1. new semantics or new permutations of semantics, and/or

2. new syntax, and/or

3. new context.

*Creativity does not always convey meaningful intention.

The semantics of creativity are new patterns and/or old patterns thought

of in new ways (recontextualized patterns). The syntax of creativity is

either internally defined by the language of the format (if the format is

known), or else (if the format is new) it is externally defined by the

naturally occurring partitions and connections of the organic objects and

systems of developments of the natural universe, or by the connections and

partitions present in the diagonalizations of synthesized patterns juxtaposed

through a relational operator or operation, and/or the diagonalization of the

juxtaposition of synthesized patterns and natural patterns juxtaposed through

a relational operator or operation, and/or the diagonalization of the

juxtaposition of natural patterns juxtaposed through a relational operator or

operation.

The context of creativity is always at least partially new. Creative

expressions composed entirely of entirely new patterns (not just modified

ones) in entirely new contexts with external syntax that has never before been

known of and that is unrelatable to known syntax will always appear random and

entirely undecipherable unless the person or interpretation program is capable

of analogical abductive reasoning. However there will be no conclusive proof

that the analogies drawn will be correct. The analogies may be qualitatively

correct in the metaphoric sense, but they will never be proven quantitatively

correct to the knowledge of the analyst. There has to be some decoding method,

key, or common ground known to the analyst in order to decipher such a

creative expression.

Copyright 7/17/2005 Justin Coslor

Concepts

Layers of states and states of layers (As in "finite element state

machines" and similar systems):

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Art

Video

Writing

Talking

Scent

Taste

Touch

------------------

Mathematics -> connections and differences in maps of possibilities

Philosophy -> depth of possibility maps models of truth progressing

Science and Technology -> exploration of possibilities through careful

experimentation and adaptation to discoveries

-------------------------------

Can you think of more? It is definitely possible.

Look for stuff like those descriptions. Juxtapose operators and abductively

reason into applications.

Copyright 7/8/2005 Justin Coslor

Measurement Systems

In measurement, two or more quantities or qualities are compared to one

another, such as a unit of measure applied to a starting point and ending

point of another object. When a unit of measure is undefined, you look for the

minimum unit(s) of commonality between the objects and mark the overlap points

and the center-points between the starting and ending points, and the center

points between those points, etc. If any number systems or other patterns are

used as division or counting units (such as prime numbers), as well as

center-point binary tree parsing, we realize that "all measurement is really

comparison by parsing or partitioning". The units of the partitioning or

parsing can be native common denominators of the observer's perception system

and the object.

The intersection of the juxtaposition of multiple objects is another

native unit of parsing, which itself can be parsed into smaller units via a

number system or other pattern. Common ground or compatibility is necessary

for comparison, and since measurement is a form of comparison, measurement is

an act of perception adaptation via parsing or partitioning. It's the act of

trying to perceive of an object via the perception system of something

else, and often times perception systems miss a lot because there are often

lots of valid ways for a particular observer to perceive of things, and it's

an undecidable problem about whether a perception system is not recognizing

other undefined potential aspects of the object, let alone know what it is not

perceiving through its axioms and atomic units of partitioning, and methods of

parsing and grouping, and methods of determining anchor points,

interpretation, starting and ending points, edge detection, pattern layering,

and buffer sizes and contextualization, etc.

Active measuring is when ea system's partitioning structure and

methodology/reasoning system is constantly updated as something is being

measured. An example of active measuring is a system capable of learning, such

as an adaptive or evolutionary perception system, such as an artificially

intelligent reasoning system or human being. A perception system that is

merely adaptive but not evolutionary is autonomous or semi-autonomous, but not

intelligent, since it only knows the context that it currently exists in. By

storing perception systems adapted to multiple contexts, a system can then

often map out the commonalty and differences between each context and form a

general common-sense perception system which can be analyzed inductively,

deductively, and abductively by its reasoning engine.

Analysis via comparison of the domains and ranges of functions that exist

in different contexts is an abductive reasoning process since it is a form of

analogical reasoning. Once again common ground must be mapped between the

functions being compared or else an external perception system will have

to artificially map its units onto both functions so that compatible parsing

and partitioning can proceed in a measurable, if not blind (thus artificially

simulated) representation.

Passive measuring is when the measurement and perception system's

reasoning engine is not updated by internal induction, deduction, or abduction

during measurement, nor after measurement. Passive measurement is merely

mechanical and not adaptive or evolutionary.

Copyright 7/2/2005 Justin Coslor

Re-contextualized Patterns

It's interesting how patterns and their implications change as their raw

data is re-contextualized and/or perceived from different perspective systems

and contexts. The parameters of each context shapes the possibilities of its

patterns' applications, implications, and recognized states of existence.

Often times the possibilities of contexts overlap, and are subjective in

the sense that there may exist several possible ways to perceive of and

interpret a context, where each way may have equal or varying levels of

probable truth in its systems, depending on the perspective system and

intentions/expectations of the observer and/or the controller.

Copyright 6/25/2005 Justin Coslor

Observing patterns and differences

Combining my poem about "Sight" with my poem about "Reasoning Engines",

leaves me thinking about the line "from color comes shape" and the line about

"thinking as storing and grouping knowledge", and how it takes a pattern to

perceive of a pattern, such as one colored shape outlining or juxtaposing

against another colored shape, and how each of these shapes (and color

information) gets stored as a piece of knowledge (a pattern), and how both are

grouped together by their situational context. The differences between them

are patterns not origininally apparent in either piece of knowledge prior to

their comparison, unless those patterns are stored in the perceiver's virtual

knowledge base from prior experience or innate programming.

So you can try grouping every atomic pattern with every other atomic

pattern (time allowing), and as long as you're working with more than a

one-dimensional medium, the differences between each atomic pattern being

compared one-to-one will constitute a unique atomic pattern. This sort of

comparison is one way of coming up with new knowledge in mediums that exist in

two-dimensional (or greater) qualitative and/or quantitative and/or

conditional mediums, and mediums that combine different types of properties.

* Comparing unequivalent objects always creates partitions in either one or

both of the objects. The remainder partitions are sometimes entirely knew but

virtual objects. *

------------------

"Sight"

From color comes shape,

and from shape comes size,

we triangulate images

that come into our eyes.

-----------------

"Reasoning Engines"

1. Knowledge as patterns in contexts.

2. Thinking as storing and grouping knowledge.

-----------------

* Language contextualizes perceptions. The language used in each perception

identifies and indicates patterns that have been parsed through comparison. *

Copyright 6/24/2005 Justin Coslor

Pattern Matching

Previously I've written about how if you divide a circle into a

bunch of equiangled sectors and if there is a prime number of sectors

then no symmetrical alternating coloring patterns exist, but if there is

a non-prime number of these equiangled sectors, then you can color in

alternating sectors or groups of sectors to form symmetrical patterns

that correspond to each of the composite number pieces.

To apply this to pattern matching, simply cut the circle so that its

sectors lie in a straight line and then look at the coloring patterns to

match pieces of that linear pattern to strings of numbers, where each

color might be a particular number, or just do it in binary. In this

manner you can make numerical landmarks in raw data streams to look for

patterns within potentially random data.

When only a piece of one of these composite number symmetry patterns

shows up in a linear data stream, that may indicate that other layers of

patterns may be overlapping it. The thing that makes these patterns

recognizable from randomness is the juxtaposition of their unique

alternating prime partition patterns. An individual prime partition

pattern piece that has been linearized is indistinguishable from any

other linear prime partition pattern piece unless you know for sure that

you're seeing the whole thing. But when you juxtapose two or more of

these patterns together in the form of a composite symmetry pattern even

a fragment of that pattern can dramatically narrow down the

possibilities of its origin. Copyright 6/20/2005 Justin Coslor

Remote-Controlled Contexts Via Preprocessor Switchboards (See Diagrams)

Instead of having injective, surjective, and bijective, maybe there

could be a preprocessor module that is bijective that goes in front of

all surjective and injective relations. For a surjective relation: P1 =

surjective ARP1 = bijective ARB = surjective = ACP1B For an injective

relation: ARP2 = bijective P2RB = injective ARB = injective = ACP2RB A

and B are domains P1 and P2 are preprocessors R is a relation, C is a

cross-domain relation.

In effect, the preprocessor becomes a duplicate of the domain

element in A, but independent of the context of A. So since the

preprocessing is done outside of A, you can have single-line inputs from

A, and you can take several domain elements out of their contexts and

perform their relations via remote control.

In the second diagram, the cross-domain relation BCP2 is turned off,

so context D doesn't contain its relation (P2RD) unit P2 gets turned

back on. In that diagram, D is a remote-controlled context via the

preprocessor operations switchboard S.

A, B, and C are each in their own contexts and they combine in

context D. The preprocessor modules allow for simple remote control like

an operations switchboard. Copyright 6/12/2005 Justin Coslor Definitions

Defining something by cataloging it's properties and relations is

blind unless you specify the particular context of the thing, and the

sub-contexts of the properties and relations it is composed of. Context

is both an exoskelletal structure as well as an endoskelletal structure.

Context is is defined by both the external limits as well as the

internal limits. Copyright 6/5/2005 Justin Coslor Geometric Abstractions

When doing abstraction on geometries and photos of patterns (symmetry

formations, repetitions of patterns, and that which is recognizable from

randomness), maybe all that is needed is a map of intersection points

for each level of connectivity: i.e. a map of all points where two lines

intersect, a map of all points where three lines intersect, etc. The

union of all of those maps should form a sufficient geometric

abstraction to recreate a recognizable approximation of the original

model of photo patterns. Copyright 6/4/2005 Justin Coslor Index of

Topics *(Remember to finish adding topics to this index, as it is only a

partial list of ePIC-related topics I've written about so far.) choice

creativity patterns contexts variables properties relations:

quantitative, qualitative, cross-domain, analogical abstraction models

simulations axioms: key, branch knowledge: implicit, explicit,

representation intuitions complexity progressions pattern details

randomness analogical recursions question asking systems question

expectation templates object-oriented processing operation spaces: grids

v.s. networks analogy metaphor examples Copyright 6/4/2005 Justin Coslor

Abstraction

Abstract relations are relations described by descriptions that are

the simplified form of lexicons, where the details have been stripped

and only the categorical data remains, along with some quantitative data

(possibly. . .I'm not sure yet....), such as the dimensions and data

types. Relations are fairly easy to abstract because you can just build

an itemized list of the operators and verbs used on or in the general

context of the domains that use them. Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor

(See example diagrams) If a domain A is cross-domain related to a domain

B analogically, that relation can be injective, or subjective; or if it

is bijective, even if it's bijective to another element in the domain

than the starting point, then we can say that the relation is recursive.

This is an example of analogical recursions, because since all bijective

relations are recursive, and analogical reasoning deals primarily with

cross-domain relations, then all cross-domain relations that are

bijective are analogical recursions. Another form of cross-domain

analogical recursions comes from alternating back and forth through a

set of relations between two or more domains, where the active element

in the active domain is determined by some function on the ordering of

the elements in that domain (a sequence function on the cardinality).

Injective analogical recursions can also exist in a back and forth

system that ultimately loops between the various domains of two or more

contexts. Copyright 5/25/2005 Justin Coslor Implicit V.S. Explicit

Knowledge

In knowledge bases, facts and data are stored in patterns and

contexts explicitly, but that same information may also belong to other

contexts, and can be arranged into different patterns and may have

unidentified relations to patterns in that data set and/or to patterns

not in that data set.

Often times there are multiple hierarchical levels and recursions of

patterns in contexts and sub-contexts in patterns, and bridging across

these levels are more of the same in many cases. Data that is implied

can be treated as though it is hidden, though its role may be very

important in the context of the data that depends on it. In the

perception of questions, lots of implicit patterns and contexts are

necessary to generate and adapt simulated models of the knowledge that

is involved with the possible ways to represent the meaning of the

question, as well as for generating models of the expectation parameters

of the context templates involved with goal search, answer retrieval,

and answer formulation (for discovering or constructing suitable content

of the right level of detail). This is because every question is the

intersection of multiple contexts, or rather every question is an

attempt at adapting multiple contexts into compatibility, and thus

unknowns must be declared. Copyright 5/16/2005 Justin Coslor Analogy,

Metaphor, and Examples Now due to my lack of a dictionary on hand I'll

create some of my own definitions (the names can be changed later). An

analogy is like half of a metaphor. An analogy gives an elaborated

example of a relation, whereas a metaphor gives an example of a relation

across multiple contexts (a cross-domain relation). An example of an

analogy is like saying: An apple is like an onion. Both rot, and are

edible. An example of a metaphor is: Apple is to onion as postman is to

salesman. An analogy is essentially a simile plus a moral or

explanation/elaboration. A metaphor may describe the same relation(s) as

an analogy in that it juxtaposes two or more pieces of information. This

is similar to generating a unique diagonal length from a box generated

by using one sequence or variable quantification as the x axis and

another sequence or variable quantification as the y axis to produce a

unique qualitative variable or sequence... Add more dimensions to the

diagonalization to combine more variables or sequences or functions...

Then just rotate the diagonal axis until it is horizontal. But metaphor

goes a step farther and presents another example of that relation, but

in a different context. *Examples are contextualizations of patterns. A

relation between qualitative variables is thus a diagonalization of

their quantitative mappings. In this way, qualitative mappings can be

represented geometrically. Patterns are composed of variables and

relations between variables. **Variables are usually qualitative

property sets that have been quantitatively mapped into juxtaposition

with their enumerated algebraic repetitions. Juxtaposition via

diagonalization is a form of an operator. ***Operators are forms of

juxtaposition of variables and patterns. Addition sequentially

juxtaposes variables and patterns on a grid. Subtraction is the opposite

of addition, as it removes variables and patterns from a grid.

Multiplication sequentially adds to columns of categories, one category

at a time. Division de-references and parses columns of categorical

values, and is the opposite of multiplication. Addition, subtraction,

multiplication, division, 2D geometry, trigonometry, algebra, calculus,

etc, ... all are operations that can be performed on a grid. Change the

operation space (i.e. change the context), and the axioms that these

operations are based on may no longer apply; but some may, and those are

the axioms we want to collect for a wide range of adaptability, and can

be used in forming general systems theory grids and networks.

As far as I know about operation spaces, there are grids and there

are networks. Each can be within each, they can come in many different

forms, and translations are possible between them, but the translation

between a grid and a network always relies on a core set of axioms that

are in common between the two data structures. Copyright 5/4/2005 Justin

Coslor (Based on a theory I had around the year 2000) Sight --------

From color comes shape, and from shape comes size, we triangulate images

that come into our eyes. --------------------------- Fall 2001 to

4/25/2003 Justin Coslor My fundamental theorem of Computer Vision: I

believe that from color comes shape and from shape comes size;

comparatively/relatively/contexually. I'll have to read about the

cognition of vision to fill in the details and check out software and

plasticware/firmware/hardware models of visual perception. Learn known

mathematical techniques. Copyright 5/6/2005 Justin Coslor Rules Are

Behavioral Expectations Here are some types of rules: Laws, priorities,

environmental limitations (physics), trends, norms, common sense,

personal limitations, societal beliefs, personal beliefs, lazy

tendencies & optimizations, conditions, terms of use or license

agreement, policy, ethics, morals, probability judgments, priority

judgments, game theoretic strategy, preemptive negotiation, real-time

negotiation, post hoc proc negotiation, design considerations,

navigational control, pattern guidelines, pattern maps, mathematical

modeling and calculation, combination possibilities, case-by-case

possibilities; forum dimensionality, axioms, theorems, and restrictions;

units and parsing and sorting methods and requirements; activation,

deactivation, and flow control theory, network access methods, network

exchange methods, network dynamics. Here are some qualifiers for those

kinds of rules: Global, situational, regional, local, continuous,

temporal, static, dynamic, linear, parallel, hierarchical, symmetric,

independent, context specific, general, intentional, unintentional,

conscious/unconscious, automatic, manual, modal, type, categorical. Find

an ontology that lists concepts related to a given concept, in a

hyper-linked format. Similar to encyclopedia references (see

Wikipedia.org) or book topical references in the public library's card

catalog. Copyright 1/7/2005 Justin Coslor Categories: Part 1 Even if

categories get proven to be inaccurate (*Are accuracy proofs based on

any subjective information?), then useful information about the

compatibility of the data elements can be discovered as parameters get

refined. Ultimately, it is the compatibility of the elements, both in

and between data sets, that makes the fundamental definitions of the

categories. Copyright 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor Hypothetical Relation

Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets: If categorical names have been

assigned to finite elements in a domain, the rest of the data in the set

can be hypothetically considered to be relations or parts of relations

(on those elements and elements not in that buffered data set). Or they

may be elements of categories you don't yet recognize or know of yet.

Guessing about Neural Architectures... This is a journal entry,

Copyright 9/12/2004 by Justin Coslor.

I could be totally wrong about this, but it is currently presumed,

by me at least, that neural architectures tune to, receive, translate,

and transmit various wavelengths of patterned energy configurations. The

tuning functions may be in one unit, the receivers/input devices may be

in another unit; the translation/manipulation apparatus may be in

another unit; the translation/manipulation apparatus may operate in a

unit of its own, and the transmission/re- communication apparatus may be

in a unit of its own as well.

There is likely data loss in the imperfections and limitations of

the tuning apparatus, the receiving apparatus, and the re-transmission

apparatus successively; however, the translation/manipulation apparatus

may apply experience-based heuristics to fill in the holes and sharpen

or simplify the distortions and puzzles in the data field. Each cluster

of nodes, as well as the relation nodes themselves sometimes perform

negotiations for syntactic and semantic consistency. Such negotiations

are likely interfaces composed of multi-purpose reconfigurable general

cellular nodes. Meaning might be derived from information streams by

creating translations and equivalence representations in other classes

and other contexts, and by defining and rating utility functions and

organizing them in such a way that their priority can easily be

determined relevant to the general function of the class of relations

they belong to in generalized/easily-specialized contexts. The neat

thing about information, rather than cause and effect, is that it can be

re-conceptualized and re-contextualized and re-framed/re-patterned.

10/22/2004 Justin Coslor (after reading pg. 11 âModern Algebraâ by

Gilbert and Vanstone) Some methods of Proof: - Assumptions (context) -

Examples of problems or experience - Critical questions of interest -

Representative language choice -Translation/Mapping -> same or different

context? - Inventory of context axioms - Define critical question's

search scope - Assume all questions are somewhat answerable - Convert

other knowledge into current representation and abstract relationships

without regard to hierarchical depth - Group compatible relationships -

Mark partial compatibilities as overlapping sub-contexts - Hypothesize

mappings that assume each relationship to be the answer to a series of

questions - Look for hypothesized questions similar to questions of

interest - If found, remap original examples in terms of those similar

mappings of hypothesized questions - Define inconsistencies and address

them - Represent conclusion - Explore relations of conclusion to other

contexts - Blah blah blah, I should study more. 8/12/2004 Justin Coslor

Axiom Notes (Here are some note I took at the public library today.)

Structuring XML Documents / David Megginson CLP MAIN SCI&TECH QA76.76H94

M44 1998 The National Strategy To Secure Cyberspace February 2003

http://www.gpoaccess.gov - Perhaps people and machines should be trying

to prove the limits of proof. - There are many shapes of non-Euclidean

geometric reality. - Perhaps quanta of energy is a form of matter that

exists on non-Euclidean spiral and tubular planes? Maybe quanta breaks

off from matter and electrons that exist on non-Euclidean spherical

planes during orbit changes and altitude changes? I read part of the end

of the book Thinking about [TLC] LOGO: A graphic look at computing with

ideas. pg. 206&207 ISBN 0-03-064116-0 Each set of axioms is based on a

unique working model of the universe. (Regardless of the completeness of

the model.) In many cases, there is some overlap between different sets

of axioms, because many contexts have some properties and/or patterns

that are in common. Metaphoric operations describe the relations between

the properties and/or patterns that are in common between unique

contexts. More than that, each set of axioms attempts to define a

working model of the universe, and that no model of the universe is

complete (hence it is a model) other than the universe itself; and from

within the universe, a model of the universe can only be approximated,

and to a varying degree of accuracy and/or applicability at that.

8/20/2004 Justin Coslor Update: So essentially, a set of axioms is only

as good as the model they attempt to describe. Copyright 6/8/2004 Justin

Coslor Contexts

A context is a relation that defines a group of patterns. A pattern

that is not related to any other patterns is isolated, and can for the

most part be considered "invisible" to other contexts. A context can

also be considered to be a pattern, and can sometimes also be considered

as subject to this "isolation" concept. Patterns that exist within

networks of contexts are the most easily located, since cross-domain

relation-based experimental search and discovery methods need not be

applied to locate or define them, as is necessary in many cases to find

isolated patterns (i.e. island knowledge). Networks can consist of

relations (surjective, injective, and bijective ) and cross-domain

relations (which are potentially multi-node route reverse-surjective

relations). Data turns into knowledge as the patterns and contexts and

networks of contexts are mapped out. Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor

Perception

Every multi-state organization or cognitive organism exists on a

higher plane than it is capable of perceiving, because nothing can

monitor every aspect of itself (unless every cell is symmetrically

identical) since the monitoring devices (sensors, etc), even when

recursive, cannot monitor every aspect of themselves. This is because in

order to perceive of something we must classify it in terms of something

else we have perceived, and since we were born in motion, our

consciousnesses pass forward from state to state, processing information

(perceiving of things in terms of the physical universe) until parts, or

the entirety of our bodies have fully ceased to move (i.e. until the

breakdown of the subparts).

As Godel's theorem implies: "no set can map its powerset". After

some developed mental subparts have broken down, the structures of the

consciousness that they were physically translating may continue to

operate outside of the rest of the brain's physical time-frame. The

latency of the various cognitive architectures in the brain may have a

great deal to do with the relativistic self-observations of

multi-sensory experiences. Since after all, some parts of the mind/body

connection and mind/brain connection operate at near the speed of light

(as electrons flow between the parts of each cell). Copyright 8/10/2005

Justin Coslor Perception -- continued from 6/5/2004.... On 6/5/2004 I

wrote that "The latency of the various cognitive architectures in the

brain may have a great deal to do with the relativistic

self-observations of multi-sensory experiences." In other words, people

think at different rates and depths from time to time, and that can

create recall and encoding obstacles in grouping and interfacing

memories between different cognitive states. However, those kinds of

qualitative and quantitative differences between the contents of

memorized perceptions can create bridges into depthier re-perceptions

for recognition into fine- tuned contexts. 5/17/2003 Justin Coslor A.I.

Notes Today I did a http://Google.com search on OpenCYC

Thought Treasure V.S. OpenCyc came up. I guess both are major

knowledge base ontology management systems, i.e. Reasoning Engines.

Thought Treasure seems to have more stuff for Natural Language

Processing than OpenCyc, but it is only free for noncommercial use. The

Cyc technology though is the world's largest and most complete general

knowledge base and commonsense reasoning engine. The CIA uses it, and

did about 500 man-years worth of data-entry into to. OpenCyc is a much

smaller subset of Cyc, and is open-source.

Cycorp runs opencyc.org, and also makes ResearchCyc for R&D in

academia and industry. Dependencies: none Languages: CycL, SubL, Java

(other API's on the way) Platforms: Linux (Win32 coming soon) Sites:

http://opencyc.org foundry.ai-depot.com/Project/OpenCyc /Amygdala /Fear

/GAUL /Joone /LogicMoo /OpenAI /SigmaPi /Simbrain 10/20/2004 Justin

Coslor Mission Statement

Free open-source software is quite possibly the best hope, in

conjunction with the freely accessible Internet, to give the common

citizens a fighting chance at building foundations for their decendents

in the midst of the mechanized empires of greed that thwart and encroach

on their liberties and livelihoods in their attempts to squeeze and

control the creative potential of supposedly free individuals who might

otherwise be nurtured to blossom as citizens of a humbly selfless and

harmonious planet Earth, that we all know can happen.

-------------------------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

-------------------------------------------------------

### continued Book 4 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

-------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

------------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor

New Kinds of Electric Generator/Electric Motors In the diagram I drew,

you can use toroidal coils inside roller wheels that roll on the inside

of the magnet tube. Permanent magnets or horseshoe electromagnets can be

used around the outside (since they are three times stronger). The axle

is split in the middle and one end of each of the rollers' coil wire

goes to each corresponding separate half of the roller's axle, which in

turn comes in contact with the corresponding dived separate main axle

end cap, and just have a spring- loaded contact terminal on each half of

the axle. Another model could also have a split axle terminal, and could

have a frictionless magnetic bearing surface internally. 11/7/2004

Justin Coslor Batteries. In the October 2004 issue of Popular Science,

they talked about a thing where the European Space Agency and Team

Encounter allow people to pay $25 to have a photo + description get

etched onto a High Density Rosetta nickel chip and get send off into

space on a solar sail spacecraft. The chips are expected to last at

least 1000 years. Gold substrate CDROMs last about 10 years. D-Skin.com,

for $6, sells five CD skins that prevent scratches. Put a copy of my

friendly intelligence diagram on one of those nickel chips. It acts kind

of like microfiche. We might make some friends. Around 200 B.C.E.,

Parthinians in present-day Baghdad make a crude battery, an iron rod

surrounded by a copper cylinder inside a clay jar filled with vinegar.

-------> Try stacks of copper or zinc and bismuth plates separated by

two silicon rods between each junction and fill the container with

vinegar or bleach that you've added extra salt to, or use condensed

urine or something as the go-between, and put it in a tempered glass or

tempered ceramic container and attach terminals. Around 1898, size-D

zinc-carbon batteries made their debut inside a paper tube along with a

bulb and a brass reflector - which became the first "electric hand

torch". What we know of today as the flashlight.

Would bismuth be a good substitute for carbon or graphite in a

battery? Would stainless steel be useful instead of iron in a wet cell?

Stainless steel has some toxic materials in it though. Would bismuth be

a good substitute for lead in batteries? They're similar on the periodic

table, however bismuth is nontoxic and diamagnetic. Water is a conductor

and it's in vinegar. Sodium chloride is too, and acidic fluids are often

in batteries as well. Maybe acids have extra electrons and bases have

extra holes? ------------------------------------ 11/7/2004 Justin

Coslor See pg 35 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science by

Brian and Brenda Williams. Battery idea #1:

Do electrolysis on salt water to make bleach, which probably will

act as an acidic conductor. Then put the bleach in a glass or ceramic

jar and make a solid bismuth coil and put it in the bleach filled jar,

and take a solid zinc rod and electroplate it with magnesium or dip it

in magnesium and put it in the middle of the bismuth coil (or if a

bismuth tube is used instead, put it in the middle of that with some

space between it and the magnesium-coated zinc rod), and make some kind

of cap with a pressure release cannister and valve. It might work as a

great battery, but keep it outside just in case it leaks or explodes.

The bleach might crystallize (which is good) if you add a bunch of extra

salt to it after doing electrolysis. If it does crystallize, it's less

likely to leak. --------------------------- 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Battery idea #2: Drugstore battery.

Open up a tin can and dump the contents out and fill it up with

Pepto Bismal and take a plastic cap and roll up some aluminum foil and

jam one end of it into the cap and wrap the other end of it in wax paper

and fold it over the edge. (You might have to boil the water out of the

Pepto Bismal to thicken it into bismuth.) Next wrap some more tinfoil

around the rim of the can and fold up an extension terminal from it. I

don't know if this will work at all. Copyright 10/31/2004 Justin Coslor

Diamagnetic Energy Generation Satellites

When a coil is passed through a magnetic field it generates a

current of electricity through the coil. So, make a satellite that has a

coil made out of diamagnetic material, and at night it should generate a

current because the earth's diamagnetic field bows out on the dark side

of the Earth due to the solar wind form the sun. As the Earth turns, the

coil will be passing through that bowed out diamagnetic field. It's

necessary to use diamagnetic material for the coil because it will be

used to turn the diamagnetic field of the earth (which is between the

poles) into an electric current running through the coil. A coil made

out of non-diamagnetic material would not be receptive to the

diamagnetic field. Some examples of diamagnetic materials are pyrolytic

graphite, bismuth, water, and salt. The reason that ice floats is

because water is diamagnetic, and ice is more diamagnetic than water, so

it repels the water's diamagnetic field, and the diamagnetic field of

the Earth. One could theoretically make a gigantic coil out of ice, and

generate electricity with it.

One could also make a satellite that could travel through the

Earth's magnetic field in its equatorial orbit, and the diamagnetic coil

would produce an electric current perpendicular to the Earth's

diamagnetic field, and it could beam the electricity back to Earth in

the form of microwaves. One could even try making a satellite that can

just sit and levitate permanently in a semi-fixed position in space on

the dark side of the Earth. The moon is probably diamagnetic since one

side is always facing the Earth. (See related pictures.) 10/7/2004

Justin Coslor Electromagnetism People say that electric fields run

perpendicular to magnetic fields, so maybe the electric force can be

thought of as the active force in atoms, while the magnetic force can be

thought of as the stabilizing force in atoms, yet the two forces

correspond to each other to balance the energy and space in an atom, as

energy is always in motion, and space provides potential for that motion

to occur, whether it be in loops, knots, spirals or

transfer/transformation to other planes, shapes, and dimensions of

energy flow pathways. I like to guess at possibilities then check

science, math, logic, and philosophy or experiment to see if I got

anything right. It's my hobby. It helps me develop intuition and

reasoning ability. 9/26/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Coordinates Magnetic

North is offset from True North because the Earth wobbles at an angle

that causes there to be four seasons. The Prime Meridian goes around the

globe, and on one hemisphere it travels through Magnetic North, and on

the other hemisphere it travels through Greenwich, England. It also goes

through True North and True South. Figure out where the magnetic South

Pole is. Is it split into branches? It's probably in Antarctica. At what

points on the Earth's geomagnetic field coordinates (x,y,z polar

coordinates) are there severe distortions or landmark sub-fields? Is 360

degrees optimal for calculating an oblong spheroid? The Earth is not

round, but more of an oblong spheroid. Why did the Greeks choose 360

degrees? Greek astronomer Hipparchus (~165- 127 B.C.) made a map that

included Antarctica so they must have had advanced technology then. The

map I've seen is fairly complete, but it only shows one side of the

globe. If he was able to have a complete detailed map of Antarctica way

back then, then surely he had a way to obtain a map of the American

Continents? Ptolemy's map also denoted Magnetic North & South offset

from true North & South. Where exactly is the magnetic North Pole, and

how often do the poles flip and why? Does the Moon's orbit get pushed

away from the Earth temporarily during the flipping of the Earth's

poles? Probably, since the moon is mostly made out of diamagnetic

material. That's why we always see the same face of it, and diamagnetic

materials repel both North and South Poles and like to hover over the

mid-point between them (Satellite levitation application... Read

diamagnetic levitation article in New American Scientist around this

month.) Copyright 9/23/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Battery Idea Steam

and gas atoms and molecules probably contain more quanta than liquid

atoms and liquid molecules, which partially utilize each other's

electron shells. Where steam and gas atoms probably have higher electron

orbits and have their own repulsive/attractive field depending on the

spin. Crystallized atom and molecule configurations probably exist

because a bunch of atoms and molecules were either compressed into a

tight area and extended the orbit of their strong force electron shells,

or possibly the atoms might have been cooled from a liquid state while

under the influence of a magnetic field. [10/28/2004 update: The

magnetic field of an atom is the stabilizing force, and the electric

field is the active force. . .probably?] Is it possible to make

crystallized oxygen or crystallized hydrogen or other gases? [Then just

add energy of the atom's particular spectroscopic frequency to liberate

the molecules out of the crystallized form. They'd probably have to be

mixed with other elements to form crystals at reasonable temperatures.]

What if they were highly ionized gases or isotopes? What happens if you

put two conductor terminals on a quartz crystal and then bolt a magnet

onto each side of the crystal independently so that the magnets repel or

attract each other? Will that provide a steady supply of electricity due

to the compression forces on the quartz crystal? It might be a way to

make a magnetic electricity battery that doesn't run out until the

magnets lose their charge. Just attach a circuit or light to something

to the terminals. 8/23/2004 Justin Coslor Toroidal EM Fields (like for

fusion. . .see attached pictures): I'm not claiming that this is

correct, but maybe some elements conduct electricity and have a magnetic

field that is perpendicular to the flow of electrons and maybe other

elements conduct magnetism and have an electric field that is

perpendicular to the lines of flux. Maybe some elements do both, and

maybe some do neither. Gravity is proportional to how active an element

is at the quantum level, coupled with how interactive it is externally.

Make a toroidal field around a Peltier Stack (dissimilar metals like a

battery all stacked up), and blow gases with extra electrons into the

toroidal squasher and their extra electrons may travel up the Peltier

stack, sort of like a battery, but it could polarize the stack and maybe

could function as a power source without actually doing fusion. It could

also be a kind of electron stripper. ??? Gravity is about how the energy

of the internal interacts with the energy of the external. It might

merely be cyclic regions of space that have greater potential for motion

(for energy quanta and other cyclic space regions) than fairly neutral

space regions. I believe that space holds a compression and that the

function of space is potential for motion. Time is a function of motion,

and matter is energy quantas swirling in compressed cyclic space

regions. Maybe the space has knots in it to lock the quanta into cycles?

Who knows? ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/18/2004 Justin

Coslor Note to self: Diodes act as one-way gates. Transistors act like

adjustable-flow valves. They can be strung together to make Boolean

logic circuits. ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004

Justin Coslor Crystalline Memory Lattices: Maybe one could use

intersecting laser beams to control the shadow-growth of semiconductor

crystals for making optical circuitry or maybe some frequencies will

grow lattice structures conducive to electron flow (Negative cells),

while others (or pits rather than peaks) might grow structures (or

carve/melt) conducive to receiving electrons (positive cells/holes).

---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor

Super-cheap gigantic diamagnetic electromagnets: Try making an

electromagnet out of ice as the conductor. Take some plastic tubing and

fill it up with water, cap the ends, coil it up into a spiral, then

freeze it. Then take a larger piece of tubing (wider) and freeze (or

make a horse-shoe-style ice magnet). Then run electricity through the

ice spiral and see if it is able to act as an electro-diamagnet (since

water is somewhat diamagnetic). The lattice structure of the ice

crystals might be good for holding a diamagnetic charge. Who knows???

Try it. If it works, make an enormous one. What happens when you beam

light through the electrically conductive ice coil spiral?

------------------------------------ Copyright 9/6/2004 Justin Coslor

Supercomputer and Memory Technology Build a supercomputer out of

millions of memory units of the kind I designed earlier that have no

moving parts and operate optically. Locate the computer in either

Antarctica or in a very cold climate, such as on a satellite that stays

in the shadow of the Earth or underground on the dark side of the moon.

It could be nuclear powered, or powered by a thermocouple that runs off

of hot rocks (thermonuclear isotopes). use an instantaneous

communication relay between it and stations on the Earth (see physics

research in the book "The Dancing Woo Li Masters" by Gary Zukav). The

key component to the memory units is the new kind of laser range-finder

I designed when I was 16. 2/17/2005 Update by Justin Coslor: Recently I

came up with the optimal geometry for an entirely new and different (and

possibly better) solid-state dense nanotechnology memory geometry

design. See my most recent journal entry to this date on that topic, as

well as the partial diagram I drew that describes the mathematics behind

it. Copyright 9/24/2004 Justin Coslor Speculation about photodiodes,

photovoltaics, and the nature of energy transmission through materials.

Figure out how photodiodes work. I think they somehow convert light

into electrons. That would mean that the light quanta would add energy

to the diode's N-plate's electrons to bring the outermost electrons to a

higher orbit around the nucleus and eventually high enough to be able to

transfer over from one atom to an orbit around an adjacent atom capable

of supporting an extra electron. When all of the atoms on the N-plate

have electrons at transferable orbits they will hop over the junction

and start filling in the orbit holes in the P-plate's atoms. When the

P-plate's atoms fill up with transferable atoms, then electricity will

flow in either direction because the N-P plates will act just like a

regular conductor. In fact, you might not even need a P-plate unless you

wanted a one-way gate effect. Probably, you would have to use a material

that has a photon emission frequency that is the same as the kind of

light that you are exposing it to, in order for the photons to get

absorbed by the electrons orbiting around that material's nucleuses. Use

electron spectroscopy to find suitable materials for the spectrums of

light you expect to use the photovoltaic cells under.

Transparent photovoltaics could be made out of some kind of

crystallne materials (appropriately receptive to the incoming

wavelengths), and could be made very thick, where both the anode and

cathode structures could be transparent, and could be made of a

semiconducting crystalline block that has been formed while under the

polarizing magnetic field of a powerful superconductor. That way, every

molecule in the transparent crystalline block would act as a photodiode,

like miniature photovoltaic cells. Perhaps materials that do not look

transparent to us are quite transparent to their specific spectroscopic

frequencies of radiation, and that may be why they are able to "conduct"

those frequencies of radiation and in doing so, convert that energy into

electric/electron current. ???

Copyright 9/14/2005 Justin Coslor

A New Kind of Potentiometer (which can be used as a tactile sensor)

Details: Make it as a spring-loaded linear-action potentiometer

(variable resistor), where the farther the lever rod is pushed down,t e

more resistance there is on the current flowing across it between the

rod's conductive bearing surface, and the decreasingly (or increasingly)

conductive plate or channel that it glides on/in. It's a very simple

device, and clusters of them can be used in conjunction as sensors for

tactile kinetic force of varying magnitude, depending on the strength of

the spring at the bottom of the rod. It could be used n the finger-pads

or gripper-pads of a robotic arm. The glide plate/channel could be lined

with a carbon resistive strip similar to the one in regular slide-pots.

There could be some stranded insulated wire that comes off of the top of

the rod, and the rod itself could be insulated except for the bearing

surface. The ground wire would be at the top of the glide-plate's

resistive carbon film, so that as the rod gets pushed down against the

force of the spring at the bottom, the resistor would turn on or off

farther and farther depending on how it is designed. The conductive

bearing surface could just be a strip of metal with a rounded bend in

it, so that it has some spring action, and it could have a similar

rounded strip-spring on the back of it so that it pushes on the back

wall to exert some force in the direction of the carbon-resistive film.

Or the bearing surface could be a roller wheel with conductive

lubrication, such as graphite powder, and a back-wall spring similar to

the one just described or just have two independent bearing surfaces

opposite to each other with a hinge and a spring in the middle (although

that is an unnecessarily complex design). Or the bearing surface could

be like a miniature computer mouse ball in a cage that only travels

forwards and backwards and made out of metal. When I mentioned possibly

using a channel in some designs I meant it to be like a vertical gutter

that is rectangular, or triangular. A triangular gutter design would

probably be the easiest and most stable of the gutter designs to make,

and it would provide a lot of stability against possible twisting action

of the spring-loaded vertical push rod. See the photo of the brief

diagram that I scribbled for this invention. Contact me for terms of

licensing, development, publication, and mass-production.

JustinCoslor@gmail.com I'd like everybody to be able to buy these very

inexpensively for their projects, and send samples out to university

students and professors for free. All I'd like is the standard fair

National average inventor's royalty percentage on the gross profit of

the venture capital wholesale sales gross profit of these potentiometers

and off the gross profit of the sale of improved models so that I can

continue to come up with new inventions and have some spending money. I

shouldn't have to be poor forever, because that causes so much

unnecessary misery. It'd be wonderful if I had a better workshop and

some helpers and colleages and more resources to work with. Copyright

9/12/2004 Justin Coslor

Highly sensitive tactile/optical range-finding robotic finger sensor-pads:

For rich tactile data input (robo-fingerpad pressure sensors that

yield very detailed sensory input) sensors, add a stereo computer vision

range-finding unit to each finger, and have slider resistor tubes that

are spring-loaded under a rubbery surface skin, and make them flexible

if possible. (Update Copyright 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor: Think of sea

anemony-like manipulators that each have a little CCD range-finder setup

and tactile sensors for precise gentle manipulations.) I could probably

build a test pad out of drinking straws and little springs or rubber

bands glued to pins that are soldered to either trimpots on a

swivel-mount or tiny slider-resistors. The skin could be molded from

liquid latex or a piece of bicycle innertube, and the stereo-cameras

could be located up on the arm with fiber-optic light input extensions

that go right out to the finger tip pads where they can be precisely

angled to yield stereoscopic CCD range-finding data so that the fingers

will each visually know how far they are from the objects they are

trying to manipulate. Maybe the CCD's can be quadranted up into four

distinct camera matrixes per CCD (or more), each of which would be fed

light by it's own independent fiber optic cable that has an optics unit

on each end....? That would bring the costs and power-consumption down

dramatically because not as many actual digital cameras would need to be

used to obtain the effect of having a whole bunch of independent digital

cameras. Copyright 9/11/2004 Justin Coslor A cheaper kind of

touch-screen for computer kiosks for 2D operating system user interface

haptics and 3D augmented reality user interface haptics. Note: I suppose

this is similar to the haptics in the movie "Minority Report."

Instead of using expensive breakable touch screens, why not set up a

regular CRT computer monitor that has a piece of replaceable plexiglass

over the monitor face, in the form of a kiosk interface whose mouse

movements or click-movements are recorded by an overhead pair of digital

cameras that are running an open-source stereo computer vision algorithm

as drivers that utilize your own hands' movements as 3D haptics devices.

If the operating system is a 2D point- and-click environment, then your

index finger pointing in 3D angles will move the mouse and touching (or

nearly touching) the plexiglass plate will execute a click (selection).

If the operating system is a 3D environment, then perhaps all control of

the environment will occur at least several inches to several feet from

the plexiglass plate, and perhaps there could be an on-screen 3D

animation that mirrors the hand movements, with trainable hand gestures

to control different features and functions of the environment. The

important thing that I must explicitly note is that the stereo cameras

are to be situated on an extended arm overhead, and potentially out of

reach, and that they are to be located either directly above or behind

the user's head so that they are only focused on the user's hands (and

not their face) because they are not to be made in such a way as to be

able to digitally photograph the user's face, since that would be an

invasion of privacy which could potentially be mis-used.

Also, there might be a projection onto a plexiglass plate in front

of the face but behind the hands so that the hands can interact in an

augmented reality environment in addition to being haptics devices for

the above-described kiosk-like CRT screen's operating system. Copyright

10/29/2004 Justin Coslor Course Catalog and Skills Inventory (Software

Idea)

Dig up my old note from years ago about how course catalogs can be

interconnected and turned into software that inventories and sorts

prerequisites and possibilities for which courses the student is

qualified to take based on the courses they've taken. It would help

students who aren't sure what to major in, to plan their school year, as

well as help in organizing quite concretely the knowledge they've

learned and the knowledge they can learn. The students can also build

hypothetical models of future courses of study with the software, and

can help teachers model new curriculums, and link their courses to other

people's curriculums. Libraries can use it too. Also, every student

should be able to see a summary page that lists one paragraph on the

topics that will be, or have been covered in each course in each

semester of their education, if not only just for the benefit of their

memory, to see what they've learned (or haven't learned), what they're

learning, and what they intend to learn (hypothetically) in the future.

That way, they can easily reference their educational background later

on in life, which is especially important if they are lifelong students

or researchers.

Artificial intelligence reasoning engines could be made that

generate comprehension tests and study guides and executive summaries

for any book in any language, and they could link related materials and

form historical and/or geographic timelines of the history and spread

and evolution of ideas and concepts. Such software might already exist

somewhere in some form.

Employers in industry might also like to look at these educational

coverage charts if they're looking for knowledge of specific skills in

applicants during their hiring process. Copyright 12/14/2001 Justin

Coslor Portable Robotic Hole-Threading Tool for Building Robots and

Stuff.

It drills a hole, then threads the hole with a tap, then runs a bolt

through the hole, then puts a washer and a nut on the other end of the

bolt. It might even clamp two pieces of material together while

fastening them together in the above described manner. It would be a

hand-held device, and someone could even make a version that's an

autonomous mobile device (for use in space or factories), and another

version could be a stationary tool bolted to the floor or something.

There could be several different models. I originally thought of this

several years ago through have not yet drawn schematics.

------------------- Components: Drill: high torque, high speed motor,

use gears and speed control. Tap: stepper motor + Air nozzle to blow

chips and slag away. Bolter: leveraged robo-wrist + gripper (or possibly

a robotic version of one of those spring-loaded universal wrenches).

Nutter: leveraged robo-wrist plus gripper. Clamp: as simple as possible,

like one of those 1-turn clamps or something with rubber pads. Sensors:

slag sensor detects chips and blows them away, torque sensors keep

machinery from jamming and breaking. Vision keeps track of what is in

each quadrant of a laser matrix projected onto the work surface. Parts

orienting system: Loads bolter and nutter and washers (part of nutter)

and keeps parts oriented and organized. Copyright 11/12/2004 Justin

Coslor Cottage Industry Explosion: Portable Inexpensive Manufacturing

Robots for Intentional Communities In America

Make portable inexpensive manufacturing robots hooked up to an

open-source computer terminal (possibly running the 3D modeling software

Blender, and some business & art software) as a whole cottage industry

manufacturing system that can be easily set up to refine materials and

produce products that can then be sold locally and over the Internet.

People would design their own products of course, and they can be

quite intricate and precise and easy to replicate due to the use of

robots and computer technologies. The software would make the business

part of it a snap. Design a general system and then use it to fabricate

duplicates of itself, and sell and install them exclusively to people

who live in Intentional Communities, so that America can win back its

manufacturing Jobs from China and India, as well as keep its high-tech

jobs from being outsourced. Copyright 11/5/2004 Justin Coslor Cottage

Industry Stuff Print up some tee-shirts, coffee mugs, bookmarks, and

refrigerator magnets of my friendly intelligence diagram. Post them for

sale on the Internet. Write a little booklet that goes with the diagram,

to include with each item, to help people understand the diagram. Look

for a bootable linux distribution that has life-critical software and

family business software. Order DSL and a bootable DVDRW drive and

download a copy of Knoppix.

Build the portable computer-numeric-controlled (CNC) machining robot

for carving ornamental wood furniture and paneling, and collect an

archive of geometrical designs and nature patterns to use, and template

concrete masonry patterns for face plates for beautifying buildings and

for making sculptures and walkways. Build the originals out of clay and

wood and use stereo digital cameras or a laser range-finder scanner to

digitize the designs. Sell these portable CNC machines inexpensively to

help Americans form cottage industries.

I could build ornate bookshelves and industrial design things that

could be environmentally friendly and quite useful. I'll need a shop to

use unless I just design it and have other people build it like Ikea

does.

I could also sell Atmel AVR SP12 microcontroller programmer kits,

and already-put-together microcontroller programmers, and I could put

together an electronics assembly robot, and a very small very precise

set of robotic arms for doing fine work. 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor

Holographic Range-finding Orbiting Space Telescopes, for Holographic

Geometric Reconstruction of Distant Celestial Objects and Celestial

Systems (or point it at the Earth for Geographical Information Systems).

See pg. 59 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science, for info

on how to make holographic images (depthy multi-perspective images). Do

that on a much larger scale but out in space or even have the

Holographic crystal on the Earth and have the space telescopes pointed

either at the Earth or put distant objects in space. Use a gigantic

holographic crystal that is sensitive to a wide spectrum of different

wavelengths (colors). Have the holographic crystal on a slightly

different orbit than the space telescopes, and the crystal should rotate

slightly to capture the changing perspective of the orbiting stereo or

triple space telescopes beamed at it. Put the space telescopes way out

in space. This is nothing new, but the first two space telescopes could

make the XY plane, and range- finding according to focal length, but add

a third space telescope to do XYZ geometric reconstruction of a remote

volume (the front face of the picture at least) with some distortion.

The third telescope could be above and behind the other two for extra

dimensionality, and that way there wouldn't be a blind spot, however in

other configurations the blind spot might indicate where the readings

start to become somewhat reliable. Copyright 10/29/2004 Justin Coslor

Safety Skin for Robots Make a fabric-like skin of flexible tactile

sensors to be put on the outside of robots, so that if a person (or

another robot or obstacle) bumps into the robot or gets in the way of

the robot, the robot immediately will shut down and disengage to prevent

the chance of injuries to the person. This would be an additional layer

of safety in addition to visual and/or sonar/IR/laser tachometer

environmental sensors. Copyright 10/20/2004 Justin Coslor Free public

archive of great anonymous writing and poetry There should be a website

that acts as a free public archive of great anonymous writing and poetry

throughout history. It could be searchable by a variety of interactive

intelligent means, and offer a secure round-the-world ping-pong

submission form that leaves no trail but is subject to human review as

to whether it is worth archiving. Also, it should be entirely based on

free open- source software that is eloquently coded and understandable

and proven. Copyright 10/11/2004 Justin Coslor Precise EM field sensing

nanocoil fabric Insulated conductive nanocoils could be useful for

sensing electromagnetic fields very precisely. Somebody could make

packets of independent nanocoils that could be laid out in a flexible

fabric form (or rigid) where each coil would be processed and a

numerical value would be passed to a unit of nonvolatile random access

memory. Then this coil fabric, much like a curtain, could be passed

through a room vertically to get a reading of the electromagnetic field

strength at each point in the room. It could be useful for figuring out

where to stick accupuncture needles in medical treatments too. It would

also be useful for teaching people how to use their own body's

bioelectric field in unison with the Earth's geomagnetic field to heal

themselves and others, and to people how to harmonize such forces

regardless of the situation. It seems like this kind of instrumentation

and a visual augmented reality software simulation interface to this

kind of sensory equipment could really improve people's awareness and

mentality, and thus their lives. Eventually they could learn to sense

the fields without the electronic equipment to some degree and not need

the apparatus anymore to stay healthy and balanced. Already there is

bioelectric feedback therapy, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-systems),

and augmented reality technology (which is a form of virtual reality).

9/8/2004 Justin Coslor Notes on the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh book

"Agents Unleashed: A public domain look at agent technology" by Peter

Wayner Copyright 1995, published by Academic Press, Inc. Agent

Technology: Setting Up Secure Networks Parallel and Distributed Programs

User Interfaces Being applied to agent technology: Genetic algorithms,

computational learning theory, classification theory,

adaptive-preference-based decision making automations, personal

oracles/prodigies, power librarians (parse text, translate languages,

figure out language ambiguities), emotional interface via animations,

network roaming ability, and virus protection. Agents are like viruses

that are designed to be helpful. Agents are often programmed in list,

and controlled by TCL (Tool Command Language), and transmitted via PGP

encrypted mime-encoded email. XLISP is a simple, free,

microcomputer-based implementation of a subset of the Common LISP

standards.

In LISP both the data and the program are stored in nested listt

trees. Inside the LISP environment, agents can easily build up, execute,

and tear down data structures. In LISP there ar no pointers, memory

allocation, and deallocation is automatic, and there ar some security

holes but they're patchable to keep agents from overstepping their

bounds. Common LISP uses a hierarchy of packages, which are separate

tables of variables, functions, and their names. These package

hierarchies offer structured access to variables, and can be used to

keep incoming agents from executing any system calls or handling local

memory. LISP's debuggers can be re- tooled to send an agent back home

along with the pre and post screen of the remote LISP compiler's

evaluation loop hooks when an agent causes a memory access or system

resource error.

Some smaller versions of LISP such as XLISP-Plus have

object-oriented features called Common LISP Object System. Dynamic

linking/binding to find the latest functions is used in some versions

like Scheme, which lead to the more algebraic C-Like syntax version

called Dylan. Commercial versions of LISP compilers have extra features

and are faster than the free compilers. Even compiled LISP code is

semi-interpreted and doesn't have a direct ability to manipulate

pointers because it needs to stay mobile in memory, so compiled LISP

code is a great environment for supporting agents that can act on it.

If I plan to program Aritificial Intelligence in LISP rather than

Java, then I should buy the book "Common LISP: The Language" by buy

Steele, for hardcore LISP programming. Check out other books too and

read reviews and recommends online. There are probably some free LISP

tutorials online as well. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin Coslor 2D

Wireframe Digitization of Digital Images for Computer Vision How would

the orientation matching algorithm work in the first three methods? (See

11/14/2002 algorithm.) Irregular objects: 2D width match 2D height match

Form a 2D square around the border of the object. Treat each pixel in

the image as an independent pivot point. For each pixel, draw straight

lines in a layer over top of the image at every possible angle that

intersect at the pivot point (all of which are as long as the longest

dimensions of the image). Measure how much of each line intersects with

the object, especially where there are two or more adjacent pixels in a

straight line. If you do this for all of the pixels you'll have a

coordinate database of angles and lengths and start and end points or

midpoints, which is very useful for forming groups by associating the

lines in the image in various ways, such as: intersection, adjacency,

parallelness, curvature template matching, and continuity of same line.

For some operations one can choose the line that intersects the longest

distance across the object. This is the longest intersecting line from

the current 2D perspective, whose midpoint is the pivot point. This is

useful for the following: at each endpoint of the longest intersecting

line draw a point. Draw a perpendicular line at each endpoint of the

line. Start out with a perpendicular line from the known schematics,

that is as long as the longest dimension of the object (at each

endpoint), and make sure that the perpendicular lines' midpoints are

centered on each endpoint. Now form a box at each half of the object and

reduce the width of the box until the outer edge touches the outside of

the object. Do this for each of the two halves of the object. Now you

have a tightly fitting box around that particular 2D object in the

image! The point of doing this is to be able to separate that object

from the rest of the image, and also to figure out the object's actual

perspective in the image, which can help at guessing 3D attributes. This

object can now be put into an object catalog, each image of which can be

rotated in 2D for matching against for doing approximative Bayesian

pattern matching that incorporates rotation attempts. (See related

diagrams from my handwritten journal.) Now rotate this box and 2D image

in the X,Y plane by N degrees about the pivot point until the box is

perfectly vertical and horizontal on the screen. Now you have the

computer show a front view of the 3D object model so that you can rotate

it forwards and backwards about the pivot point until you get the two

positions that match the length of the 2D image. Compare the two lengths

from the pivot point to the endpoints to find the longest or shortest

line for comparison to decide which of the two 3D positions to choose.

For each of these two possible positions we now want to find the two

positions in which the width matches by twisting the 3D object model,

and comparing the widest or shortest half of the box to the 3D model's

two possible width twistations to find out which width to choose. Now

you have the correct 3D perspective match of the 2D image and you know

the movements necessary to re-orient the object in reality to the 0,0,0

position. So just have the robot do it and begin again with the next

object, and the next, and the next, etc. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin

Coslor Computer Vision Thought Build a little robot that can go around

its environment and pick things up and study them as objects. It would

need to be able to categorize, visualize, contextualize, and use

guess-work (heuristics) scientifically to discover each object's

function, unique and generalized characteristics (size, weight, shape,

color, physical flexibilities, bend points, and center of gravity),

symmetries, associated objects (around what objects is it generally

found and used with?), physics force vectors during use and storage

(this much weight pushes on the floor at these surfaces (points of

contact and interaction), material it is made out of (robot has a

portable microscope to analyze materials and to identify the presence of

cells), surface temperature (infrared vision module can help determine

what objects are alive, very hot or cold, or how much hotter or colder

they are than the ambient room temperature), internal composition (sonar

scanner with 3D computer optimization), and statistical analysis (out of

all the times it has been recognized, what is the average context of

objects & movements of it and the objects interacting with it?). For a

practical application, the robot would only need to recognize a few

objects and be able to ignore all of the rest of what it sees so that it

could focus just on what it needs to know and extract data needed to

accomplish its goal. It will need to simplify what it sees so that it

can quickly find what it is looking for. It should only store in its

memory the things that it will use frequently. It will frequently

identify a few particular objects that are in different orientations.

For this a simplified 3D wireframe model would be useful, also surface

color(s) (optional), symmetries, and center of gravity, or handles for

gripping on to (like symmetry lines). Let's say you have a mechanical

part and the vision system has a 3D wireframe model of its structure.

The robot grips its handle or its center of gravity, picks it up, then

figures out what orientation it is in. How does it figure out the

orientation? 1. It could have touch sensors like a little pin board

whose spring loaded pins reveal the shape (as a matrix of depths) while

the robot holds the part. After the shape is recorded in that

orientation, the vision system could match the shape to the 3D wireframe

model and then tell the robot arm to rotate the part in the XYZ to get

the part into 0,0,0 orientation so that it can be placed somewhere

accurately and systematically. 2. It could scan the part with a wide

laser range-finder, then match and reorient the part. 3. It could take a

digital photo (CCD camera) of the part from 0,0,0 orientation then

rotate the 3D computer model in the X,Y,Z until the part's current

orientation matches, then use an optimized X,Y,Z rotation algorithm to

find the shortest method of rotation to get from the original X,Y,Z

orientation to the desired 0,0,0 orientation, then the robot arm would

make that adjustment and place the part. 4. Use a part's tray with

little wells to catch the parts as they are shaken across the tray (like

on the SMART Cell manufacturing robotic system I use to work on at the

CMU Robotics Institute years ago). Copyright 8/7/2005 Justin Coslor

Binary Space Partition Trees

I'm currently on page 17 of the book "Java 3D Programming" by Daniel

Selman Copyright 2002, and it mentioned using binary space partition

trees as a method of sorting relative positions of objects so that the

objects don't need to be re-sorted when the viewpoint changes. It didn't

explain how binary search partition trees work though I think it means

forming a tree of nodes for each object, where each node represents a

vertex on the object, and the vertexes are sorted by order of depth

(layering). That way multiple objects can be compared by comparing their

vertex depth, and when the perspective changes a different node on the

depth trees becomes node #1, 2, 3, etc in terms of the layering.

Copyright 8/10/2005 Justin Coslor

Data compression for 3D polygonal objects

What needs to happen to make 3D and Virtual Reality and Augmented

Reality popular again is to have more software compatible with Google

Earth (A geo-spacial imaging software that can be used for navigation

--- which needs more functionality). But more importantly what needs to

happen is to have software that is able to represent 3D models using

hardly any data at all. Better 3D data compression is needed, possibly

like that stegonometry idea I had, where vertex coordinate systems are

represented as layered pictogram polygons (see the idea in my notes --

July 2005), where three linked polygons is a 3D point, or set of 3D

points, such as an entire 3D object's vertexes -- the first polygon

represents all of the x coordinates in a particular object. The second

polygon represents all of the Y coordinates. The third polygon

represents all of the Z coordinates successively, and form each

pictogram polygon in a different color for each of the objects in the 3D

scene. The whole thing is in the same base and on the same pictogram XY

coordinate system. The whole thing can be represented as a tiny vector

graphic such as a PNG file that represents an entire 3D rendered

mathematical model/visualization, which is very easy bitwise map which

translates directly into the 3D, so it'd be really fast for rendering

each abstract pictogram map of the object's vertex coordinates. Also, no

two pictogram polygon vertex pixels will fall on the same point in the

pictogram as long as all objects' 3D vertexes are separated by one pixel

or more in 3D space. This would be a highly compressed way to represent

the spacial coordinates of all polygonal objects in a 3D scene, in the

form of a tiny image file, and if you string together multiple pictogram

image files into a sort of a video sequence, the objects in the scene

could gradually move through 3D space sort of like a morph sequence,

into the positioning registered by the second pictogram image file in

the video sequence, etc. . .like a gif89 animation file, but as a vector

graphics image. That would save a lot of processing power and

representation space in recording and playing back 3D video sequences in

virtual reality. See my note from 6/13/2004 on information theory. In it

I translated an old paradigm of information theory into terms of

patterns in contexts. "If a set of contexts constitutes t bits of unique

information, and the set of patterns that the contexts are based on

contains less than t bits of unique information, then it is impossible

to create those contexts from that set of patterns." Well, since coming

up with this idea today about encoding 3D models, and the regular 2D

stegonometry version of it (see my other essay), I no longer believe

that this paradigm is true in all cases (such as this one, for example),

because it doesn't account for alternative perspectives of

representation of information (of patterns in contexts) which are

different and of different computational complexity, but are

analogically equivalent.

Copyright 8/11/2005 Justin Coslor

3D compression scheme

I've developed an alternative system of representing numbers (which

represents them as pictograms), which I turned into an alternative

method of representing 3D vertex coordinates of polygons. In it, each

sequential group of three digits in the pictographic polygon

representation represents the X coordinates for the vertexes from left

to right, or the Y coordinates for the vertexes from top to bottom, or

the Z coordinates for the vertexes from front to back. So in that way

depth and ordering of the vertexes is very organized and the 3D scene

can be drawn in layers very quickly from front to back so that it will

be easy to see which vertexes can be skipped due to their being hidden

around the backside of the object.

The three pictogram polygon numbers each get drawn in different

colors in the vertex map, and the three polygon numbers gets parsed into

either a set of X coordinates, a set of Y coordinates, or a set of Z

coordinates as previously described, where each partition represents the

three digit location of X, Y, or Z.

Probably what needs to happen as a next step is to make three

coordinate buffers: one for the X axis, one for the Y axis, and one for

the Z axis, and then copy the parsed sequences of groups of three

sequential digits into these buffers. Then there will either be a fourth

buffer that combines all of these numbers into a set of XYZ coordinates

representing the vertexes of the 3D object, or else the computer will

dynamically triangulate perspectives on the 3D object to be constructed,

where each sequential list of dynamically combined XYZ vertex

coordinates is generated from left to right, top to down, front to back,

based on a projection of an angular viewpoint of the original

orientation of the X, Y, and Z coordinate lists. That is how

re-orientations of perspectives get generated. If a polygonal pictogram

is to be built for each perspective, then the polygon points in the

pictogram can just be combined one column at a time for the X, Y, and Z

vertex polygons (in groups of 3 pixel column places on the pictogram's X

axis), then the vertexes just get placed on the 3D grid, and lines get

drawn between their boundary shells as a wireframe and skins get

applied.

If you wanted to get really simple you don't even have to use

pixels, you can just make an XY array of 1's and 0's, and have it 9 or

so digits high in the Y axis (2^9), and as long in the X axis as

necessary, and every group of N binary digits horizontally gets

multiplied by the level it's on in the Y axis to give you a set of

sequential X coordinates for vertexes of the object in the 3D space, and

in do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D object's vertexes'

Y coordinates, and do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D

objects' vertexes' Z coordinates. Then an XYZ vertex coordinate list

gets dynamically generated for each perspective of this vertex

arrangement that gets requested. That's how to make an object's vertex

map in binary rather than pixels.

Also, hierarchical representation can be applied to generating

different 3D perspective's projection calculations. By putting the

coordinates in terms of hierarchical representation (as described in

previous essays), calculations can proceed much more quickly than normal

since it speeds up arithmetic by chunking the calculations into their

highest powers of 2 (which the computer can calculate in one

clock-cycle), times a multiplier, plus or minus an offset, which can

also be chunked similarly if it is large. That would speed up 3D

rendering of video sequences dramatically.

This is the format that I want to encode the vertex maps of objects

in the visual dictionary I intend to build, and I intend to

systematically and axiomatically categorize the visual objects in terms

of qualitative and quantitative properties, and cross reference each

object to a linguistic encyclopedia, thesaurus, and dictionary. Most of

this work will be automated. Copyright 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Thoughts

on Computer Vision: 2D Snapshot to 3D Wireframe The Process: Open image

Identify edges of objects Identify symmetries Identify duplicate objects

in different configurations to fill in holes in that kind of object

throughout. 3D Clues: Straight lines Corners and intersection points

Arcs Complex areas: generalize areas such as wrinkles in fabric, or

limbs on a plant, or grass (or just generalize by color). Random or

repeating texture on flat or curved surfaces can also give clues. Guess

at 2D perspective. Rotate perspective to rectalinear*. Guess at hidden

areas by filling in holes. Rotate to top perspective, and guess at

holes. Rotate to side 1 (*see diagrams) perspective, guess at holes.

Rotate to side 2 perspective, guess at holes. Build 3D wireframe. Of any

2D picture you basically can see three sides of a cube, and may have to

guess at the other three sides. It's important to note distorted areas

and account for that in the image processing and representation.

Copyright 9/29/2002 Justin Coslor

Computer Vision Thoughts Classify an object's parts by first

cataloging unknown details.

1. Catalog details

2. Catalog association of details

a. by position

b. by range of motion

c. by flexible areas of topography)

3. Catalog repeat patterns.

Gage size and distance by resolution of a known calibration point,

or guess. Do so without having to use active sensing such as radar,

laser range-finders, etc. Scale images down to the lowest resolution

possible while still being able to extract geometric information of a

reasonable precision. Write "3D shape-guessing software" that guesses

the 3D shape (generalized topography) of objects in a 2D image. It could

guess at the dimensions it could not see, and could not change the

perspective to any possible side or angle. I know this already exists,

but where, and for how much, and is it available anywhere as free

open-source software? It could progressively assimilate more complete

mappings of objects in view as you feed it more images of the scene or

similar scenes. 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Imaginative new perspectives on

famous artworks. Do a painting of Leonardo DaVinci painting the Mona

Lisa in the same style and colors as his painting except from a

different view point of perspective. Study his self portraits and guess

at the unknown details. Do a whole series of paintings of famous artwork

scenes but from different perspectives in those same scenes as the

originals. All in the same style and colors. Copyright 10/01/2002 Justin

Coslor More thoughts on my Thermoelectric Generator Cloth invention 1.

Similar to an inverse Peltier junction 2. Could be embedded in hot

ceramic resistors to recover thermal energy. It could be used to capture

lost heat in electronic circuitry, such as in transistor heat-sinks. It

might need a regulator circuit (which could be embedded on a single

chip) to charge a battery or make use of the electricity directly for

non-critical functions in various circuits. It could be used in cars, on

the under side of the hood and inside of the radiator, and on the

exhaust manifold. it could be used to line hot-air balloons if made thin

enough. It could be used in nuclear power plants It could be wrapped

around radioactive hot rocks for use in space. It could be made out of:

1. metallic powder composites, 2. electroplated wire that can be woven

into a fabric before or after being electroplated. 3. woven dissimilar

metal wire. Inventions: T.E.G. cloth, PDA OCR hand-scanner software

Dremel CNC robotic arm and robotic clamp U CAD/CAM interface software.

Copyright 10/16/2002 Justin Coslor Inventory of revolutionary inventions

that I've invented (but not built) up to this date: 1. Thermo-Electric

Generator Cloth 2. Sine Spiral Graphing for Circular and Complex Motion

3. Conical Orbit Graphing for Satellite Path Visualization and Analysis

4. Dremel CNC Robot (suitcase sized) "Hands Building Hands" robotic

assembly system and haptics interface 5. Library PDA + Hand Scanner

Optical Character Recognition Portable Digitizing System (A software

that could be checked out temporarily from every libary in the world. 6.

New Kind of Cheap Laser-Rangefinder System (use not yet known)...laser

range-finders are normally very expensive. 2/25/2005 Update: I've since

invented a new kind of solid-state crystalline shadow-growth computer

memory device that has no moving parts, that my new kind of

laser-rangefinder would be perfect for accessing and writing the data

to.

6/18/2005 Justin Coslor

Puzzles

There needs to be more geometric puzzles that people can fiddle with

with their hands while they talk or drink coffee. Some could be games. A

coffee shop could have a tough puzzle or a riddle that they could have

for people to try, where they have to buy a cup of coffee to try it, and

if they solve it they'd get a free cup of coffee. 6/19/2005 Justin

Coslor World medicine Have a worldwide franchise of hydroponic

greenhouses stocked full of medicinal plants. Put one or more in every

town and in each one there'd also be a laboratory and clinic, similar to

how they do in China, but using plants from all over the world. The

clinic would be a front-end for a vast computer medicinal expert system

artificial intelligence, and have a fast full-body scanner in each one

to model their body in 3D for closer inspection. Have a ridiculous

amount of data storage capacity, memory, and computational power, and

have a laser surgery machine and blood analysis equipment, etc. Combine

Western Medicine with Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Accupuncture, Chinese

Herbal Medicine, Native American remedies, Aruveydic medicine, and

South-American Shamantic and Russian (Shamantic and modern) medicine,

and ignore smug know-it-all healer wanna-be's. Medicine goes part of the

way, belief accounts for 40% of healing (according to scientists), and

the rest is basically a gift from God. Do everything possible in the

best possible way and constantly improve all areas. Also have

spiritual/energy healers if you can find good ones or manage to train

them. The fee should be a sliding scale based on a percentage of income,

and have payment plans, which can be partially paid by working in the

greenhouse, lab, or clinic.

-------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

------------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor

New Kinds of Electric Generator/Electric Motors In the diagram I drew,

you can use toroidal coils inside roller wheels that roll on the inside

of the magnet tube. Permanent magnets or horseshoe electromagnets can be

used around the outside (since they are three times stronger). The axle

is split in the middle and one end of each of the rollers' coil wire

goes to each corresponding separate half of the roller's axle, which in

turn comes in contact with the corresponding dived separate main axle

end cap, and just have a spring- loaded contact terminal on each half of

the axle. Another model could also have a split axle terminal, and could

have a frictionless magnetic bearing surface internally. 11/7/2004

Justin Coslor Batteries. In the October 2004 issue of Popular Science,

they talked about a thing where the European Space Agency and Team

Encounter allow people to pay $25 to have a photo + description get

etched onto a High Density Rosetta nickel chip and get send off into

space on a solar sail spacecraft. The chips are expected to last at

least 1000 years. Gold substrate CDROMs last about 10 years. D-Skin.com,

for $6, sells five CD skins that prevent scratches. Put a copy of my

friendly intelligence diagram on one of those nickel chips. It acts kind

of like microfiche. We might make some friends. Around 200 B.C.E.,

Parthinians in present-day Baghdad make a crude battery, an iron rod

surrounded by a copper cylinder inside a clay jar filled with vinegar.

-------> Try stacks of copper or zinc and bismuth plates separated by

two silicon rods between each junction and fill the container with

vinegar or bleach that you've added extra salt to, or use condensed

urine or something as the go-between, and put it in a tempered glass or

tempered ceramic container and attach terminals. Around 1898, size-D

zinc-carbon batteries made their debut inside a paper tube along with a

bulb and a brass reflector - which became the first "electric hand

torch". What we know of today as the flashlight.

Would bismuth be a good substitute for carbon or graphite in a

battery? Would stainless steel be useful instead of iron in a wet cell?

Stainless steel has some toxic materials in it though. Would bismuth be

a good substitute for lead in batteries? They're similar on the periodic

table, however bismuth is nontoxic and diamagnetic. Water is a conductor

and it's in vinegar. Sodium chloride is too, and acidic fluids are often

in batteries as well. Maybe acids have extra electrons and bases have

extra holes? ------------------------------------ 11/7/2004 Justin

Coslor See pg 35 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science by

Brian and Brenda Williams. Battery idea #1:

Do electrolysis on salt water to make bleach, which probably will

act as an acidic conductor. Then put the bleach in a glass or ceramic

jar and make a solid bismuth coil and put it in the bleach filled jar,

and take a solid zinc rod and electroplate it with magnesium or dip it

in magnesium and put it in the middle of the bismuth coil (or if a

bismuth tube is used instead, put it in the middle of that with some

space between it and the magnesium-coated zinc rod), and make some kind

of cap with a pressure release cannister and valve. It might work as a

great battery, but keep it outside just in case it leaks or explodes.

The bleach might crystallize (which is good) if you add a bunch of extra

salt to it after doing electrolysis. If it does crystallize, it's less

likely to leak. --------------------------- 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor

Battery idea #2: Drugstore battery.

Open up a tin can and dump the contents out and fill it up with

Pepto Bismal and take a plastic cap and roll up some aluminum foil and

jam one end of it into the cap and wrap the other end of it in wax paper

and fold it over the edge. (You might have to boil the water out of the

Pepto Bismal to thicken it into bismuth.) Next wrap some more tinfoil

around the rim of the can and fold up an extension terminal from it. I

don't know if this will work at all. Copyright 10/31/2004 Justin Coslor

Diamagnetic Energy Generation Satellites

When a coil is passed through a magnetic field it generates a

current of electricity through the coil. So, make a satellite that has a

coil made out of diamagnetic material, and at night it should generate a

current because the earth's diamagnetic field bows out on the dark side

of the Earth due to the solar wind form the sun. As the Earth turns, the

coil will be passing through that bowed out diamagnetic field. It's

necessary to use diamagnetic material for the coil because it will be

used to turn the diamagnetic field of the earth (which is between the

poles) into an electric current running through the coil. A coil made

out of non-diamagnetic material would not be receptive to the

diamagnetic field. Some examples of diamagnetic materials are pyrolytic

graphite, bismuth, water, and salt. The reason that ice floats is

because water is diamagnetic, and ice is more diamagnetic than water, so

it repels the water's diamagnetic field, and the diamagnetic field of

the Earth. One could theoretically make a gigantic coil out of ice, and

generate electricity with it.

One could also make a satellite that could travel through the

Earth's magnetic field in its equatorial orbit, and the diamagnetic coil

would produce an electric current perpendicular to the Earth's

diamagnetic field, and it could beam the electricity back to Earth in

the form of microwaves. One could even try making a satellite that can

just sit and levitate permanently in a semi-fixed position in space on

the dark side of the Earth. The moon is probably diamagnetic since one

side is always facing the Earth. (See related pictures.) 10/7/2004

Justin Coslor Electromagnetism People say that electric fields run

perpendicular to magnetic fields, so maybe the electric force can be

thought of as the active force in atoms, while the magnetic force can be

thought of as the stabilizing force in atoms, yet the two forces

correspond to each other to balance the energy and space in an atom, as

energy is always in motion, and space provides potential for that motion

to occur, whether it be in loops, knots, spirals or

transfer/transformation to other planes, shapes, and dimensions of

energy flow pathways. I like to guess at possibilities then check

science, math, logic, and philosophy or experiment to see if I got

anything right. It's my hobby. It helps me develop intuition and

reasoning ability. 9/26/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Coordinates Magnetic

North is offset from True North because the Earth wobbles at an angle

that causes there to be four seasons. The Prime Meridian goes around the

globe, and on one hemisphere it travels through Magnetic North, and on

the other hemisphere it travels through Greenwich, England. It also goes

through True North and True South. Figure out where the magnetic South

Pole is. Is it split into branches? It's probably in Antarctica. At what

points on the Earth's geomagnetic field coordinates (x,y,z polar

coordinates) are there severe distortions or landmark sub-fields? Is 360

degrees optimal for calculating an oblong spheroid? The Earth is not

round, but more of an oblong spheroid. Why did the Greeks choose 360

degrees? Greek astronomer Hipparchus (~165- 127 B.C.) made a map that

included Antarctica so they must have had advanced technology then. The

map I've seen is fairly complete, but it only shows one side of the

globe. If he was able to have a complete detailed map of Antarctica way

back then, then surely he had a way to obtain a map of the American

Continents? Ptolemy's map also denoted Magnetic North & South offset

from true North & South. Where exactly is the magnetic North Pole, and

how often do the poles flip and why? Does the Moon's orbit get pushed

away from the Earth temporarily during the flipping of the Earth's

poles? Probably, since the moon is mostly made out of diamagnetic

material. That's why we always see the same face of it, and diamagnetic

materials repel both North and South Poles and like to hover over the

mid-point between them (Satellite levitation application... Read

diamagnetic levitation article in New American Scientist around this

month.) Copyright 9/23/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Battery Idea Steam

and gas atoms and molecules probably contain more quanta than liquid

atoms and liquid molecules, which partially utilize each other's

electron shells. Where steam and gas atoms probably have higher electron

orbits and have their own repulsive/attractive field depending on the

spin. Crystallized atom and molecule configurations probably exist

because a bunch of atoms and molecules were either compressed into a

tight area and extended the orbit of their strong force electron shells,

or possibly the atoms might have been cooled from a liquid state while

under the influence of a magnetic field. [10/28/2004 update: The

magnetic field of an atom is the stabilizing force, and the electric

field is the active force. . .probably?] Is it possible to make

crystallized oxygen or crystallized hydrogen or other gases? [Then just

add energy of the atom's particular spectroscopic frequency to liberate

the molecules out of the crystallized form. They'd probably have to be

mixed with other elements to form crystals at reasonable temperatures.]

What if they were highly ionized gases or isotopes? What happens if you

put two conductor terminals on a quartz crystal and then bolt a magnet

onto each side of the crystal independently so that the magnets repel or

attract each other? Will that provide a steady supply of electricity due

to the compression forces on the quartz crystal? It might be a way to

make a magnetic electricity battery that doesn't run out until the

magnets lose their charge. Just attach a circuit or light to something

to the terminals. 8/23/2004 Justin Coslor Toroidal EM Fields (like for

fusion. . .see attached pictures): I'm not claiming that this is

correct, but maybe some elements conduct electricity and have a magnetic

field that is perpendicular to the flow of electrons and maybe other

elements conduct magnetism and have an electric field that is

perpendicular to the lines of flux. Maybe some elements do both, and

maybe some do neither. Gravity is proportional to how active an element

is at the quantum level, coupled with how interactive it is externally.

Make a toroidal field around a Peltier Stack (dissimilar metals like a

battery all stacked up), and blow gases with extra electrons into the

toroidal squasher and their extra electrons may travel up the Peltier

stack, sort of like a battery, but it could polarize the stack and maybe

could function as a power source without actually doing fusion. It could

also be a kind of electron stripper. ??? Gravity is about how the energy

of the internal interacts with the energy of the external. It might

merely be cyclic regions of space that have greater potential for motion

(for energy quanta and other cyclic space regions) than fairly neutral

space regions. I believe that space holds a compression and that the

function of space is potential for motion. Time is a function of motion,

and matter is energy quantas swirling in compressed cyclic space

regions. Maybe the space has knots in it to lock the quanta into cycles?

Who knows? ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/18/2004 Justin

Coslor Note to self: Diodes act as one-way gates. Transistors act like

adjustable-flow valves. They can be strung together to make Boolean

logic circuits. ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004

Justin Coslor Crystalline Memory Lattices: Maybe one could use

intersecting laser beams to control the shadow-growth of semiconductor

crystals for making optical circuitry or maybe some frequencies will

grow lattice structures conducive to electron flow (Negative cells),

while others (or pits rather than peaks) might grow structures (or

carve/melt) conducive to receiving electrons (positive cells/holes).

---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor

Super-cheap gigantic diamagnetic electromagnets: Try making an

electromagnet out of ice as the conductor. Take some plastic tubing and

fill it up with water, cap the ends, coil it up into a spiral, then

freeze it. Then take a larger piece of tubing (wider) and freeze (or

make a horse-shoe-style ice magnet). Then run electricity through the

ice spiral and see if it is able to act as an electro-diamagnet (since

water is somewhat diamagnetic). The lattice structure of the ice

crystals might be good for holding a diamagnetic charge. Who knows???

Try it. If it works, make an enormous one. What happens when you beam

light through the electrically conductive ice coil spiral?

------------------------------------ Copyright 9/6/2004 Justin Coslor

Supercomputer and Memory Technology Build a supercomputer out of

millions of memory units of the kind I designed earlier that have no

moving parts and operate optically. Locate the computer in either

Antarctica or in a very cold climate, such as on a satellite that stays

in the shadow of the Earth or underground on the dark side of the moon.

It could be nuclear powered, or powered by a thermocouple that runs off

of hot rocks (thermonuclear isotopes). use an instantaneous

communication relay between it and stations on the Earth (see physics

research in the book "The Dancing Woo Li Masters" by Gary Zukav). The

key component to the memory units is the new kind of laser range-finder

I designed when I was 16. 2/17/2005 Update by Justin Coslor: Recently I

came up with the optimal geometry for an entirely new and different (and

possibly better) solid-state dense nanotechnology memory geometry

design. See my most recent journal entry to this date on that topic, as

well as the partial diagram I drew that describes the mathematics behind

it. Copyright 9/24/2004 Justin Coslor Speculation about photodiodes,

photovoltaics, and the nature of energy transmission through materials.

Figure out how photodiodes work. I think they somehow convert light

into electrons. That would mean that the light quanta would add energy

to the diode's N-plate's electrons to bring the outermost electrons to a

higher orbit around the nucleus and eventually high enough to be able to

transfer over from one atom to an orbit around an adjacent atom capable

of supporting an extra electron. When all of the atoms on the N-plate

have electrons at transferable orbits they will hop over the junction

and start filling in the orbit holes in the P-plate's atoms. When the

P-plate's atoms fill up with transferable atoms, then electricity will

flow in either direction because the N-P plates will act just like a

regular conductor. In fact, you might not even need a P-plate unless you

wanted a one-way gate effect. Probably, you would have to use a material

that has a photon emission frequency that is the same as the kind of

light that you are exposing it to, in order for the photons to get

absorbed by the electrons orbiting around that material's nucleuses. Use

electron spectroscopy to find suitable materials for the spectrums of

light you expect to use the photovoltaic cells under.

Transparent photovoltaics could be made out of some kind of

crystallne materials (appropriately receptive to the incoming

wavelengths), and could be made very thick, where both the anode and

cathode structures could be transparent, and could be made of a

semiconducting crystalline block that has been formed while under the

polarizing magnetic field of a powerful superconductor. That way, every

molecule in the transparent crystalline block would act as a photodiode,

like miniature photovoltaic cells. Perhaps materials that do not look

transparent to us are quite transparent to their specific spectroscopic

frequencies of radiation, and that may be why they are able to "conduct"

those frequencies of radiation and in doing so, convert that energy into

electric/electron current. ???

Copyright 9/14/2005 Justin Coslor

A New Kind of Potentiometer (which can be used as a tactile sensor)

Details: Make it as a spring-loaded linear-action potentiometer

(variable resistor), where the farther the lever rod is pushed down,t e

more resistance there is on the current flowing across it between the

rod's conductive bearing surface, and the decreasingly (or increasingly)

conductive plate or channel that it glides on/in. It's a very simple

device, and clusters of them can be used in conjunction as sensors for

tactile kinetic force of varying magnitude, depending on the strength of

the spring at the bottom of the rod. It could be used n the finger-pads

or gripper-pads of a robotic arm. The glide plate/channel could be lined

with a carbon resistive strip similar to the one in regular slide-pots.

There could be some stranded insulated wire that comes off of the top of

the rod, and the rod itself could be insulated except for the bearing

surface. The ground wire would be at the top of the glide-plate's

resistive carbon film, so that as the rod gets pushed down against the

force of the spring at the bottom, the resistor would turn on or off

farther and farther depending on how it is designed. The conductive

bearing surface could just be a strip of metal with a rounded bend in

it, so that it has some spring action, and it could have a similar

rounded strip-spring on the back of it so that it pushes on the back

wall to exert some force in the direction of the carbon-resistive film.

Or the bearing surface could be a roller wheel with conductive

lubrication, such as graphite powder, and a back-wall spring similar to

the one just described or just have two independent bearing surfaces

opposite to each other with a hinge and a spring in the middle (although

that is an unnecessarily complex design). Or the bearing surface could

be like a miniature computer mouse ball in a cage that only travels

forwards and backwards and made out of metal. When I mentioned possibly

using a channel in some designs I meant it to be like a vertical gutter

that is rectangular, or triangular. A triangular gutter design would

probably be the easiest and most stable of the gutter designs to make,

and it would provide a lot of stability against possible twisting action

of the spring-loaded vertical push rod. See the photo of the brief

diagram that I scribbled for this invention. Contact me for terms of

licensing, development, publication, and mass-production.

JustinCoslor@gmail.com I'd like everybody to be able to buy these very

inexpensively for their projects, and send samples out to university

students and professors for free. All I'd like is the standard fair

National average inventor's royalty percentage on the gross profit of

the venture capital wholesale sales gross profit of these potentiometers

and off the gross profit of the sale of improved models so that I can

continue to come up with new inventions and have some spending money. I

shouldn't have to be poor forever, because that causes so much

unnecessary misery. It'd be wonderful if I had a better workshop and

some helpers and colleages and more resources to work with. Copyright

9/12/2004 Justin Coslor

Highly sensitive tactile/optical range-finding robotic finger sensor-pads:

For rich tactile data input (robo-fingerpad pressure sensors that

yield very detailed sensory input) sensors, add a stereo computer vision

range-finding unit to each finger, and have slider resistor tubes that

are spring-loaded under a rubbery surface skin, and make them flexible

if possible. (Update Copyright 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor: Think of sea

anemony-like manipulators that each have a little CCD range-finder setup

and tactile sensors for precise gentle manipulations.) I could probably

build a test pad out of drinking straws and little springs or rubber

bands glued to pins that are soldered to either trimpots on a

swivel-mount or tiny slider-resistors. The skin could be molded from

liquid latex or a piece of bicycle innertube, and the stereo-cameras

could be located up on the arm with fiber-optic light input extensions

that go right out to the finger tip pads where they can be precisely

angled to yield stereoscopic CCD range-finding data so that the fingers

will each visually know how far they are from the objects they are

trying to manipulate. Maybe the CCD's can be quadranted up into four

distinct camera matrixes per CCD (or more), each of which would be fed

light by it's own independent fiber optic cable that has an optics unit

on each end....? That would bring the costs and power-consumption down

dramatically because not as many actual digital cameras would need to be

used to obtain the effect of having a whole bunch of independent digital

cameras. Copyright 9/11/2004 Justin Coslor A cheaper kind of

touch-screen for computer kiosks for 2D operating system user interface

haptics and 3D augmented reality user interface haptics. Note: I suppose

this is similar to the haptics in the movie "Minority Report."

Instead of using expensive breakable touch screens, why not set up a

regular CRT computer monitor that has a piece of replaceable plexiglass

over the monitor face, in the form of a kiosk interface whose mouse

movements or click-movements are recorded by an overhead pair of digital

cameras that are running an open-source stereo computer vision algorithm

as drivers that utilize your own hands' movements as 3D haptics devices.

If the operating system is a 2D point- and-click environment, then your

index finger pointing in 3D angles will move the mouse and touching (or

nearly touching) the plexiglass plate will execute a click (selection).

If the operating system is a 3D environment, then perhaps all control of

the environment will occur at least several inches to several feet from

the plexiglass plate, and perhaps there could be an on-screen 3D

animation that mirrors the hand movements, with trainable hand gestures

to control different features and functions of the environment. The

important thing that I must explicitly note is that the stereo cameras

are to be situated on an extended arm overhead, and potentially out of

reach, and that they are to be located either directly above or behind

the user's head so that they are only focused on the user's hands (and

not their face) because they are not to be made in such a way as to be

able to digitally photograph the user's face, since that would be an

invasion of privacy which could potentially be mis-used.

Also, there might be a projection onto a plexiglass plate in front

of the face but behind the hands so that the hands can interact in an

augmented reality environment in addition to being haptics devices for

the above-described kiosk-like CRT screen's operating system. Copyright

10/29/2004 Justin Coslor Course Catalog and Skills Inventory (Software

Idea)

Dig up my old note from years ago about how course catalogs can be

interconnected and turned into software that inventories and sorts

prerequisites and possibilities for which courses the student is

qualified to take based on the courses they've taken. It would help

students who aren't sure what to major in, to plan their school year, as

well as help in organizing quite concretely the knowledge they've

learned and the knowledge they can learn. The students can also build

hypothetical models of future courses of study with the software, and

can help teachers model new curriculums, and link their courses to other

people's curriculums. Libraries can use it too. Also, every student

should be able to see a summary page that lists one paragraph on the

topics that will be, or have been covered in each course in each

semester of their education, if not only just for the benefit of their

memory, to see what they've learned (or haven't learned), what they're

learning, and what they intend to learn (hypothetically) in the future.

That way, they can easily reference their educational background later

on in life, which is especially important if they are lifelong students

or researchers.

Artificial intelligence reasoning engines could be made that

generate comprehension tests and study guides and executive summaries

for any book in any language, and they could link related materials and

form historical and/or geographic timelines of the history and spread

and evolution of ideas and concepts. Such software might already exist

somewhere in some form.

Employers in industry might also like to look at these educational

coverage charts if they're looking for knowledge of specific skills in

applicants during their hiring process. Copyright 12/14/2001 Justin

Coslor Portable Robotic Hole-Threading Tool for Building Robots and

Stuff.

It drills a hole, then threads the hole with a tap, then runs a bolt

through the hole, then puts a washer and a nut on the other end of the

bolt. It might even clamp two pieces of material together while

fastening them together in the above described manner. It would be a

hand-held device, and someone could even make a version that's an

autonomous mobile device (for use in space or factories), and another

version could be a stationary tool bolted to the floor or something.

There could be several different models. I originally thought of this

several years ago through have not yet drawn schematics.

------------------- Components: Drill: high torque, high speed motor,

use gears and speed control. Tap: stepper motor + Air nozzle to blow

chips and slag away. Bolter: leveraged robo-wrist + gripper (or possibly

a robotic version of one of those spring-loaded universal wrenches).

Nutter: leveraged robo-wrist plus gripper. Clamp: as simple as possible,

like one of those 1-turn clamps or something with rubber pads. Sensors:

slag sensor detects chips and blows them away, torque sensors keep

machinery from jamming and breaking. Vision keeps track of what is in

each quadrant of a laser matrix projected onto the work surface. Parts

orienting system: Loads bolter and nutter and washers (part of nutter)

and keeps parts oriented and organized. Copyright 11/12/2004 Justin

Coslor Cottage Industry Explosion: Portable Inexpensive Manufacturing

Robots for Intentional Communities In America

Make portable inexpensive manufacturing robots hooked up to an

open-source computer terminal (possibly running the 3D modeling software

Blender, and some business & art software) as a whole cottage industry

manufacturing system that can be easily set up to refine materials and

produce products that can then be sold locally and over the Internet.

People would design their own products of course, and they can be

quite intricate and precise and easy to replicate due to the use of

robots and computer technologies. The software would make the business

part of it a snap. Design a general system and then use it to fabricate

duplicates of itself, and sell and install them exclusively to people

who live in Intentional Communities, so that America can win back its

manufacturing Jobs from China and India, as well as keep its high-tech

jobs from being outsourced. Copyright 11/5/2004 Justin Coslor Cottage

Industry Stuff Print up some tee-shirts, coffee mugs, bookmarks, and

refrigerator magnets of my friendly intelligence diagram. Post them for

sale on the Internet. Write a little booklet that goes with the diagram,

to include with each item, to help people understand the diagram. Look

for a bootable linux distribution that has life-critical software and

family business software. Order DSL and a bootable DVDRW drive and

download a copy of Knoppix.

Build the portable computer-numeric-controlled (CNC) machining robot

for carving ornamental wood furniture and paneling, and collect an

archive of geometrical designs and nature patterns to use, and template

concrete masonry patterns for face plates for beautifying buildings and

for making sculptures and walkways. Build the originals out of clay and

wood and use stereo digital cameras or a laser range-finder scanner to

digitize the designs. Sell these portable CNC machines inexpensively to

help Americans form cottage industries.

I could build ornate bookshelves and industrial design things that

could be environmentally friendly and quite useful. I'll need a shop to

use unless I just design it and have other people build it like Ikea

does.

I could also sell Atmel AVR SP12 microcontroller programmer kits,

and already-put-together microcontroller programmers, and I could put

together an electronics assembly robot, and a very small very precise

set of robotic arms for doing fine work. 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor

Holographic Range-finding Orbiting Space Telescopes, for Holographic

Geometric Reconstruction of Distant Celestial Objects and Celestial

Systems (or point it at the Earth for Geographical Information Systems).

See pg. 59 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science, for info

on how to make holographic images (depthy multi-perspective images). Do

that on a much larger scale but out in space or even have the

Holographic crystal on the Earth and have the space telescopes pointed

either at the Earth or put distant objects in space. Use a gigantic

holographic crystal that is sensitive to a wide spectrum of different

wavelengths (colors). Have the holographic crystal on a slightly

different orbit than the space telescopes, and the crystal should rotate

slightly to capture the changing perspective of the orbiting stereo or

triple space telescopes beamed at it. Put the space telescopes way out

in space. This is nothing new, but the first two space telescopes could

make the XY plane, and range- finding according to focal length, but add

a third space telescope to do XYZ geometric reconstruction of a remote

volume (the front face of the picture at least) with some distortion.

The third telescope could be above and behind the other two for extra

dimensionality, and that way there wouldn't be a blind spot, however in

other configurations the blind spot might indicate where the readings

start to become somewhat reliable. Copyright 10/29/2004 Justin Coslor

Safety Skin for Robots Make a fabric-like skin of flexible tactile

sensors to be put on the outside of robots, so that if a person (or

another robot or obstacle) bumps into the robot or gets in the way of

the robot, the robot immediately will shut down and disengage to prevent

the chance of injuries to the person. This would be an additional layer

of safety in addition to visual and/or sonar/IR/laser tachometer

environmental sensors. Copyright 10/20/2004 Justin Coslor Free public

archive of great anonymous writing and poetry There should be a website

that acts as a free public archive of great anonymous writing and poetry

throughout history. It could be searchable by a variety of interactive

intelligent means, and offer a secure round-the-world ping-pong

submission form that leaves no trail but is subject to human review as

to whether it is worth archiving. Also, it should be entirely based on

free open- source software that is eloquently coded and understandable

and proven. Copyright 10/11/2004 Justin Coslor Precise EM field sensing

nanocoil fabric Insulated conductive nanocoils could be useful for

sensing electromagnetic fields very precisely. Somebody could make

packets of independent nanocoils that could be laid out in a flexible

fabric form (or rigid) where each coil would be processed and a

numerical value would be passed to a unit of nonvolatile random access

memory. Then this coil fabric, much like a curtain, could be passed

through a room vertically to get a reading of the electromagnetic field

strength at each point in the room. It could be useful for figuring out

where to stick accupuncture needles in medical treatments too. It would

also be useful for teaching people how to use their own body's

bioelectric field in unison with the Earth's geomagnetic field to heal

themselves and others, and to people how to harmonize such forces

regardless of the situation. It seems like this kind of instrumentation

and a visual augmented reality software simulation interface to this

kind of sensory equipment could really improve people's awareness and

mentality, and thus their lives. Eventually they could learn to sense

the fields without the electronic equipment to some degree and not need

the apparatus anymore to stay healthy and balanced. Already there is

bioelectric feedback therapy, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-systems),

and augmented reality technology (which is a form of virtual reality).

9/8/2004 Justin Coslor Notes on the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh book

"Agents Unleashed: A public domain look at agent technology" by Peter

Wayner Copyright 1995, published by Academic Press, Inc. Agent

Technology: Setting Up Secure Networks Parallel and Distributed Programs

User Interfaces Being applied to agent technology: Genetic algorithms,

computational learning theory, classification theory,

adaptive-preference-based decision making automations, personal

oracles/prodigies, power librarians (parse text, translate languages,

figure out language ambiguities), emotional interface via animations,

network roaming ability, and virus protection. Agents are like viruses

that are designed to be helpful. Agents are often programmed in list,

and controlled by TCL (Tool Command Language), and transmitted via PGP

encrypted mime-encoded email. XLISP is a simple, free,

microcomputer-based implementation of a subset of the Common LISP

standards.

In LISP both the data and the program are stored in nested listt

trees. Inside the LISP environment, agents can easily build up, execute,

and tear down data structures. In LISP there ar no pointers, memory

allocation, and deallocation is automatic, and there ar some security

holes but they're patchable to keep agents from overstepping their

bounds. Common LISP uses a hierarchy of packages, which are separate

tables of variables, functions, and their names. These package

hierarchies offer structured access to variables, and can be used to

keep incoming agents from executing any system calls or handling local

memory. LISP's debuggers can be re- tooled to send an agent back home

along with the pre and post screen of the remote LISP compiler's

evaluation loop hooks when an agent causes a memory access or system

resource error.

Some smaller versions of LISP such as XLISP-Plus have

object-oriented features called Common LISP Object System. Dynamic

linking/binding to find the latest functions is used in some versions

like Scheme, which lead to the more algebraic C-Like syntax version

called Dylan. Commercial versions of LISP compilers have extra features

and are faster than the free compilers. Even compiled LISP code is

semi-interpreted and doesn't have a direct ability to manipulate

pointers because it needs to stay mobile in memory, so compiled LISP

code is a great environment for supporting agents that can act on it.

If I plan to program Aritificial Intelligence in LISP rather than

Java, then I should buy the book "Common LISP: The Language" by buy

Steele, for hardcore LISP programming. Check out other books too and

read reviews and recommends online. There are probably some free LISP

tutorials online as well. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin Coslor 2D

Wireframe Digitization of Digital Images for Computer Vision How would

the orientation matching algorithm work in the first three methods? (See

11/14/2002 algorithm.) Irregular objects: 2D width match 2D height match

Form a 2D square around the border of the object. Treat each pixel in

the image as an independent pivot point. For each pixel, draw straight

lines in a layer over top of the image at every possible angle that

intersect at the pivot point (all of which are as long as the longest

dimensions of the image). Measure how much of each line intersects with

the object, especially where there are two or more adjacent pixels in a

straight line. If you do this for all of the pixels you'll have a

coordinate database of angles and lengths and start and end points or

midpoints, which is very useful for forming groups by associating the

lines in the image in various ways, such as: intersection, adjacency,

parallelness, curvature template matching, and continuity of same line.

For some operations one can choose the line that intersects the longest

distance across the object. This is the longest intersecting line from

the current 2D perspective, whose midpoint is the pivot point. This is

useful for the following: at each endpoint of the longest intersecting

line draw a point. Draw a perpendicular line at each endpoint of the

line. Start out with a perpendicular line from the known schematics,

that is as long as the longest dimension of the object (at each

endpoint), and make sure that the perpendicular lines' midpoints are

centered on each endpoint. Now form a box at each half of the object and

reduce the width of the box until the outer edge touches the outside of

the object. Do this for each of the two halves of the object. Now you

have a tightly fitting box around that particular 2D object in the

image! The point of doing this is to be able to separate that object

from the rest of the image, and also to figure out the object's actual

perspective in the image, which can help at guessing 3D attributes. This

object can now be put into an object catalog, each image of which can be

rotated in 2D for matching against for doing approximative Bayesian

pattern matching that incorporates rotation attempts. (See related

diagrams from my handwritten journal.) Now rotate this box and 2D image

in the X,Y plane by N degrees about the pivot point until the box is

perfectly vertical and horizontal on the screen. Now you have the

computer show a front view of the 3D object model so that you can rotate

it forwards and backwards about the pivot point until you get the two

positions that match the length of the 2D image. Compare the two lengths

from the pivot point to the endpoints to find the longest or shortest

line for comparison to decide which of the two 3D positions to choose.

For each of these two possible positions we now want to find the two

positions in which the width matches by twisting the 3D object model,

and comparing the widest or shortest half of the box to the 3D model's

two possible width twistations to find out which width to choose. Now

you have the correct 3D perspective match of the 2D image and you know

the movements necessary to re-orient the object in reality to the 0,0,0

position. So just have the robot do it and begin again with the next

object, and the next, and the next, etc. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin

Coslor Computer Vision Thought Build a little robot that can go around

its environment and pick things up and study them as objects. It would

need to be able to categorize, visualize, contextualize, and use

guess-work (heuristics) scientifically to discover each object's

function, unique and generalized characteristics (size, weight, shape,

color, physical flexibilities, bend points, and center of gravity),

symmetries, associated objects (around what objects is it generally

found and used with?), physics force vectors during use and storage

(this much weight pushes on the floor at these surfaces (points of

contact and interaction), material it is made out of (robot has a

portable microscope to analyze materials and to identify the presence of

cells), surface temperature (infrared vision module can help determine

what objects are alive, very hot or cold, or how much hotter or colder

they are than the ambient room temperature), internal composition (sonar

scanner with 3D computer optimization), and statistical analysis (out of

all the times it has been recognized, what is the average context of

objects & movements of it and the objects interacting with it?). For a

practical application, the robot would only need to recognize a few

objects and be able to ignore all of the rest of what it sees so that it

could focus just on what it needs to know and extract data needed to

accomplish its goal. It will need to simplify what it sees so that it

can quickly find what it is looking for. It should only store in its

memory the things that it will use frequently. It will frequently

identify a few particular objects that are in different orientations.

For this a simplified 3D wireframe model would be useful, also surface

color(s) (optional), symmetries, and center of gravity, or handles for

gripping on to (like symmetry lines). Let's say you have a mechanical

part and the vision system has a 3D wireframe model of its structure.

The robot grips its handle or its center of gravity, picks it up, then

figures out what orientation it is in. How does it figure out the

orientation? 1. It could have touch sensors like a little pin board

whose spring loaded pins reveal the shape (as a matrix of depths) while

the robot holds the part. After the shape is recorded in that

orientation, the vision system could match the shape to the 3D wireframe

model and then tell the robot arm to rotate the part in the XYZ to get

the part into 0,0,0 orientation so that it can be placed somewhere

accurately and systematically. 2. It could scan the part with a wide

laser range-finder, then match and reorient the part. 3. It could take a

digital photo (CCD camera) of the part from 0,0,0 orientation then

rotate the 3D computer model in the X,Y,Z until the part's current

orientation matches, then use an optimized X,Y,Z rotation algorithm to

find the shortest method of rotation to get from the original X,Y,Z

orientation to the desired 0,0,0 orientation, then the robot arm would

make that adjustment and place the part. 4. Use a part's tray with

little wells to catch the parts as they are shaken across the tray (like

on the SMART Cell manufacturing robotic system I use to work on at the

CMU Robotics Institute years ago). Copyright 8/7/2005 Justin Coslor

Binary Space Partition Trees

I'm currently on page 17 of the book "Java 3D Programming" by Daniel

Selman Copyright 2002, and it mentioned using binary space partition

trees as a method of sorting relative positions of objects so that the

objects don't need to be re-sorted when the viewpoint changes. It didn't

explain how binary search partition trees work though I think it means

forming a tree of nodes for each object, where each node represents a

vertex on the object, and the vertexes are sorted by order of depth

(layering). That way multiple objects can be compared by comparing their

vertex depth, and when the perspective changes a different node on the

depth trees becomes node #1, 2, 3, etc in terms of the layering.

Copyright 8/10/2005 Justin Coslor

Data compression for 3D polygonal objects

What needs to happen to make 3D and Virtual Reality and Augmented

Reality popular again is to have more software compatible with Google

Earth (A geo-spacial imaging software that can be used for navigation

--- which needs more functionality). But more importantly what needs to

happen is to have software that is able to represent 3D models using

hardly any data at all. Better 3D data compression is needed, possibly

like that stegonometry idea I had, where vertex coordinate systems are

represented as layered pictogram polygons (see the idea in my notes --

July 2005), where three linked polygons is a 3D point, or set of 3D

points, such as an entire 3D object's vertexes -- the first polygon

represents all of the x coordinates in a particular object. The second

polygon represents all of the Y coordinates. The third polygon

represents all of the Z coordinates successively, and form each

pictogram polygon in a different color for each of the objects in the 3D

scene. The whole thing is in the same base and on the same pictogram XY

coordinate system. The whole thing can be represented as a tiny vector

graphic such as a PNG file that represents an entire 3D rendered

mathematical model/visualization, which is very easy bitwise map which

translates directly into the 3D, so it'd be really fast for rendering

each abstract pictogram map of the object's vertex coordinates. Also, no

two pictogram polygon vertex pixels will fall on the same point in the

pictogram as long as all objects' 3D vertexes are separated by one pixel

or more in 3D space. This would be a highly compressed way to represent

the spacial coordinates of all polygonal objects in a 3D scene, in the

form of a tiny image file, and if you string together multiple pictogram

image files into a sort of a video sequence, the objects in the scene

could gradually move through 3D space sort of like a morph sequence,

into the positioning registered by the second pictogram image file in

the video sequence, etc. . .like a gif89 animation file, but as a vector

graphics image. That would save a lot of processing power and

representation space in recording and playing back 3D video sequences in

virtual reality. See my note from 6/13/2004 on information theory. In it

I translated an old paradigm of information theory into terms of

patterns in contexts. "If a set of contexts constitutes t bits of unique

information, and the set of patterns that the contexts are based on

contains less than t bits of unique information, then it is impossible

to create those contexts from that set of patterns." Well, since coming

up with this idea today about encoding 3D models, and the regular 2D

stegonometry version of it (see my other essay), I no longer believe

that this paradigm is true in all cases (such as this one, for example),

because it doesn't account for alternative perspectives of

representation of information (of patterns in contexts) which are

different and of different computational complexity, but are

analogically equivalent.

Copyright 8/11/2005 Justin Coslor

3D compression scheme

I've developed an alternative system of representing numbers (which

represents them as pictograms), which I turned into an alternative

method of representing 3D vertex coordinates of polygons. In it, each

sequential group of three digits in the pictographic polygon

representation represents the X coordinates for the vertexes from left

to right, or the Y coordinates for the vertexes from top to bottom, or

the Z coordinates for the vertexes from front to back. So in that way

depth and ordering of the vertexes is very organized and the 3D scene

can be drawn in layers very quickly from front to back so that it will

be easy to see which vertexes can be skipped due to their being hidden

around the backside of the object.

The three pictogram polygon numbers each get drawn in different

colors in the vertex map, and the three polygon numbers gets parsed into

either a set of X coordinates, a set of Y coordinates, or a set of Z

coordinates as previously described, where each partition represents the

three digit location of X, Y, or Z.

Probably what needs to happen as a next step is to make three

coordinate buffers: one for the X axis, one for the Y axis, and one for

the Z axis, and then copy the parsed sequences of groups of three

sequential digits into these buffers. Then there will either be a fourth

buffer that combines all of these numbers into a set of XYZ coordinates

representing the vertexes of the 3D object, or else the computer will

dynamically triangulate perspectives on the 3D object to be constructed,

where each sequential list of dynamically combined XYZ vertex

coordinates is generated from left to right, top to down, front to back,

based on a projection of an angular viewpoint of the original

orientation of the X, Y, and Z coordinate lists. That is how

re-orientations of perspectives get generated. If a polygonal pictogram

is to be built for each perspective, then the polygon points in the

pictogram can just be combined one column at a time for the X, Y, and Z

vertex polygons (in groups of 3 pixel column places on the pictogram's X

axis), then the vertexes just get placed on the 3D grid, and lines get

drawn between their boundary shells as a wireframe and skins get

applied.

If you wanted to get really simple you don't even have to use

pixels, you can just make an XY array of 1's and 0's, and have it 9 or

so digits high in the Y axis (2^9), and as long in the X axis as

necessary, and every group of N binary digits horizontally gets

multiplied by the level it's on in the Y axis to give you a set of

sequential X coordinates for vertexes of the object in the 3D space, and

in do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D object's vertexes'

Y coordinates, and do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D

objects' vertexes' Z coordinates. Then an XYZ vertex coordinate list

gets dynamically generated for each perspective of this vertex

arrangement that gets requested. That's how to make an object's vertex

map in binary rather than pixels.

Also, hierarchical representation can be applied to generating

different 3D perspective's projection calculations. By putting the

coordinates in terms of hierarchical representation (as described in

previous essays), calculations can proceed much more quickly than normal

since it speeds up arithmetic by chunking the calculations into their

highest powers of 2 (which the computer can calculate in one

clock-cycle), times a multiplier, plus or minus an offset, which can

also be chunked similarly if it is large. That would speed up 3D

rendering of video sequences dramatically.

This is the format that I want to encode the vertex maps of objects

in the visual dictionary I intend to build, and I intend to

systematically and axiomatically categorize the visual objects in terms

of qualitative and quantitative properties, and cross reference each

object to a linguistic encyclopedia, thesaurus, and dictionary. Most of

this work will be automated. Copyright 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Thoughts

on Computer Vision: 2D Snapshot to 3D Wireframe The Process: Open image

Identify edges of objects Identify symmetries Identify duplicate objects

in different configurations to fill in holes in that kind of object

throughout. 3D Clues: Straight lines Corners and intersection points

Arcs Complex areas: generalize areas such as wrinkles in fabric, or

limbs on a plant, or grass (or just generalize by color). Random or

repeating texture on flat or curved surfaces can also give clues. Guess

at 2D perspective. Rotate perspective to rectalinear*. Guess at hidden

areas by filling in holes. Rotate to top perspective, and guess at

holes. Rotate to side 1 (*see diagrams) perspective, guess at holes.

Rotate to side 2 perspective, guess at holes. Build 3D wireframe. Of any

2D picture you basically can see three sides of a cube, and may have to

guess at the other three sides. It's important to note distorted areas

and account for that in the image processing and representation.

Copyright 9/29/2002 Justin Coslor

Computer Vision Thoughts Classify an object's parts by first

cataloging unknown details.

1. Catalog details

2. Catalog association of details

a. by position

b. by range of motion

c. by flexible areas of topography)

3. Catalog repeat patterns.

Gage size and distance by resolution of a known calibration point,

or guess. Do so without having to use active sensing such as radar,

laser range-finders, etc. Scale images down to the lowest resolution

possible while still being able to extract geometric information of a

reasonable precision. Write "3D shape-guessing software" that guesses

the 3D shape (generalized topography) of objects in a 2D image. It could

guess at the dimensions it could not see, and could not change the

perspective to any possible side or angle. I know this already exists,

but where, and for how much, and is it available anywhere as free

open-source software? It could progressively assimilate more complete

mappings of objects in view as you feed it more images of the scene or

similar scenes. 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Imaginative new perspectives on

famous artworks. Do a painting of Leonardo DaVinci painting the Mona

Lisa in the same style and colors as his painting except from a

different view point of perspective. Study his self portraits and guess

at the unknown details. Do a whole series of paintings of famous artwork

scenes but from different perspectives in those same scenes as the

originals. All in the same style and colors. Copyright 10/01/2002 Justin

Coslor More thoughts on my Thermoelectric Generator Cloth invention 1.

Similar to an inverse Peltier junction 2. Could be embedded in hot

ceramic resistors to recover thermal energy. It could be used to capture

lost heat in electronic circuitry, such as in transistor heat-sinks. It

might need a regulator circuit (which could be embedded on a single

chip) to charge a battery or make use of the electricity directly for

non-critical functions in various circuits. It could be used in cars, on

the under side of the hood and inside of the radiator, and on the

exhaust manifold. it could be used to line hot-air balloons if made thin

enough. It could be used in nuclear power plants It could be wrapped

around radioactive hot rocks for use in space. It could be made out of:

1. metallic powder composites, 2. electroplated wire that can be woven

into a fabric before or after being electroplated. 3. woven dissimilar

metal wire. Inventions: T.E.G. cloth, PDA OCR hand-scanner software

Dremel CNC robotic arm and robotic clamp U CAD/CAM interface software.

Copyright 10/16/2002 Justin Coslor Inventory of revolutionary inventions

that I've invented (but not built) up to this date: 1. Thermo-Electric

Generator Cloth 2. Sine Spiral Graphing for Circular and Complex Motion

3. Conical Orbit Graphing for Satellite Path Visualization and Analysis

4. Dremel CNC Robot (suitcase sized) "Hands Building Hands" robotic

assembly system and haptics interface 5. Library PDA + Hand Scanner

Optical Character Recognition Portable Digitizing System (A software

that could be checked out temporarily from every libary in the world. 6.

New Kind of Cheap Laser-Rangefinder System (use not yet known)...laser

range-finders are normally very expensive. 2/25/2005 Update: I've since

invented a new kind of solid-state crystalline shadow-growth computer

memory device that has no moving parts, that my new kind of

laser-rangefinder would be perfect for accessing and writing the data

to.

6/18/2005 Justin Coslor

Puzzles

There needs to be more geometric puzzles that people can fiddle with

with their hands while they talk or drink coffee. Some could be games. A

coffee shop could have a tough puzzle or a riddle that they could have

for people to try, where they have to buy a cup of coffee to try it, and

if they solve it they'd get a free cup of coffee. 6/19/2005 Justin

Coslor World medicine Have a worldwide franchise of hydroponic

greenhouses stocked full of medicinal plants. Put one or more in every

town and in each one there'd also be a laboratory and clinic, similar to

how they do in China, but using plants from all over the world. The

clinic would be a front-end for a vast computer medicinal expert system

artificial intelligence, and have a fast full-body scanner in each one

to model their body in 3D for closer inspection. Have a ridiculous

amount of data storage capacity, memory, and computational power, and

have a laser surgery machine and blood analysis equipment, etc. Combine

Western Medicine with Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Accupuncture, Chinese

Herbal Medicine, Native American remedies, Aruveydic medicine, and

South-American Shamantic and Russian (Shamantic and modern) medicine,

and ignore smug know-it-all healer wanna-be's. Medicine goes part of the

way, belief accounts for 40% of healing (according to scientists), and

the rest is basically a gift from God. Do everything possible in the

best possible way and constantly improve all areas. Also have

spiritual/energy healers if you can find good ones or manage to train

them. The fee should be a sliding scale based on a percentage of income,

and have payment plans, which can be partially paid by working in the

greenhouse, lab, or clinic.

-------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

### Book 4 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

-------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby

declare it in its present form to be free for use and modification

except I do not condone it's use in weapon systems or for deception.

You may sell applications and/or services that use this

logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself and you may

not try to prevent others from understanding or using the logic in any way.

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability. These are thoughts.

Sincerely, Justin Coslor. December 3rd, 2007.

Possibility Thinking: Explorations in Logic and Thought

----------------

Book IV:

Invention Ideas

----------------

10/28/2004 Penny Universities

1/1/2005 Inspiring book notes & some art product ideas

1/15/2005 Art Software For Making Symmetrical Design Patterns & Motifs

1/1/2005 Perspective Drawing Projects

1/13/1998 Robotics

8/27/2004 Video Game Idea

2/8/2005 Portable Operating Systems On Cross-Platform USB 2.0 Flash-Memory

Devices

7/17/2005 Nanotechnology

7/12/2005 Product idea: seed kits for suburban gardens

7/12/2005 Bottled Water

6/29/2005 Camping Stuff

6/29/2005 Cooling Shirt

6/27/2005 Dune Shirt

6/29/2005 Alternative Energy System for homes that have an acre or more

6/18/2005 Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software

6/18/2005 Pictograph books for language adaptation

6/18/2005 Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software

6/16/2005 Industries, Priority Systems, and Adaptation

6/14/2005 Industry Creation

5/27/2005 Natural Gas Mining in Landfills, Using Grids of Vertical Bamboo

Tubes

5/27/2005 3-Legged Walking Robot (It Gallops)

3/16/2005 Magneto-sonic Element Separator

1/7/2005 Diamagnetic Electromagnets

2/8/2005 PDA Kiosks

8/10/2005 PDA Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality System

11/12/2004 My eBike Shop: Eco-Bikes(TM)(R)

1/21/2005 Ram-Horn Handlebars for City Bikes

1/13/2005 Augmented Reality Goggles for doing X-Ray Vision and 3D Image

Reconstruction

9/19/2004 New Kinds of Electric Generator/Electric Motors

11/7/2004 Batteries

10/31/2004 Diamagnetic Energy Generation Satellites

10/7/2004 Electromagnetism

9/26/2004 Magnetic Coordinates

9/23/2004 Magnetic Battery Idea

8/23/2004 Toroidal EM Fields

9/19/2004 Crystalline Memory Lattices, and Super-Cheap Gigantic Diamagnetic

Electromagnets

9/6/2004 Supercomputer and Memory Technology

9/24/2004 Speculation about photodiodes, photovoltaics, and the nature of

energy transmission through materials

9/14/2004 A New Kind of Potentiometer (which can be used as a tactile sensor)

9/12/2004 Highly sensitive tactile/optical range-finding robotic finger

sensor-pads

9/11/2004 A cheaper kind of touch-screen for computer kiosks for 2D

operating system user interface haptics and 3D augmented reality user

interface haptics

10/29/2004 Course Catalog and Skills Inventory (Software Idea)

12/14/2001 Portable Robotic Hole-Threading Tool for Building Robots and Stuff.

11/12/2004 Cottage Industry Explosion: Portable Inexpensive

Manufacturing Robots for Intentional Communities in America

11/5/2004 Cottage Industry Stuff

11/11/2004 Holographic Rangefinding Orbiting Space Telescopes, for Holographic

Geometric Reconstruction of Distant Celestial Objects and Celestial Systems

(or point it at the Earth for Geographical Information Systems)

10/29/2004 Safety Skin for Robots

10/20/2004 Free public archive of great anonymous writing and poetry

10/11/2004 Precise EM field sensing nanocoil fabric

9/8/2004 Notes on an Intelligent Agents book

11/14/2002 2D Wireframe Digitalization of Digital Images for Computer Vision

11/14/2002 Computer Vision Thought

4/8/2005 3D Engine Idea

8/7/2005 Binary Space Partition Trees

8/10/2005 Data compression for 3D polygonal objects

8/11/2005 3D compression scheme

--------Re-write my paper on Chromodepth prism glasses and anaglyphs and how

you can just snap regular photos in a black room that has a red, blue

and green light sequentially lined up illuminating the objects front to

back, for making 3D Chromodepth photos.

----------

10/21/2002 Thoughts on Computer Vision: 2D Snapshots to 3D Wireframe

9/29/2002 More Computer Vision Thoughts

10/21/2002 Imaginative new perspectives on famous artworks

10/01/2002 More thoughts on my Thermoelectric Generator Cloth Invention

10/16/2002 Inventory of revolutionary inventions that I've invented (but not

built) up to this date

6/18/2005 Puzzles

6/19/2005 World Medicine

----------------

Book IV:

Invention Ideas

----------------

10/28/2004 Justin Coslor

Penny Universities

I read in an article on the Internet that coffee houses used to be

called "Penny Universities" in the mid 1600's in England, because it

cost a penny for admission and a mug of coffee. "TIPS" is an acronym

that was posted on a tin at the counter, which stood for "To Insure

Prompt Service", and people would toss in a coin as a perk. It was a

brilliant idea when the main branch of the Carnegie Library of

Pittsburgh (nested between Carnegie Mellon University and the University

of Pittsburgh) opened a coffee shop and free Internet access terminals

this year in their library (terminals have been in place for several

years). Their renovations are beautiful! Copyright 1/1/2005 Justin

Coslor Inspiring book & some art product ideas. I've been reading the

most amazing book called "Connections: The Geometric Bridge Between Art

and Science" ISBN: 0-07-034250-4, and it's inspired me to want to read

more books on the topic of Design Science. On page 264-265 of it it

talks about the duality of Platonic polyhedra: namely The Inscribed

Sphere. face<->vertex edge<->edge p<->q Face centroids of each platonic

polyhedra are also vertex points for their duals, and so they lie

equidistant from a common center. These pages in it talk also talk about

Duality, in some of it's various forms: 1. in BartÃ³k's music - 103 2. of

maps - 125-127 3. of regular tilings - 177 4. of semiregular tilings -

181-182 5. of reciprocal figure - 224-230 6. of Platonic solids -

264-268 7. interpreting duals - 266-267 8. of convex polyhedra - 291-292

9. interpreting duals - 299-301 10. of Archimedean solids - 335-337 11.

interpreting duals - 351 12. of networks - 362-368, 370-371 13.

isometric vector matrix (IVM dual) - 370-371

------------------------------------ Product Idea #1: Copyright 1/1/2005

Justin Coslor ERASABLE DOT MATRIX SKETCH PADS WITH AN ASSORTMENT OF

VANISHING POINTS, AND THEIR CROSS-PLATFORM DO-IT-YOURSELF COMPUTER

SOFTWARE EQUIVALENT, FOR 3D PERSPECTIVE DRAWING

Here is a product idea I came up with today. *Look at figure 6.A.2

in the book "Projective Geometry" (pg. 248-253) That picture inspired

the following idea. Here's a computer product I could sell both in

computer form, and in paper form as an artists canvas tool: make a 3D

dotted line matrix that has vanishing points along multiple parallel

horizontal lines so artists can draw realistically spacial drawings. The

dots close up are the biggest, and the dots get smaller and smaller the

farther into the background you look. Then the artist can use those dots

to realistically model 3D spacial representations on the paper, and when

they have their sketch done they can just erase the dots, because the

dots can be lightly printed on the page using erasable ink or erasable

graphite. It'd cost fractions of a cent to print out each page of this

kind of drawing paper, and the paper could come in a variety of

perspectives of vanishing point angles. It'd be a great product to sell

archive-quality drawing pads full of an assortment 3D dot matrix

vanishing point angles printed on nice white drawing paper.

On the cover of each pad there should also be a website address for

where to download or order art software such as a software version of

these different matrix patterns that a person can print out onto a page

in very very light print (so light that it won't show up on a photocopy

machine duplicate). Have some screenshots and a brochure-like visual

demonstration and minimum system requirements shown on an advertisement

page of how to use the software, and have that advertisement page as the

first page of the sketch pads that get sold in stores all over the

world. On the software brochure page (note, make the advertisement

double-sided and on a perforated tear-out page that is scored for easy

folding into the shape of a brochure, and use the UPC symbol as a

discount coupon for $5 off of the the price of the software, when

ordered online or through the mail. Include a self-addressed envelope

and software payment form that can be torn out on the next page. I'd

likely sell lots of software that way. On the brochure, suggest that

they draw their lines on the computer paper lightly dotted matrix

perspectives by hand, and that they should then either scan the page

back into the computer and run it through a filter to take out the dots,

or photocopy the original to take out the dots, since computer printer

ink isn't erasable. This way, they wouldn't need to run to the store to

buy new pads of paper. I think both of these products would be a

fantastic product to sell all over the world, and I could probably get a

patent on the pads. I don't agree with the notion of software patents

though. I'd probably write the software using the Java3D API so that

it's cross-platform. ---------------------------------- Product Idea #2:

Copyright 1/1/2005 Justin Coslor N-DIMENSIONAL POLYHEDRAL MOTIF

DESIGNING SOFTWARE FOR ARTISTS First look at some writings by the

mathematician artists from the fifteenth century, such as: Alberti,

Leonardo da Vinci, and Albrecht DÃ¼rer. Then write a little computer

software that makes N-dimensional polyhedral motifs (fundamental

patterns) and lets the user design their own and use them as wallpaper

and skins for 3D objects. So people can make M.C. Escher-like artwork

easily. It'll deal with symmetry design and manipulation very easily.

Copyright 1/15/2005 Justin Coslor Art Software For Making Symmetrical

Design Patterns & Motifs: Write a computer graphics software that allows

the user to make precise symmetry design patterns and to be able to

color and shade in the sections with the greatest of ease. It could also

be good for making repeatable interlocking motifs. Copyright 1/1/2005

Justin Coslor Perspective Drawing Projects When I first wrote this I was

reading the book "Basic Perspective" by Robert W. Gill - Library of

Congress Card Number 79-64518. 1. Try drawing a top view of an object

and draw a circle of frames (Boxes) around it, and in each box draw the

3D perspective side-view of the object as it would look to a person

standing on a point in the center of each frame at that particular

frame's perspective angle, where each frame is a 3D perspective drawing,

complete with accurate shading. 2. Draw a 3D perspective drawing form

the viewpoint of a cat, and include the cat's nose, whiskers and the tip

of it's tail in the drawing. Include special lighting and coloring

effects such as how the scene would look if it was a snapshot from the

lens of a Kirlian photography camera, as cats see a different spectrum

of colors than people, and possibly auras. Copyright 1-13-98 by Justin

Coslor Robotics

If one robot figures something out about it's surroundings it goes

and tells the rest, that makes available more potential actions that the

rest can do and have to work with and use as a tool. When one solves a

problem it eliminates an obstacle which each robot would otherwise have

to spend its time figuring out how to do because it communicates the

solution. Example application: new, more efficient route planner.

They could even learn teamwork too. If one robot solves part of a

problem, but knows that the whole thing isn't solved and wants to

completely solve it but not waste all day working on it, it can go and

tell the other robots about the whole problem (denoting the part they've

already solved) instead of just telling them part of the solution that

they've solved. It would also tell the other robots the estimated

"worth" (personal and societal ... sort of like a priority rating) of

getting the problem completely solved. In a sense it "asks" the others

for help. If the requested action's estimated priority is higher than

the current actions priority rating, then the robots will go and help

(fulfill the request) and in a sense perform a "favor" thus the robot in

need would be making some "friends".

------------------------------------------------

Fundamental motivations: #1 stimulate/reinforce self (work towards

own goals). #2 stimulate/reinforce others. The robot might

stimulate/reinforce itself in order to stimulate/reinforce others, but

not quite as much as stimulating or reinforcing itself directly, and it

works on a "friends" and "favors" system socially. Do a favor and they

are grateful and they are your friend (and doing #2 on a friend is equal

to doing #1 and it is a random choice between the two when in question

-- when asked to return a favor for a friend or do something for

yourself). Each robot knows that it can do more faster with friends

helping, so if it has something it needs help with or is bored it might

think ahead and stop what it is doing and go out and get some friends by

doing favors for some others and then later go and ask everyone for

help. It would ask even those who aren't friends because some of them

may help and after a few exchanges of favors with them, they too might

become friends.

With a small group (approximately six robots), in order to have any

of then get any of their own stuff done you must either build a "friend

removal" system, where robots are no longer considered a friend after a

certain amount of rejections and they return to the

neutral "stranger" state from the perspective of the rejected robots.

Later they could easily go back into friend state though, or else have a

system of higher ignorance of the friend state rather than a 50%

favoring rate, or just have it so that they would only help a friend in

an emergency or on major projects (remember, these are robots, not

people)... Although, with only six robots it may work out to have the

standard friend/favor system without these restrictions.

So in summary, these robots would be socially interacting

communicating and sharing discovered knowledge in search of attaining

their goals. They need to be able to set goals then strive toward them,

and interact; and their goals should reflect what they are programmed to

"like" and "dislike". Their own self-discovered "likes" and "dislikes"

should always be required to be checked by multiple qualified human

operators before being allowed to be implemented. In other words all

they need are three things: 1. the ability to set and strive towards

goals (immediate and long term near future), 2. have a motivation system

(know the sensory inputs and actions that it likes and dislikes), 3. and

have a justification system (possibly a self-modifying justification

system based around a few rules and restrictions like Isaac Asimov's

three laws of robotics)... A justification system is just a way of doing

things based on one's own system of what is believed to be logical,

which is based on experience and the motivation/goal system, and checked

by external justification systems.

These three elements are the roots of intelligent behavior. Any

actions of any intelligent system/life-form can be accounted for by

these three things. Copyright 1-13-98 by Justin Coslor Copyright

8/27/2004 Justin Coslor Video Game Idea

Have a digital camera + software computer or video game system that

digitizes the person's physical movements, and incorporates those

motions into the software or game system. Such as a game that taught

people martial arts or some exercise thing. Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin

Coslor. All Rights Reserved. Portable Operating Systems On

Cross-Platform USB 2.0 Flash-Memory Devices This is the wave of the

future in portable cross-platform operating systems. It occurred to me

today while I was drinking coffee and reading a graphical book on How

Computer's Work.

Design a USB 2.0 flash-memory device that only communicates using

standard USB 2.0 protocols, and they would have their own software on

the flash-memory that would take over the video card temporarily and

have their own operating system that would load up as soon as you plug

in the flash-memory card, and that operating system would be able to be

minimized into the corner of the screen into a little icon, and that

operating system could access all of the hardware resources of the

computer, as well as all of it's software directories (using standard

USB 2.0 protocols). In this manner an operating system such as Linux

could be instantly loaded onto any USB 2.0 compatible computer, and it

could perform cross-platform functions between its own operating system

and the operating system on the hard drive, all via the independent

controller drivers that were loaded into the re-initialized temporarily

modified BIOS and boot record the instant you plugged the flash-memory

device into the USB 2.0 port. *So it would make a new video card

operating system as the primary root operating system.

Basically, the BIOS just gets re-initialized while the hard drive's

operating system is running, but this time it sends special instructions

to the video card to force it to buffer two (or more) operating systems

transparently on top of each other, so that the user can switch back and

forth between them while still seeing the other operating system(s) in

the background, and either one can then be minimized into a window or

icon in the corner of the screen and the mouse and keyboard could still

control all of them (such as to maximize one of the operating system

icons or windows) using the video card's new operating system that was

instantly loaded off of the flash-memory card through the temporarily

modification and reinitialization of the BIOS of the computer -- the

moment you plugged in the USB 2.0 flash memory card. As soon as you

unplug the flash-memory card, the computer's plug&play BIOS could unload

the video card's operating system and the computer hard drive's original

operating system would return to normal.

Also, since USB 2.0 has its own universal standards, if multiple

flash memory operating systems (different kinds) were all plugged in

simultaneously, the video card's operating system would just treat them

all like icons on a desktop that can be maximized with a click, or

minimized with a keystroke, or turned into a movable window that can be

stacked on top of or under any or all of the other operating systems

that aren't minimized. Also, another keystroke would switch between

operating systems as though they were windows and which ever operating

system is on top is the primary active one so that they get layered like

a stack. The video card's operating system can have "save screenshot

to"/"print screenshot"/"copy"/"paste"/"save to" features that can be

cross-platform tools that become available when you move the mouse over

an object or highlight some text, or make a selection box with the mouse

-- then hold down the control key as you click the mouse button.

This sort of simple set of cross-platform functionality shouldn't need

to take up more than one mouse click's menu's worth of selection

choices.

This might need to be implemented in the USB 3.0 specification,

whenever that comes out, if it can't currently be done using the USB 2.0

specification. Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin Coslor. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright 7/17/2005 Justin Coslor Nanotechnology (see picture)

Have a nanotechnology cell composed of seven cubes linked together

by hinges in a dense unit. Electromagnets on each cube can pull each

hinge closed or push it open, and electromagnets on the ends and sides

of each block can connect multiple structures like this together, and

can connect loose dead blocks from an interconnected storage clump to

the central power supply because terminals are on the ends of each face

that is diagonally across from the sub-block's hinge. There is a

micro-controller in the center block of each cell for intelligence,

control and orientation calculation, and communications network

relaying, and there is a port that links to this this micro-controller

on each outward facing face. These cellular structures would be very

small and could link together to form robotic systems that are

reconfigurable and adaptable. A similar robotic system exists, but like

my design *much* better. The hinges could elastically be fixed at

various angles between fully open and fully closed by repelling the

block from both sides, at an adjustable ratio of power being fed to the

opposing electromagnets. In that way the blocks could also act as touch

sensors, and flex sensors, and springs and solenoids, and precisely

adjustable angled hinges.

There could be lots of different shapes of cellular parts for making

things, like planks, rods, hinges, plates, bearings, angle units, etc.

with electromagnets and/or electromagnetic hinges on the ends and/or

face plates.

A vision system would be on the external control module, and could

be linked to the cellular network directly or by remote control.

Everything about the block structure would be automatically calculated

and added to the internal representation of the unit's state model,

which can be communicated from block to block on the network of linked

structures sos that blocks linked in a storage clump can be reoriented

and moved about, and whole multicellular structures can be relocated as

a group. The cells would talk to each other so that they know where they

are in the orientation system, and the controller would have the big

picture so that it could tell the cells what to do on the fly. Each

group of cells could then pool its computing power to run subroutine

programs as multicellular unit. Copyright 7/12/2005 Justin Coslor

Product idea: seed kits for suburban gardens

One way to make a product is to package several things together in

the form of a kit. One such kit that would sell well in stores and be

easy to make would be seed kits for people to plant a vegetable garden

or flower garden in their yard. It could contain a wide variety of seeds

organized inside a divider box with a little container full of seeds in

each section of the divider box, where each row is a growing season

(plants that grow best in a certain season will be grouped together by

row); and each container will be labeled with the name, expiration date,

growing season, and ideal soil pH. The kit will come with a soil tester

and will recommend certain plant fertilizers, such as Miracle Grow to

change the pH.

There will be a color instruction manual with photos of each plant

and seed, and it'll have some drawing space where they can design the

layout of their garden, and an example will be given. The manual will

have gardening tips for growing each plant. Also there should be a

coupon for a discount off of a Garden Claw hand-powered rototiller tool.

There should also be a website address where people can communicate in

topical forums and post pictures of their flowers and vegetables from

the kit for other people to see. The website should also have a

comment/suggestion form to help improve the product. These would be sold

in major chain stores, small shops, plant stores, hardware stores, and

maybe even grocery stores all across America, and maybe even abroad.

There could be several varieties of kits, and the seeds would last for

several years, and seeds from the plants that were planted can then be

put into those same containers to stay organized for the next year. We'd

specialize in perennials especially, and would only use seeds that can

generate offspring of their own, to help combat evil genetic engineering

companies like Monsanto, who produces seeds that grow into sterile or

seedless plants. Copyright 7/12/2005 Justin Coslor Bottled Water With

the latest craze of bottled water companies, I could start my own

entrepreneurial venture: River Water - "From the Ghangi to the Nile!"

Ocean Water - "A mix of the seven seas.", "Aaargh!" Nuclear Power Plant

Cooling Tower Water - "It's energizing!" Run Off - "Mexico City's

finest.", "Free heavy metal test strip included." Sleuce Juice - "Just

like Star Trek -- it's recycled!" Red Tide - "Be a man!", "Nature in a

can!" Dead Sea Colloidal Brew - "Free Bible included!" Copyright

6/29/2005 Justin Coslor Camping Stuff You can make a make-shift backpack

made out of a sheet: 1. Start out with a sheet. 2. Fold the sheet in

half to make the pocket. 3. Tie the two adjacent corners on each side of

the sheet into a knot to make the arm-hole shoulder straps. 4. There's a

big pocket in the back with an opening on the top. It's a one-pocket

backpack. (See Diagram) ---------------------------------- A simple four

stick shelter can be made from a tarp or parachute, some rope, and some

sticks that are lodges securely in the ground. Tie rope around in a

square with an "X" in it on the tops of the sticks, this will help

support the tarp. The corners of the tarp should be tied to the bottom

of each of the four sticks so that it doesn't blow away. The top of the

shelter can be used to collect rainwater or dew. If you have a clear

tarp this makes a great big solar still. A black tarp under a white tarp

will keep you cool. To enter or exit the shelter just lift up and edge

and crawl in or untie one corner and go in that way. Prop a stick under

one edge to make a breathing hole. (See Diagram) Copyright 6/29/2005

Justin Coslor Cooling Shirt

The simplest way to make a cooling shirt would be to have a stretchy

tee-shirt crossed with a fishing vest (for the extra pockets), and have

water pockets all over it, connected by a tube (or not, in case one

leaks), and make the pockets out of a kind of plastic that breathes

moisture through the plastic's pores, so that the evaporation keeps the

water cold, and since the pockets are up against your skin, you stay

cool as a result. It'd be very simple that way and wouldn't require

electricity, and there could be a rubber tube at the bottom with a valve

on it so that you can drink the water right out of the cooling shirt

you're wearing. This would GREAT for use in hot climates, especially in

combination with water purification tablets, and there needs to be a

simple system for cleaning the vest such as filling it with hot salt

water and letting it sit for a few minutes. Copyright 6/27/2005 Justin

Coslor Dune Shirt (See Diagram)

Engineer a still suit/dune shirt for staying cool. It would look

like a cross between a fishing vest and a tee-shirt, with some

attachments. It would have a water reservoir, a pump, tubes, bladders,

and a rechargeable battery pack to run the pump. The battery pack could

be recharged by a solar- power photovoltaic umbrella that could be held

by the wearer to provide shade (it might even have a little fan inside

it). The solar-power photovoltaic umbrella could also be made so that it

could be clipped onto a backpack so that the wearer has both hands free.

If the pump is to be mechanically powered, it might be powered by

ratcheting a spring and small vertical flywheel by swinging your arms

back and forth. In that case, there might be a sort of exoskelleton that

clips a a thing onto each arm just above each elbow, and connecting it

to an exo-ribcage structure for support and making the mechanical energy

transfer. Copyright 6/29/2005 Justin Coslor Alternative Energy System

for homes that have an acre or more.

Have habitat and employment and food/water/coffee procurement for

modern migrators. That's a different topic though...

Live near the coast because it doesn't freeze there, and you can eat

fish and seafood. Build a yurt by the ocean and use wind power or tidal

power to purify water and provide electricity. Hip waders, sweatpants,

wool socks, and a fishing pole are essential, + a waterproof raincoat

and a sweater. Have a large greenhouse garden and do hydroponics.

Just have a farm with a fantastic garden, orchard, and berry bushes.

Map out what grows in what seasons and in what soil conditions, and

terraform the land into the ideal form. Maybe even use terraces and

build a huge solar oven and use photovoltaics and wind turbines, but

instead of using batteries to store the energy generated (since

batteries are toxic), use water as an energy storage mechanism, either

in the form of doing electrolysis and compressing the gases into tanks

(which is dangerous) for future use in fuel cells, or the safer method

of pumping the water far uphill into a reservoir or water tower out of a

well or other water source, then have a hydropower turbine to convert

the down-flowing water into electrical power or mechanical energy as

needed, and it could drain right back into a well or onto crops.

For a combined alternative energy system,build a huge high water

tower and put oil drum s- rotor wind turbines all up and down it and

around it, with a car alternator connected to each one, and put

photovoltaics on the roof of it and have it situated right over top of a

well or stream. Electric energy generated by from the wind turbines and

photovoltaics would be stored by pumping water out of the well into the

water tower and it can be used for plumbing from there, or it can be

used converted back into electricity by letting the water flow out of

the tower through a hydropower turbine and back into the well, or onto

the garden. You might actually get more energy out of this than you put

into it because of the hydropower dam effect that pushes the water out

with great force due to the height of the water inside the tank. Look up

plans for how to build Savonius oil drum S-rotor wind turbines. (See

diagram) Copyright 6/18/2005 Justin Coslor Pictograph books for language

adaptation.

There should be a set of pictographs to use for icons for the main

functions of life in general. That way translations would be fairly

simple in whatever languages are used thousands of years from now. It

would be sort of like a visual dictionary. Actually, a new art form

could be created which is made of cartooning strips and comic books

without words, and you could see how complex and simple the concepts can

get beyond what words can express, though not always apparent to the

casual observer. I don't intend for such an art to replace written

language, but merely for each artwork/book to be used as a teaching tool

for teaching people different languages, and for inventing new

languages. There would be a set of most popular (classic) books which

when combined would cover much or most of the cases of describable

language and basic experience that all people (including aliens) could

reference to indicate a word or concept. Copyright 6/18/2005 Justin

Coslor Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software

We need more mechanisms to improve the quality, quantity, clarity,

simplicity, beauty, accessibility, and efficiency of knowledge that we

have available to us. Hopefully by doing so we will improve the lifespan

of the knowledge so that it may be found useful for many more

generations than it is in its current form. There may be other steps

that can be taken to improve the lifespan of public knowledge, and steps

to ensure that private knowledge is in line with public knowledge, and

not in contradiction..

Pictograph software:

This relates to my pictograph book idea. Maybe a computer software

could be made that accepts stories and documents and written language in

any written language as input, and could output a vivid pictographic

comic strip or pictographic video onto the monitor or out the printer.

It could also have pointer arrows to the different aspects of the

pictographs which when clicked, says the literal translation into

another language. Or, in the pictographic movie sequence, the audio

track could be in the new language at an easy understandable pace, along

with pointer arrows. Checkout Simple English: simple.wikipedia.org. An

example could be done from Simple English to pictographs to another

language. Copyright 6/16/2005 Justin Coslor Industries, Priority

Systems, and Adaptation

Industries, much like the mind (or all life for that matter),

operate under the guidance of constantly-updating priority systems.

However the difference is that a given industry may be governed by the

union of a wide variety of priority systems, when a singular mind may

strive to adapt its priority system into every situation it encounters.

Different systems often have at least some different axioms, and in

attempts to merge them, sometimes axioms need to be dropped or adopted.

By merging systems, they then become more complex to adapt, but are more

versatile as a result.

There is much more to an industry than supply and demand, because

many variables go into and relate to supply, and many others go into and

relate to demand. Quality, quantity available, target audience/market

and their wants and needs, manufacturing and distribution,

beneficial/enjoyability rating, priority of selling and of buying the

product or service, how the product or service affects other products or

services, time-frame of use and possible likely re-use count, etc.

Basically the factors involved are the factors of merging a new system

with an existing system, and incorporating it into the priority system.

Gaining a needed capability is generally a high priority, however

taking the time and effort to analyze and learn/map out what

capabilities are needed or that would drastically improve things is

generally a low priority. Learning how to actually obtain those

capabilities is an even lower priority in many cases. However,

pre-existing maps and a personal demonstration of the value of new

capabilities I've heard gets about a 15% to 30% success rate if done

well (since people are resistant to change). Adaptation takes time,

though if you have all of the elements in the configuration you want or

need right from the start, its easier to learn that system than to learn

a lesser system and then make a paradigm shift into an adaptation of

that system, because the two can get confused and it takes more time.

It's important to keep things simple enough to prevent discouragement in

any system, unless your goal is to repel people. Copyright 6/14/2005

Justin Coslor Industry Creation

In creating a new industry one must redesign a concept or broaden a

context to allow for the existence and development of a new concept to

re-route a network of infrastructure. Some objects are anchored, others

are flexible, and others can be augmented to, or can come in quite a

variety.

A sub-industry can be created by making an anchored object flexible,

augmentable, or opening up a variety of alternatives. Invent a new thing

for people to do that is enjoyable and/or beneficial and there lyes the

potential for a new industry. So systematically map out all of the

things that people CAN do, and look for patterns that can be re-applied

to dependency-chart mappings of other areas. That's the analogical

approach. Also if you can solve the problem of making it possible to do

something that is needed or wanted, that's another route to a new

industry. The other approach is the experimental scientific

deductive/inductive approach of combining concepts and wiring a

pattern/tool/technique/concept into the context of another field, or

even to wire many things together into what will be a novel unique

context that meets the simple criteria of being beneficial and/or

enjoyable. The other criteria is that it should be sustainable and

non-harmful to people and the environment. The possibilities for the

creation of niche markets is only limited by people's initiative and

creativity. Criteria for new industries: 1. Novel/unique/worthwhile 2.

Beneficial/enjoyable 3. Sustainable 4. Non-harmful to people Copyright

5/27/2005 Justin Coslor Natural Gas Mining in Landfills, Using Grids of

Vertical Bamboo Tubes Since someone figured out that you can collect

methane gas by sticking tubes into landfills vertically, maybe they

could save some money and materials by using bamboo tubes since they're

very strong, and they could drill some holes into the part of the tube

that goes below the surface, to collect extra gas from the sides. Then

they could push the bamboo tubes down until they're less than 1 foot

above the surface, and space them out about 3 feet apart in a grid, and

above the surface, have re-usable plastic or rubber caps with rubber or

PVC tubes connecting the bamboo tubes to horizontal pipelines, much like

a computer RAM memory array structure, and there could be a safety valve

on each row. Then, when the output is really low from the methane supply

being depleted, they could just stack another 5-10 feet of garbage over

the pipeline field after first removing the top caps & pipeline grid on

the surface, and they could do it all over again with new bamboo tubes

since the other ones would eventually rot and bamboo grows so easily.

Maybe use timber bamboo. Also, it may be possible to grow bamboo forests

over landfills, along with non- THC hemp plants as underbrush for rope

and cloth, since they're both really hardy useful weeds. Copyright

5/27/2005 Justin Coslor 3-Legged Walking Robot (It Gallops) The middle

leg has a knee and a duck foot for stability, and it jumps through two

spider legs that each have a knee and are angled wide for stability.

When the duck foot is in back it bends or ratchets the knee (which could

cock a spring), and then it rapidly straightens it out to perform the

jump, then cocks the knee again in mid-jump as it passes between the two

spider legs, and makes a controlled fall onto the duck leg, which is now

in front. The spider legs make a similar motion to get in front too,

except the spider legs do the turning. To turn, one of the spider legs

just bends more than the other one, or pushes harder than the other one.

It could even pull a cart. These things could be smoothly hopping along

all over the place, and could be made very small or even very large. It

could even climb up stairs too, and might even be able to go down stairs

(carefully). Copyright 3/16/2005 Justin Coslor MAGNETOSONIC ELEMENT

SEPARATOR Have six walls separate walls, each one individually attached

to it's own robotic manipulator arm, so that the robotic arms can clamp

the walls into the shape of a cube. Two of the walls, both opposite to

each other, are to be lined with ferromagnetic electromagnets. Two of

the walls, both on opposite sides, are to be lined with paramagnetic

electromagnets. The remaining two walls are to be lined with diamagnetic

electromagnets. Before the top wall (the lid) is put on, rocks and raw

ore are to be dumped inside. In two opposite diagonal corners there are

some fiberoptics units connected on long cords to digital CCD

observation cameras. Each of the remaining corners is to have a sonic

cannon mounted in it beamed at the wall diagonally across from it. Then

all of electromagnets are to be turned on, as well as all of the sonic

cannons, and so, all of the rocks and ore inside will be obliterated by

the sonic cannons into powder, and then magnetically drawn to the wall

that it is molecularly attracted to by the various kinds of

electromagnets. Then the robotic arms will take the cube apart and dump

each wall's contents into its own melting pot or storage container for

further chemical separation or polymerization. This can be a very

efficient way to process materials. Here I've labeled the sonic

cannon-mounted corners using the letters A through F: A->side 1 =

electroferromagnetic north plate B->side 2 = electroferromagnetic south

plate C->side 3 = electroparamagnetic positive plate D->side 4 =

electroparamagnetic negative plate E->side 5 = electrodiamagnetic

negative plate F->side 6 = electrodiamagnetic positive plate. The

remaining two corners are the fiberoptic view-ports. Anything that isn't

magnetic at all also just gets dumped in its own vat. Copyright 1/7/2005

Justin Coslor Diamagnetic Electromagnets {Diamagnetic materials: water,

salt, pyrolytic graphite, bismuth, etc.}

When you pass a magnet over a coil, or pass a coil through a

magnetic field, electricity flows through the coil. Electric generators

are based on that principle. Electric generators turn into electric

motors when electricity is passed through them (At least the

electro-magnetic rotational kind.)

So why can't we make electric generators that are based on

diamagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic coils or diamagnetic

electromagnets? *See the electromagnetism logic database diagram I drew

that shows in the database margins what is perpendicular and parallel to

what, etc, in the relations of different kinds of electromagnetic

properties and devices and materials maybe. **See the different kinds of

ferromagnetic and diamagnetic electromagnet designs I invented

(hand-drawn diagrams 1/7/2005). Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin Coslor PDA

Kiosks

Use a PDA as a remote-controlled teaching pendant for a robot, and

bolt several PDA's down into a kiosk and network them for use as a

head's-up display. Attach a keyboard and a switch-box to it, have a

stylus on a cord, and include a printer. The great part is that PDA's

turn on instantly and consume very little electricity. Networking

software and hardware might need to be designed for them though, but it

likely already exists.

The kiosks could be very very small this way, and could just be on a

swing-arm or arm bolted to a wall or tabletop with power cord leading up

to them. Copyright 8/10/2005 Justin Coslor PDA Virtual Reality/Augmented

Reality System (See Diagram)

Build or adapt a lightweight sunglasses-like head mounted display

that uses high resolution LCD screens in stereo for portable virtual

reality uses with a PDA and folding PDA keyboard (it should also work on

a laptop). Even a single color high resolution LCD head mounted display

for a PDA would be incredible for reading and browsing the web

wirelessly, as well as browsing VRML and Java3D worlds at at least

800x600 color pixel resolution. Battery life is the main issue here. You

need to be able to get at least 10 hours of battery life, and it needs

to be easily rechargeable. An augmented reality transparent LCD screen

would be ideal or one of those miniature projector LCD's. Also, it might

be neat to have a wireless 3D finger ring mouse that has several buttons

on it, at least for drawing 3D models and browsing VRML and Java3D

worlds and webpages. The PDA screen could be a small scale version of

the 3D HMD scene or programmable control panel buttons. There could be a

videocamera on the HMD for doing Augmented Reality, and have a visual

dictionary pattern matching software and a 2D to 3D object

reconstruction software, as well as have a 6DOF head tracking system.

It's important that all of the hardware be open source programmable and

be openly interfacable.

I realize the military already has contact lens versions of this

Augmented Reality display system, but this would be affordable to the

public. They also have G.W.E.N. (Ground Wave Emission Network)

Tower/Tempest brain interface systems too all over the country (for

martial law population control and clandestine "experiments", and such),

but that's another matter. Copyright 11/12/2004 Justin Coslor My eBike

Shop: Eco-Bikes (TM)(R)

If I ever wanted to live in Pittsburgh for an extended period of

time (such as to go to Grad School later on), I could open up an

electric bicycle dealership, and fit each bike with solid rubber tires

from GreenTires.com or AirFreeTires.com, so that they wouldn't get

flats, and only sell bikes that use batteries that aren't highly toxic

(no lead-acid or NiCd batteries).It could be open in the evenings so

that I could go to class during the day, or I could hire some students

to help run it. We could do maintenance and repairs on electric bikes

too, and recycle broken batteries and recycle or re-use parts from old

eBikes sometimes.

Most of all, they'd be affordable, and fitted with baskets and

fenders, and comfortable seats. This way, students could easily ride to

the East-End Food Co-Op & Whole Foods for groceries, carry library

books, etc, and ride all over town and re-claim the roads. It'd get the

city to put in special well-swept bike lanes all over town and to pass

enormous hit and run penalty laws for drivers to follow. We'd make a

huge push to get bike racks re-installed on all of the public transit

buses too. 1/13/2005 Justin Coslor Business ideas:

Right now as a money maker I could retrofit people's bikes with

electric motors for a $100 fee + parts.

I could also sell hard drives with Linux pre-installed on them for

$100 + parts (~$150). It could come with a set of GNU/Linux CD's.

I could also sell homemade random number generators for $250. See my

journal entry dated 12/15/2003 and the drawing I made on 1/22/2005 for

details. They could be useful to staticians, scientists, and people who

use encryption technologies. The machine is capable of generating large

amounts of random seed numbers simultaneously for each cycle that it is

run. I might be able to sell it for even more. Copyright 1/21/2005

Justin Coslor Ram-Horn Handlebars for City Bikes: I think whomever

designed the handlebars on city bikes got the idea from looking at a

pair of rams horns.. As such, it would be neat to bolt a rams skull onto

the bike in place of the handlebars or make a hollow or cast mold

version to sell to ram/bicycle enthusiasts. (GNU-compatible) Copyright

1/13/2005 Justin Coslor Augmented Reality Goggles for doing X-Ray Vision

and 3D Image Reconstruction Architects could like augmented reality

goggles for doing x-ray or sonar vision and stereo 3D image

reconstruction of live video data as they walk through a building while

wearing the goggles. The goggles could be used as digitizers to map

details onto the original wireframe CAD schematics. The military already

has this, but I don't know if anyone has done an open-source

open-hardware version of this for the commercial market and archeology

gear. ------------------------------------ 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor

Simple magnetism experiment: What happens when you wrap copper wire

around an insulated tube, then put an iron bar inside the tube, then run

electricity through both the copper coil, as well as the iron bar, but

from separate power supplies? What happens when you switch the polarity

of the iron bar's power supply? What electrical voltage, amperage,

resistance, and magnetism (Gaussmeter) readings do you get in each case,

and in the case where you don't energize the iron bar but only the coil?

Does the electricity running through the iron bar amplify the magnetic

field or the current of the copper coil?

-----------------------------------------------

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby

declare it in its present form to be free for use and modification

except I do not condone it's use in weapon systems or for deception.

You may sell applications and/or services that use this

logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself and you may

not try to prevent others from understanding or using the logic in any way.

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability. These are thoughts.

Sincerely, Justin Coslor. December 3rd, 2007.

Possibility Thinking: Explorations in Logic and Thought

----------------

Book IV:

Invention Ideas

----------------

10/28/2004 Penny Universities

1/1/2005 Inspiring book notes & some art product ideas

1/15/2005 Art Software For Making Symmetrical Design Patterns & Motifs

1/1/2005 Perspective Drawing Projects

1/13/1998 Robotics

8/27/2004 Video Game Idea

2/8/2005 Portable Operating Systems On Cross-Platform USB 2.0 Flash-Memory

Devices

7/17/2005 Nanotechnology

7/12/2005 Product idea: seed kits for suburban gardens

7/12/2005 Bottled Water

6/29/2005 Camping Stuff

6/29/2005 Cooling Shirt

6/27/2005 Dune Shirt

6/29/2005 Alternative Energy System for homes that have an acre or more

6/18/2005 Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software

6/18/2005 Pictograph books for language adaptation

6/18/2005 Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software

6/16/2005 Industries, Priority Systems, and Adaptation

6/14/2005 Industry Creation

5/27/2005 Natural Gas Mining in Landfills, Using Grids of Vertical Bamboo

Tubes

5/27/2005 3-Legged Walking Robot (It Gallops)

3/16/2005 Magneto-sonic Element Separator

1/7/2005 Diamagnetic Electromagnets

2/8/2005 PDA Kiosks

8/10/2005 PDA Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality System

11/12/2004 My eBike Shop: Eco-Bikes(TM)(R)

1/21/2005 Ram-Horn Handlebars for City Bikes

1/13/2005 Augmented Reality Goggles for doing X-Ray Vision and 3D Image

Reconstruction

9/19/2004 New Kinds of Electric Generator/Electric Motors

11/7/2004 Batteries

10/31/2004 Diamagnetic Energy Generation Satellites

10/7/2004 Electromagnetism

9/26/2004 Magnetic Coordinates

9/23/2004 Magnetic Battery Idea

8/23/2004 Toroidal EM Fields

9/19/2004 Crystalline Memory Lattices, and Super-Cheap Gigantic Diamagnetic

Electromagnets

9/6/2004 Supercomputer and Memory Technology

9/24/2004 Speculation about photodiodes, photovoltaics, and the nature of

energy transmission through materials

9/14/2004 A New Kind of Potentiometer (which can be used as a tactile sensor)

9/12/2004 Highly sensitive tactile/optical range-finding robotic finger

sensor-pads

9/11/2004 A cheaper kind of touch-screen for computer kiosks for 2D

operating system user interface haptics and 3D augmented reality user

interface haptics

10/29/2004 Course Catalog and Skills Inventory (Software Idea)

12/14/2001 Portable Robotic Hole-Threading Tool for Building Robots and Stuff.

11/12/2004 Cottage Industry Explosion: Portable Inexpensive

Manufacturing Robots for Intentional Communities in America

11/5/2004 Cottage Industry Stuff

11/11/2004 Holographic Rangefinding Orbiting Space Telescopes, for Holographic

Geometric Reconstruction of Distant Celestial Objects and Celestial Systems

(or point it at the Earth for Geographical Information Systems)

10/29/2004 Safety Skin for Robots

10/20/2004 Free public archive of great anonymous writing and poetry

10/11/2004 Precise EM field sensing nanocoil fabric

9/8/2004 Notes on an Intelligent Agents book

11/14/2002 2D Wireframe Digitalization of Digital Images for Computer Vision

11/14/2002 Computer Vision Thought

4/8/2005 3D Engine Idea

8/7/2005 Binary Space Partition Trees

8/10/2005 Data compression for 3D polygonal objects

8/11/2005 3D compression scheme

--------Re-write my paper on Chromodepth prism glasses and anaglyphs and how

you can just snap regular photos in a black room that has a red, blue

and green light sequentially lined up illuminating the objects front to

back, for making 3D Chromodepth photos.

----------

10/21/2002 Thoughts on Computer Vision: 2D Snapshots to 3D Wireframe

9/29/2002 More Computer Vision Thoughts

10/21/2002 Imaginative new perspectives on famous artworks

10/01/2002 More thoughts on my Thermoelectric Generator Cloth Invention

10/16/2002 Inventory of revolutionary inventions that I've invented (but not

built) up to this date

6/18/2005 Puzzles

6/19/2005 World Medicine

----------------

Book IV:

Invention Ideas

----------------

10/28/2004 Justin Coslor

Penny Universities

I read in an article on the Internet that coffee houses used to be

called "Penny Universities" in the mid 1600's in England, because it

cost a penny for admission and a mug of coffee. "TIPS" is an acronym

that was posted on a tin at the counter, which stood for "To Insure

Prompt Service", and people would toss in a coin as a perk. It was a

brilliant idea when the main branch of the Carnegie Library of

Pittsburgh (nested between Carnegie Mellon University and the University

of Pittsburgh) opened a coffee shop and free Internet access terminals

this year in their library (terminals have been in place for several

years). Their renovations are beautiful! Copyright 1/1/2005 Justin

Coslor Inspiring book & some art product ideas. I've been reading the

most amazing book called "Connections: The Geometric Bridge Between Art

and Science" ISBN: 0-07-034250-4, and it's inspired me to want to read

more books on the topic of Design Science. On page 264-265 of it it

talks about the duality of Platonic polyhedra: namely The Inscribed

Sphere. face<->vertex edge<->edge p<->q Face centroids of each platonic

polyhedra are also vertex points for their duals, and so they lie

equidistant from a common center. These pages in it talk also talk about

Duality, in some of it's various forms: 1. in BartÃ³k's music - 103 2. of

maps - 125-127 3. of regular tilings - 177 4. of semiregular tilings -

181-182 5. of reciprocal figure - 224-230 6. of Platonic solids -

264-268 7. interpreting duals - 266-267 8. of convex polyhedra - 291-292

9. interpreting duals - 299-301 10. of Archimedean solids - 335-337 11.

interpreting duals - 351 12. of networks - 362-368, 370-371 13.

isometric vector matrix (IVM dual) - 370-371

------------------------------------ Product Idea #1: Copyright 1/1/2005

Justin Coslor ERASABLE DOT MATRIX SKETCH PADS WITH AN ASSORTMENT OF

VANISHING POINTS, AND THEIR CROSS-PLATFORM DO-IT-YOURSELF COMPUTER

SOFTWARE EQUIVALENT, FOR 3D PERSPECTIVE DRAWING

Here is a product idea I came up with today. *Look at figure 6.A.2

in the book "Projective Geometry" (pg. 248-253) That picture inspired

the following idea. Here's a computer product I could sell both in

computer form, and in paper form as an artists canvas tool: make a 3D

dotted line matrix that has vanishing points along multiple parallel

horizontal lines so artists can draw realistically spacial drawings. The

dots close up are the biggest, and the dots get smaller and smaller the

farther into the background you look. Then the artist can use those dots

to realistically model 3D spacial representations on the paper, and when

they have their sketch done they can just erase the dots, because the

dots can be lightly printed on the page using erasable ink or erasable

graphite. It'd cost fractions of a cent to print out each page of this

kind of drawing paper, and the paper could come in a variety of

perspectives of vanishing point angles. It'd be a great product to sell

archive-quality drawing pads full of an assortment 3D dot matrix

vanishing point angles printed on nice white drawing paper.

On the cover of each pad there should also be a website address for

where to download or order art software such as a software version of

these different matrix patterns that a person can print out onto a page

in very very light print (so light that it won't show up on a photocopy

machine duplicate). Have some screenshots and a brochure-like visual

demonstration and minimum system requirements shown on an advertisement

page of how to use the software, and have that advertisement page as the

first page of the sketch pads that get sold in stores all over the

world. On the software brochure page (note, make the advertisement

double-sided and on a perforated tear-out page that is scored for easy

folding into the shape of a brochure, and use the UPC symbol as a

discount coupon for $5 off of the the price of the software, when

ordered online or through the mail. Include a self-addressed envelope

and software payment form that can be torn out on the next page. I'd

likely sell lots of software that way. On the brochure, suggest that

they draw their lines on the computer paper lightly dotted matrix

perspectives by hand, and that they should then either scan the page

back into the computer and run it through a filter to take out the dots,

or photocopy the original to take out the dots, since computer printer

ink isn't erasable. This way, they wouldn't need to run to the store to

buy new pads of paper. I think both of these products would be a

fantastic product to sell all over the world, and I could probably get a

patent on the pads. I don't agree with the notion of software patents

though. I'd probably write the software using the Java3D API so that

it's cross-platform. ---------------------------------- Product Idea #2:

Copyright 1/1/2005 Justin Coslor N-DIMENSIONAL POLYHEDRAL MOTIF

DESIGNING SOFTWARE FOR ARTISTS First look at some writings by the

mathematician artists from the fifteenth century, such as: Alberti,

Leonardo da Vinci, and Albrecht DÃ¼rer. Then write a little computer

software that makes N-dimensional polyhedral motifs (fundamental

patterns) and lets the user design their own and use them as wallpaper

and skins for 3D objects. So people can make M.C. Escher-like artwork

easily. It'll deal with symmetry design and manipulation very easily.

Copyright 1/15/2005 Justin Coslor Art Software For Making Symmetrical

Design Patterns & Motifs: Write a computer graphics software that allows

the user to make precise symmetry design patterns and to be able to

color and shade in the sections with the greatest of ease. It could also

be good for making repeatable interlocking motifs. Copyright 1/1/2005

Justin Coslor Perspective Drawing Projects When I first wrote this I was

reading the book "Basic Perspective" by Robert W. Gill - Library of

Congress Card Number 79-64518. 1. Try drawing a top view of an object

and draw a circle of frames (Boxes) around it, and in each box draw the

3D perspective side-view of the object as it would look to a person

standing on a point in the center of each frame at that particular

frame's perspective angle, where each frame is a 3D perspective drawing,

complete with accurate shading. 2. Draw a 3D perspective drawing form

the viewpoint of a cat, and include the cat's nose, whiskers and the tip

of it's tail in the drawing. Include special lighting and coloring

effects such as how the scene would look if it was a snapshot from the

lens of a Kirlian photography camera, as cats see a different spectrum

of colors than people, and possibly auras. Copyright 1-13-98 by Justin

Coslor Robotics

If one robot figures something out about it's surroundings it goes

and tells the rest, that makes available more potential actions that the

rest can do and have to work with and use as a tool. When one solves a

problem it eliminates an obstacle which each robot would otherwise have

to spend its time figuring out how to do because it communicates the

solution. Example application: new, more efficient route planner.

They could even learn teamwork too. If one robot solves part of a

problem, but knows that the whole thing isn't solved and wants to

completely solve it but not waste all day working on it, it can go and

tell the other robots about the whole problem (denoting the part they've

already solved) instead of just telling them part of the solution that

they've solved. It would also tell the other robots the estimated

"worth" (personal and societal ... sort of like a priority rating) of

getting the problem completely solved. In a sense it "asks" the others

for help. If the requested action's estimated priority is higher than

the current actions priority rating, then the robots will go and help

(fulfill the request) and in a sense perform a "favor" thus the robot in

need would be making some "friends".

----------------------------------------

Fundamental motivations: #1 stimulate/reinforce self (work towards

own goals). #2 stimulate/reinforce others. The robot might

stimulate/reinforce itself in order to stimulate/reinforce others, but

not quite as much as stimulating or reinforcing itself directly, and it

works on a "friends" and "favors" system socially. Do a favor and they

are grateful and they are your friend (and doing #2 on a friend is equal

to doing #1 and it is a random choice between the two when in question

-- when asked to return a favor for a friend or do something for

yourself). Each robot knows that it can do more faster with friends

helping, so if it has something it needs help with or is bored it might

think ahead and stop what it is doing and go out and get some friends by

doing favors for some others and then later go and ask everyone for

help. It would ask even those who aren't friends because some of them

may help and after a few exchanges of favors with them, they too might

become friends.

With a small group (approximately six robots), in order to have any

of then get any of their own stuff done you must either build a "friend

removal" system, where robots are no longer considered a friend after a

certain amount of rejections

neutral "stranger" state from the perspective of the rejected robots.

Later they could easily go back into friend state though, or else have a

system of higher ignorance of the friend state rather than a 50%

favoring rate, or just have it so that they would only help a friend in

an emergency or on major projects (remember, these are robots, not

people)... Although, with only six robots it may work out to have the

standard friend/favor system without these restrictions.

So in summary, these robots would be socially interacting

communicating and sharing discovered knowledge in search of attaining

their goals. They need to be able to set goals then strive toward them,

and interact; and their goals should reflect what they are programmed to

"like" and "dislike". Their own self-discovered "likes" and "dislikes"

should always be required to be checked by multiple qualified human

operators before being allowed to be implemented. In other words all

they need are three things: 1. the ability to set and strive towards

goals (immediate and long term near future), 2. have a motivation system

(know the sensory inputs and actions that it likes and dislikes), 3. and

have a justification system (possibly a self-modifying justification

system based around a few rules and restrictions like Isaac Asimov's

three laws of robotics)... A justification system is just a way of doing

things based on one's own system of what is believed to be logical,

which is based on experience and the motivation/goal system, and checked

by external justification systems.

These three elements are the roots of intelligent behavior. Any

actions of any intelligent system/life-form can be accounted for by

these three things. Copyright 1-13-98 by Justin Coslor Copyright

8/27/2004 Justin Coslor Video Game Idea

Have a digital camera + software computer or video game system that

digitizes the person's physical movements, and incorporates those

motions into the software or game system. Such as a game that taught

people martial arts or some exercise thing. Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin

Coslor. All Rights Reserved. Portable Operating Systems On

Cross-Platform USB 2.0 Flash-Memory Devices This is the wave of the

future in portable cross-platform operating systems. It occurred to me

today while I was drinking coffee and reading a graphical book on How

Computer's Work.

Design a USB 2.0 flash-memory device that only communicates using

standard USB 2.0 protocols, and they would have their own software on

the flash-memory that would take over the video card temporarily and

have their own operating system that would load up as soon as you plug

in the flash-memory card, and that operating system would be able to be

minimized into the corner of the screen into a little icon, and that

operating system could access all of the hardware resources of the

computer, as well as all of it's software directories (using standard

USB 2.0 protocols). In this manner an operating system such as Linux

could be instantly loaded onto any USB 2.0 compatible computer, and it

could perform cross-platform functions between its own operating system

and the operating system on the hard drive, all via the independent

controller drivers that were loaded into the re-initialized temporarily

modified BIOS and boot record the instant you plugged the flash-memory

device into the USB 2.0 port. *So it would make a new video card

operating system as the primary root operating system.

Basically, the BIOS just gets re-initialized while the hard drive's

operating system is running, but this time it sends special instructions

to the video card to force it to buffer two (or more) operating systems

transparently on top of each other, so that the user can switch back and

forth between them while still seeing the other operating system(s) in

the background, and either one can then be minimized into a window or

icon in the corner of the screen and the mouse and keyboard could still

control all of them (such as to maximize one of the operating system

icons or windows) using the video card's new operating system that was

instantly loaded off of the flash-memory card through the temporarily

modification and reinitialization of the BIOS of the computer -- the

moment you plugged in the USB 2.0 flash memory card. As soon as you

unplug the flash-memory card, the computer's plug&play BIOS could unload

the video card's operating system and the computer hard drive's original

operating system would return to normal.

Also, since USB 2.0 has its own universal standards, if multiple

flash memory operating systems (different kinds) were all plugged in

simultaneously, the video card's operating system would just treat them

all like icons on a desktop that can be maximized with a click, or

minimized with a keystroke, or turned into a movable window that can be

stacked on top of or under any or all of the other operating systems

that aren't minimized. Also, another keystroke would switch between

operating systems as though they were windows and which ever operating

system is on top is the primary active one so that they get layered like

a stack. The video card's operating system can have "save screenshot

to"/"print screenshot"/"copy"/"paste"/"save to" features that can be

cross-platform tools that become available when you move the mouse over

an object or highlight some text, or make a selection box with the mouse

-- then hold down the control

This sort of simple set of cross-platform functionality shouldn't need

to take up more than one mouse click's menu's worth of selection

choices.

This might need to be implemented in the USB 3.0 specification,

whenever that comes out, if it can't currently be done using the USB 2.0

specification. Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin Coslor. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright 7/17/2005 Justin Coslor Nanotechnology (see picture)

Have a nanotechnology cell composed of seven cubes linked together

by hinges in a dense unit. Electromagnets on each cube can pull each

hinge closed or push it open, and electromagnets on the ends and sides

of each block can connect multiple structures like this together, and

can connect loose dead blocks from an interconnected storage clump to

the central power supply because terminals are on the ends of each face

that is diagonally across from the sub-block's hinge. There is a

micro-controller in the center block of each cell for intelligence,

control and orientation calculation, and communications network

relaying, and there is a port that links to this this micro-controller

on each outward facing face. These cellular structures would be very

small and could link together to form robotic systems that are

reconfigurable and adaptable. A similar robotic system exists, but like

my design *much* better. The hinges could elastically be fixed at

various angles between fully open and fully closed by repelling the

block from both sides, at an adjustable ratio of power being fed to the

opposing electromagnets. In that way the blocks could also act as touch

sensors, and flex sensors, and springs and solenoids, and precisely

adjustable angled hinges.

There could be lots of different shapes of cellular parts for making

things, like planks, rods, hinges, plates, bearings, angle units, etc.

with electromagnets and/or electromagnetic hinges on the ends and/or

face plates.

A vision system would be on the external control module, and could

be linked to the cellular network directly or by remote control.

Everything about the block structure would be automatically calculated

and added to the internal representation of the unit's state model,

which can be communicated from block to block on the network of linked

structures sos that blocks linked in a storage clump can be reoriented

and moved about, and whole multicellular structures can be relocated as

a group. The cells would talk to each other so that they know where they

are in the orientation system, and the controller would have the big

picture so that it could tell the cells what to do on the fly. Each

group of cells could then pool its computing power to run subroutine

programs as multicellular unit. Copyright 7/12/2005 Justin Coslor

Product idea: seed kits for suburban gardens

One way to make a product is to package several things together in

the form of a kit. One such kit that would sell well in stores and be

easy to make would be seed kits for people to plant a vegetable garden

or flower garden in their yard. It could contain a wide variety of seeds

organized inside a divider box with a little container full of seeds in

each section of the divider box, where each row is a growing season

(plants that grow best in a certain season will be grouped together by

row); and each container will be labeled with the name, expiration date,

growing season, and ideal soil pH. The kit will come with a soil tester

and will recommend certain plant fertilizers, such as Miracle Grow to

change the pH.

There will be a color instruction manual with photos of each plant

and seed, and it'll have some drawing space where they can design the

layout of their garden, and an example will be given. The manual will

have gardening tips for growing each plant. Also there should be a

coupon for a discount off of a Garden Claw hand-powered rototiller tool.

There should also be a website address where people can communicate in

topical forums and post pictures of their flowers and vegetables from

the kit for other people to see. The website should also have a

comment/suggestion form to help improve the product. These would be sold

in major chain stores, small shops, plant stores, hardware stores, and

maybe even grocery stores all across America, and maybe even abroad.

There could be several varieties of kits, and the seeds would last for

several years, and seeds from the plants that were planted can then be

put into those same containers to stay organized for the next year. We'd

specialize in perennials especially, and would only use seeds that can

generate offspring of their own, to help combat evil genetic engineering

companies like Monsanto, who produces seeds that grow into sterile or

seedless plants. Copyright 7/12/2005 Justin Coslor Bottled Water With

the latest craze of bottled water companies, I could start my own

entrepreneurial venture: River Water - "From the Ghangi to the Nile!"

Ocean Water - "A mix of the seven seas.", "Aaargh!" Nuclear Power Plant

Cooling Tower Water - "It's energizing!" Run Off - "Mexico City's

finest.", "Free heavy metal test strip included." Sleuce Juice - "Just

like Star Trek -- it's recycled!" Red Tide - "Be a man!", "Nature in a

can!" Dead Sea Colloidal Brew - "Free Bible included!" Copyright

6/29/2005 Justin Coslor Camping Stuff You can make a make-shift backpack

made out of a sheet: 1. Start out with a sheet. 2. Fold the sheet in

half to make the pocket. 3. Tie the two adjacent corners on each side of

the sheet into a knot to make the arm-hole shoulder straps. 4. There's a

big pocket in the back with an opening on the top. It's a one-pocket

backpack. (See Diagram) ---------------------------------- A simple four

stick shelter can be made from a tarp or parachute, some rope, and some

sticks that are lodges securely in the ground. Tie rope around in a

square with an "X" in it on the tops of the sticks, this will help

support the tarp. The corners of the tarp should be tied to the bottom

of each of the four sticks so that it doesn't blow away. The top of the

shelter can be used to collect rainwater or dew. If you have a clear

tarp this makes a great big solar still. A black tarp under a white tarp

will keep you cool. To enter or exit the shelter just lift up and edge

and crawl in or untie one corner and go in that way. Prop a stick under

one edge to make a breathing hole. (See Diagram) Copyright 6/29/2005

Justin Coslor Cooling Shirt

The simplest way to make a cooling shirt would be to have a stretchy

tee-shirt crossed with a fishing vest (for the extra pockets), and have

water pockets all over it, connected by a tube (or not, in case one

leaks), and make the pockets out of a kind of plastic that breathes

moisture through the plastic's pores, so that the evaporation keeps the

water cold, and since the pockets are up against your skin, you stay

cool as a result. It'd be very simple that way and wouldn't require

electricity, and there could be a rubber tube at the bottom with a valve

on it so that you can drink the water right out of the cooling shirt

you're wearing. This would GREAT for use in hot climates, especially in

combination with water purification tablets, and there needs to be a

simple system for cleaning the vest such as filling it with hot salt

water and letting it sit for a few minutes. Copyright 6/27/2005 Justin

Coslor Dune Shirt (See Diagram)

Engineer a still suit/dune shirt for staying cool. It would look

like a cross between a fishing vest and a tee-shirt, with some

attachments. It would have a water reservoir, a pump, tubes, bladders,

and a rechargeable battery pack to run the pump. The battery pack could

be recharged by a solar- power photovoltaic umbrella that could be held

by the wearer to provide shade (it might even have a little fan inside

it). The solar-power photovoltaic umbrella could also be made so that it

could be clipped onto a backpack so that the wearer has both hands free.

If the pump is to be mechanically powered, it might be powered by

ratcheting a spring and small vertical flywheel by swinging your arms

back and forth. In that case, there might be a sort of exoskelleton that

clips a a thing onto each arm just above each elbow, and connecting it

to an exo-ribcage structure for support and making the mechanical energy

transfer. Copyright 6/29/2005 Justin Coslor Alternative Energy System

for homes that have an acre or more.

Have habitat and employment and food/water/coffee procurement for

modern migrators. That's a different topic though...

Live near the coast because it doesn't freeze there, and you can eat

fish and seafood. Build a yurt by the ocean and use wind power or tidal

power to purify water and provide electricity. Hip waders, sweatpants,

wool socks, and a fishing pole are essential, + a waterproof raincoat

and a sweater. Have a large greenhouse garden and do hydroponics.

Just have a farm with a fantastic garden, orchard, and berry bushes.

Map out what grows in what seasons and in what soil conditions, and

terraform the land into the ideal form. Maybe even use terraces and

build a huge solar oven and use photovoltaics and wind turbines, but

instead of using batteries to store the energy generated (since

batteries are toxic), use water as an energy storage mechanism, either

in the form of doing electrolysis and compressing the gases into tanks

(which is dangerous) for future use in fuel cells, or the safer method

of pumping the water far uphill into a reservoir or water tower out of a

well or other water source, then have a hydropower turbine to convert

the down-flowing water into electrical power or mechanical energy as

needed, and it could drain right back into a well or onto crops.

For a combined alternative energy system,build a huge high water

tower and put oil drum s- rotor wind turbines all up and down it and

around it, with a car alternator connected to each one, and put

photovoltaics on the roof of it and have it situated right over top of a

well or stream. Electric energy generated by from the wind turbines and

photovoltaics would be stored by pumping water out of the well into the

water tower and it can be used for plumbing from there, or it can be

used converted back into electricity by letting the water flow out of

the tower through a hydropower turbine and back into the well, or onto

the garden. You might actually get more energy out of this than you put

into it because of the hydropower dam effect that pushes the water out

with great force due to the height of the water inside the tank. Look up

plans for how to build Savonius oil drum S-rotor wind turbines. (See

diagram) Copyright 6/18/2005 Justin Coslor Pictograph books for language

adaptation.

There should be a set of pictographs to use for icons for the main

functions of life in general. That way translations would be fairly

simple in whatever languages are used thousands of years from now. It

would be sort of like a visual dictionary. Actually, a new art form

could be created which is made of cartooning strips and comic books

without words, and you could see how complex and simple the concepts can

get beyond what words can express, though not always apparent to the

casual observer. I don't intend for such an art to replace written

language, but merely for each artwork/book to be used as a teaching tool

for teaching people different languages, and for inventing new

languages. There would be a set of most popular (classic) books which

when combined would cover much or most of the cases of describable

language and basic experience that all people (including aliens) could

reference to indicate a word or concept. Copyright 6/18/2005 Justin

Coslor Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software

We need more mechanisms to improve the quality, quantity, clarity,

simplicity, beauty, accessibility, and efficiency of knowledge that we

have available to us. Hopefully by doing so we will improve the lifespan

of the knowledge so that it may be found useful for many more

generations than it is in its current form. There may be other steps

that can be taken to improve the lifespan of public knowledge, and steps

to ensure that private knowledge is in line with public knowledge, and

not in contradiction..

Pictograph software:

This relates to my pictograph book idea. Maybe a computer software

could be made that accepts stories and documents and written language in

any written language as input, and could output a vivid pictographic

comic strip or pictographic video onto the monitor or out the printer.

It could also have pointer arrows to the different aspects of the

pictographs which when clicked, says the literal translation into

another language. Or, in the pictographic movie sequence, the audio

track could be in the new language at an easy understandable pace, along

with pointer arrows. Checkout Simple English: simple.wikipedia.org. An

example could be done from Simple English to pictographs to another

language. Copyright 6/16/2005 Justin Coslor Industries, Priority

Systems, and Adaptation

Industries, much like the mind (or all life for that matter),

operate under the guidance of constantly-updating priority systems.

However the difference is that a given industry may be governed by the

union of a wide variety of priority systems, when a singular mind may

strive to adapt its priority system into every situation it encounters.

Different systems often have at least some different axioms, and in

attempts to merge them, sometimes axioms need to be dropped or adopted.

By merging systems, they then become more complex to adapt, but are more

versatile as a result.

There is much more to an industry than supply and demand, because

many variables go into and relate to supply, and many others go into and

relate to demand. Quality, quantity available, target audience/market

and their wants and needs, manufacturing and distribution,

beneficial/enjoyability rating, priority of selling and of buying the

product or service, how the product or service affects other products or

services, time-frame of use and possible likely re-use count, etc.

Basically the factors involved are the factors of merging a new system

with an existing system, and incorporating it into the priority system.

Gaining a needed capability is generally a high priority, however

taking the time and effort to analyze and learn/map out what

capabilities are needed or that would drastically improve things is

generally a low priority. Learning how to actually obtain those

capabilities is an even lower priority in many cases. However,

pre-existing maps and a personal demonstration of the value of new

capabilities I've heard gets about a 15% to 30% success rate if done

well (since people are resistant to change). Adaptation takes time,

though if you have all of the elements in the configuration you want or

need right from the start, its easier to learn that system than to learn

a lesser system and then make a paradigm shift into an adaptation of

that system, because the two can get confused and it takes more time.

It's important to keep things simple enough to prevent discouragement in

any system, unless your goal is to repel people. Copyright 6/14/2005

Justin Coslor Industry Creation

In creating a new industry one must redesign a concept or broaden a

context to allow for the existence and development of a new concept to

re-route a network of infrastructure. Some objects are anchored, others

are flexible, and others can be augmented to, or can come in quite a

variety.

A sub-industry can be created by making an anchored object flexible,

augmentable, or opening up a variety of alternatives. Invent a new thing

for people to do that is enjoyable and/or beneficial and there lyes the

potential for a new industry. So systematically map out all of the

things that people CAN do, and look for patterns that can be re-applied

to dependency-chart mappings of other areas. That's the analogical

approach. Also if you can solve the problem of making it possible to do

something that is needed or wanted, that's another route to a new

industry. The other approach is the experimental scientific

deductive/inductive approach of combining concepts and wiring a

pattern/tool/technique/concept into the context of another field, or

even to wire many things together into what will be a novel unique

context that meets the simple criteria of being beneficial and/or

enjoyable. The other criteria is that it should be sustainable and

non-harmful to people and the environment. The possibilities for the

creation of niche markets is only limited by people's initiative and

creativity. Criteria for new industries: 1. Novel/unique/worthwhile 2.

Beneficial/enjoyable 3. Sustainable 4. Non-harmful to people Copyright

5/27/2005 Justin Coslor Natural Gas Mining in Landfills, Using Grids of

Vertical Bamboo Tubes Since someone figured out that you can collect

methane gas by sticking tubes into landfills vertically, maybe they

could save some money and materials by using bamboo tubes since they're

very strong, and they could drill some holes into the part of the tube

that goes below the surface, to collect extra gas from the sides. Then

they could push the bamboo tubes down until they're less than 1 foot

above the surface, and space them out about 3 feet apart in a grid, and

above the surface, have re-usable plastic or rubber caps with rubber or

PVC tubes connecting the bamboo tubes to horizontal pipelines, much like

a computer RAM memory array structure, and there could be a safety valve

on each row. Then, when the output is really low from the methane supply

being depleted, they could just stack another 5-10 feet of garbage over

the pipeline field after first removing the top caps & pipeline grid on

the surface, and they could do it all over again with new bamboo tubes

since the other ones would eventually rot and bamboo grows so easily.

Maybe use timber bamboo. Also, it may be possible to grow bamboo forests

over landfills, along with non- THC hemp plants as underbrush for rope

and cloth, since they're both really hardy useful weeds. Copyright

5/27/2005 Justin Coslor 3-Legged Walking Robot (It Gallops) The middle

leg has a knee and a duck foot for stability, and it jumps through two

spider legs that each have a knee and are angled wide for stability.

When the duck foot is in back it bends or ratchets the knee (which could

cock a spring), and then it rapidly straightens it out to perform the

jump, then cocks the knee again in mid-jump as it passes between the two

spider legs, and makes a controlled fall onto the duck leg, which is now

in front. The spider legs make a similar motion to get in front too,

except the spider legs do the turning. To turn, one of the spider legs

just bends more than the other one, or pushes harder than the other one.

It could even pull a cart. These things could be smoothly hopping along

all over the place, and could be made very small or even very large. It

could even climb up stairs too, and might even be able to go down stairs

(carefully). Copyright 3/16/2005 Justin Coslor MAGNETOSONIC ELEMENT

SEPARATOR Have six walls separate walls, each one individually attached

to it's own robotic manipulator arm, so that the robotic arms can clamp

the walls into the shape of a cube. Two of the walls, both opposite to

each other, are to be lined with ferromagnetic electromagnets. Two of

the walls, both on opposite sides, are to be lined with paramagnetic

electromagnets. The remaining two walls are to be lined with diamagnetic

electromagnets. Before the top wall (the lid) is put on, rocks and raw

ore are to be dumped inside. In two opposite diagonal corners there are

some fiberoptics units connected on long cords to digital CCD

observation cameras. Each of the remaining corners is to have a sonic

cannon mounted in it beamed at the wall diagonally across from it. Then

all of electromagnets are to be turned on, as well as all of the sonic

cannons, and so, all of the rocks and ore inside will be obliterated by

the sonic cannons into powder, and then magnetically drawn to the wall

that it is molecularly attracted to by the various kinds of

electromagnets. Then the robotic arms will take the cube apart and dump

each wall's contents into its own melting pot or storage container for

further chemical separation or polymerization. This can be a very

efficient way to process materials. Here I've labeled the sonic

cannon-mounted corners using the letters A through F: A->side 1 =

electroferromagnetic north plate B->side 2 = electroferromagnetic south

plate C->side 3 = electroparamagnetic positive plate D->side 4 =

electroparamagnetic negative plate E->side 5 = electrodiamagnetic

negative plate F->side 6 = electrodiamagnetic positive plate. The

remaining two corners are the fiberoptic view-ports. Anything that isn't

magnetic at all also just gets dumped in its own vat. Copyright 1/7/2005

Justin Coslor Diamagnetic Electromagnets {Diamagnetic materials: water,

salt, pyrolytic graphite, bismuth, etc.}

When you pass a magnet over a coil, or pass a coil through a

magnetic field, electricity flows through the coil. Electric generators

are based on that principle. Electric generators turn into electric

motors when electricity is passed through them (At least the

electro-magnetic rotational kind.)

So why can't we make electric generators that are based on

diamagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic coils or diamagnetic

electromagnets? *See the electromagnetism logic database diagram I drew

that shows in the database margins what is perpendicular and parallel to

what, etc, in the relations of different kinds of electromagnetic

properties and devices and materials maybe. **See the different kinds of

ferromagnetic and diamagnetic electromagnet designs I invented

(hand-drawn diagrams 1/7/2005). Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin Coslor PDA

Kiosks

Use a PDA as a remote-controlled teaching pendant for a robot, and

bolt several PDA's down into a kiosk and network them for use as a

head's-up display. Attach a keyboard and a switch-box to it, have a

stylus on a cord, and include a printer. The great part is that PDA's

turn on instantly and consume very little electricity. Networking

software and hardware might need to be designed for them though, but it

likely already exists.

The kiosks could be very very small this way, and could just be on a

swing-arm or arm bolted to a wall or tabletop with power cord leading up

to them. Copyright 8/10/2005 Justin Coslor PDA Virtual Reality/Augmented

Reality System (See Diagram)

Build or adapt a lightweight sunglasses-like head mounted display

that uses high resolution LCD screens in stereo for portable virtual

reality uses with a PDA and folding PDA keyboard (it should also work on

a laptop). Even a single color high resolution LCD head mounted display

for a PDA would be incredible for reading and browsing the web

wirelessly, as well as browsing VRML and Java3D worlds at at least

800x600 color pixel resolution. Battery life is the main issue here. You

need to be able to get at least 10 hours of battery life, and it needs

to be easily rechargeable. An augmented reality transparent LCD screen

would be ideal or one of those miniature projector LCD's. Also, it might

be neat to have a wireless 3D finger ring mouse that has several buttons

on it, at least for drawing 3D models and browsing VRML and Java3D

worlds and webpages. The PDA screen could be a small scale version of

the 3D HMD scene or programmable control panel buttons. There could be a

videocamera on the HMD for doing Augmented Reality, and have a visual

dictionary pattern matching software and a 2D to 3D object

reconstruction software, as well as have a 6DOF head tracking system.

It's important that all of the hardware be open source programmable and

be openly interfacable.

I realize the military already has contact lens versions of this

Augmented Reality display system, but this would be affordable to the

public. They also have G.W.E.N. (Ground Wave Emission Network)

Tower/Tempest brain interface systems too all over the country (for

martial law population control and clandestine "experiments", and such),

but that's another matter. Copyright 11/12/2004 Justin Coslor My eBike

Shop: Eco-Bikes (TM)(R)

If I ever wanted to live in Pittsburgh for an extended period of

time (such as to go to Grad School later on), I could open up an

electric bicycle dealership, and fit each bike with solid rubber tires

from GreenTires.com or AirFreeTires.com, so that they wouldn't get

flats, and only sell bikes that use batteries that aren't highly toxic

(no lead-acid or NiCd batteries).It could be open in the evenings so

that I could go to class during the day, or I could hire some students

to help run it. We could do maintenance and repairs on electric bikes

too, and recycle broken batteries and recycle or re-use parts from old

eBikes sometimes.

Most of all, they'd be affordable, and fitted with baskets and

fenders, and comfortable seats. This way, students could easily ride to

the East-End Food Co-Op & Whole Foods for groceries, carry library

books, etc, and ride all over town and re-claim the roads. It'd get the

city to put in special well-swept bike lanes all over town and to pass

enormous hit and run penalty laws for drivers to follow. We'd make a

huge push to get bike racks re-installed on all of the public transit

buses too. 1/13/2005 Justin Coslor Business ideas:

Right now as a money maker I could retrofit people's bikes with

electric motors for a $100 fee + parts.

I could also sell hard drives with Linux pre-installed on them for

$100 + parts (~$150). It could come with a set of GNU/Linux CD's.

I could also sell homemade random number generators for $250. See my

journal entry dated 12/15/2003 and the drawing I made on 1/22/2005 for

details. They could be useful to staticians, scientists, and people who

use encryption technologies. The machine is capable of generating large

amounts of random seed numbers simultaneously for each cycle that it is

run. I might be able to sell it for even more. Copyright 1/21/2005

Justin Coslor Ram-Horn Handlebars for City Bikes: I think whomever

designed the handlebars on city bikes got the idea from looking at a

pair of rams horns.. As such, it would be neat to bolt a rams skull onto

the bike in place of the handlebars or make a hollow or cast mold

version to sell to ram/bicycle enthusiasts. (GNU-compatible) Copyright

1/13/2005 Justin Coslor Augmented Reality Goggles for doing X-Ray Vision

and 3D Image Reconstruction Architects could like augmented reality

goggles for doing x-ray or sonar vision and stereo 3D image

reconstruction of live video data as they walk through a building while

wearing the goggles. The goggles could be used as digitizers to map

details onto the original wireframe CAD schematics. The military already

has this, but I don't know if anyone has done an open-source

open-hardware version of this for the commercial market and archeology

gear. ------------------------------------ 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor

Simple magnetism experiment: What happens when you wrap copper wire

around an insulated tube, then put an iron bar inside the tube, then run

electricity through both the copper coil, as well as the iron bar, but

from separate power supplies? What happens when you switch the polarity

of the iron bar's power supply? What electrical voltage, amperage,

resistance, and magnetism (Gaussmeter) readings do you get in each case,

and in the case where you don't energize the iron bar but only the coil?

Does the electricity running through the iron bar amplify the magnetic

field or the current of the copper coil?

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This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.