Even though we forget, we just do the best that we know how in each moment.


Possibility Thinking:
Explorations in Logic and Thought


people need reasons more than orders

We know that no one is perfect so try not to treat anyone badly.

Though divided we are one. MANY FROM ONE. DEMOCRACY IS COMMUNITY.




I like writing, drawing, discovering wisdom, learning, and talking

gently with nice folks. I mostly enjoy simple ideas.

PICForm Project

PICForm Diagram

Sine Spiral Graphing Project

Sine_Spiral_Graphing.pdf [2.9MB]




We know that no one is perfect

so try not to treat anyone badly.





has many errors in it so please remember to be kind to everyone and

only read it gently when you are in a good mood and if you get tired

then gently stop and do something else such as sleep and dream of peace.

The diagrams and drawings and stuff for that book are in the file

justincoslor.iso and they are not perfect either so please be kind and

try not to treat anyone badly, and please do not treat me badly. Thank

you. More formal thought about that could perhaps be carefully edited by

hand and justincoslor.iso is designed to be be put on a recordable

compact disc.


PICForm Compiler Project

Perhaps people could make a program that makes writing C programs

easier. I think that C stands for subset.

It could be a program that translates PICFORM

cross-domain relations into C programs and data structures.






One of the ways to invent stuff.

Make a system to list topics next to each other

with a selection of topics to find some useful compatibilities

of their relations. It requires helpful compassionate

human beings and a beautiful diversity of other life as

all life can be beautiful if nurtured to be compassionate.

Helpful thinkers with many skills are needed to think about the topics

in the discovery of new ideas and new profound concepts and

considerations. Concepts are contextual perceptions. A continuum of

textuality is like the setting in a story and is what a context

is. Often it is said that a picture, such as a drawing or diagram, is

worth a thousand words. Sometimes less is more with words. It

sometimes helps to simplify and it sometimes helps to elaborate. It

helps to try to do a good job and plan ahead and leave plenty

for the future.


Summary of some ideas from Possibility Thinking: Explorations in Logic and Thought

Please remember to not treat anyone badly.




If you want to donate something I only accept Post Office Money Orders.

Please be kind to everyone. Thank you.



PO BOX 367





some thoughts I considered for book 3 of possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought

These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3
of possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought and
many of them are probably flawed so the burden of understanding
lies entirely on the reader and gossip is not allowed.
This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.
Book III:
Math Ideas:
Copyright 9/13/2004 Justin Coslor
Something that is infinite in one context may be finite in another
context. For the re-definition of "infinite" is something that goes on
forever along the dimensional framework of a given context. But once new
axioms are applied to the context where that something went on forever,
the context is changed, and thus so the definition of many if not all
things that existed in the former context, and in many cases infinite
objects may become quitet definable (finite).
---------------------------------- 3/2/2005 update by Justin Coslor
Also, it's important to not that perspectives changes (such as
recontexualizations), may come with different axiom sets than the
original context. 10/19/2004 Justin Coslor Public Domain, free for well
intended use only. The upper limits of NP-Completeness Polynomial time
computations' upper limit can be described by saying "infinity^x", and
that has finitely many dimensions of context, but infinite scope along
those dimensions. Non-polynomial time computations can be described by
"x^infinity", and that has finite scope, but infinitely many dimensions
of context. As you can see, cannot exactly equal np, however, it can
approximate an incomplete abstract summary of some parts of np, using
part of p's scope. This is because exponents stand for the number of
perpendicular or symmetrical dimensions that the variable exists in. So
saying that p=np is like trying to say that infinity^x=x^infinity, which
it clearly is not; but p can be composed of a selection of np's
dimensions, as long as they have a common base for forming selective
perspective. Copyright 10/17/2004 Justin Coslor Qualifying & Quantifying
Dimensionality In equations such as AnX^n + A{n-1}X^n-1 + . . . + A1X +
A0 = 0, the coefficients (An to A1) can be considered to be quantifiers,
and X^n to X or Y's etc, can be considered to be qualitative variables.
When the variables X, Y, etc have exponents or are multiplied
together, each combination of exponents and variables defines the
dimensionality of the planes that the equation is holding in relation to
one another, and the coefficients define the size or length or quantity
or magnitude of each dimensional/qualitative structure in the equation
that is held in relation to each other dimensional/qualitative structure
in the equation. Now some dimensional structures are best described by
equations that have more than two sides to the equal sign, such as those
that exist on higher prime and prime composite levels of balance than
most of current mathematics is based on. So we can only approximate
descriptions of those structures in a duality format if at all.
I guess a computer array or database or arrays of arrays can be used
to depict higher dimensionality, but past a certain number of dimensions
it surpasses the human brain's neuro- hardware's ability to visualize
the relations and dimensional complexity. Arrays can be used to list out
infinitely many dimensions categorically and quantitatively. However,
nobody as of yet has discovered a way to think of a way to bound the
classification of objects or situations using more than two extremes,
using dualities such as maximum and minimum to balance an equation.
Triality, or quintality, etc, along the prime numbers may indeed be
possible, though our brains don't seem to interpret the universe along
those dimensions as of yet. Perhaps eventually we will learn to adapt
higher logical foundations. Copyright 10/4/2004 Justin Coslor Spirals
(See the photos of the pictures depicted by this text on this date.) A
number that has exponents contains one perpendicular or symmetrical
dimension per exponent , so f^5 in this equation might look something
like the multidimensional picture of a spiral within a spiral within a
spiral within a spiral within a spiral. This is how my math invention
"Sine Spiral Graphing" applies to the discovery I made about
dimensionality (see journal entry dated 7/10/2004 Justin Coslor). The
line going through the center of the spiral might actually be a spiral,
a circle, an elliptical loop, a curve, or some combination of those.
This kind of visual notation ("Exponential Sine Spiral Graphing" I call
it) can be used in conjunction with conical orbit graphing I call it)
can be used in conjuntion with conical orbit graphing to simplify the
interaction visualizations of multiple spinning and/or orbiting bodies
that have at least one plane of rotation in common.
------------------------------ Update: Copyright 2/10/2005 Justin Coslor
The optimal structure of nanotechnology parallel-processing
supercomputer memory structure could be something like this f^5
composite exponential spiral, except with ribbons of memory units and
have vertical pipelines interconnecting each exponential layer of the
composite spiral, and have a brick made out of short columns of these
f^4 or f^5 or f^n spirals that are laterally connected on the ends of
each column and stack multiple columns on top of each other in sheets of
intensely interconnected spirals, like slices of a tree trunk. 7/10/2004
by Justin Coslor Light Spirals
For several weeks now I have believed that light (and other
emissions of convecting energy) particles/packets/quanta travel not in
waves, but in spirals and flocks of spirals. I came to this conclusion
after figuring out how to visualize Balmer's frequency equation (the one
with the Rydberg constant and electron shell radiuses: f=R(1/Nf^2 -
1/Ni^2) where Nf is the outermost shell and Ni is the initial shell) in
terms of sine-spiral graphing (Sine-spiral graphing is something of my
own invention, and is a 3D resentation of circular motion, where the
sine-waves or cosine waves represented for all points in time as a
spiral (cosine of a point is X, sine at that point is Y, and time at
that point is Z in the 3D coordinate system....remember the unit
circle?) through time (or through a 3rd dimension if time is irrelevant
or instantaneous or if motion is uniform)). See pg 67 of the comic book
"Introducing Quantum Theory" by J.P. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate - Copyright
1996 (2003 reprint) ISBN: 1840460571 for Balmer's frequency equation.
*Note: Waveforms only look like that from a perpendicular side-view, and
I think this because, interestingly enough, 3D spirals look exactly like
that when they are looked at from a perpendicular side view, which
essentially is a 2D perspective. That is part of the basis of my
sine-spiral graphing methods (I came up with the math for it when I got
way behind in 10th grade Math-Analysis class). 7/11/2004 update by
Justin Coslor Light Spirals Continued
To visualize it I juggled the equation around a little, and figured
out the intent that went into creating the algorithm. In Nf^2 and Ni^2,
f^2 and i^2 just means that the variable f exists in a two- dimensional
plane where one f axis is perpendicular or symmetrical to every other
variable in the composite of the multiplicative parts; and when numbers
or values get plugged into those variables, the visualization depicts a
specific graph within the context of that combined dimensionality. That
is why multiplication is used in algorithms to combine variables that
are proportional to each other. *Multiplication shows that they have a
proportional relationship. **Multiplication can also show that
variables' dimensionality can share the same space, by perceiving of
them in the broader context of their dimensions' combined contexts
(whether it be symbolic, semantic, algebraic, or geometrical). ***One
variable=1 dimensional representation. Two variables=2 dimensional
representation. Three variables=3D . . . There is a limit to our neuro
hardware's dimensional ability. ****If a variable is squared it exists
within a two-dimensional context, if it is cubed, it exists within a 3D
context, etc. Copyright 5/6/1997 Justin Coslor Sine Spiral Graphing
A new method of graphing motion called "Sine Spiral Graphing" was
developed by me when I was 16. It allows for simultaneously graphing the
sine and cosine curves of an object in motion, three-dimensionally. Sine
and cosine, when graphed simultaneously in two dimensions, look like two
staggered intersecting waves traveling in the same general direction.
(Fig. 1) There has been a need for developing better methods of graphing
an object's two-dimensional (flat) motion through space over a period of
time that more clearly shows the progression of travel. At present,
mapping three-dimensional motion using different variables is more
complicated, but could be a further application of the principles
presented in the "Sine Spiral Graphing" method. The "Sine Spiral" is
based on the spiral shape of two-dimensional circular motion graphed in
three dimensions using this new graphing technique. The name is derived
from the general name of the sine wave combined with what the actual 3D
graph looks like: a spiral. This technique could be helpful for
scientists and students alike in many applications. Some possible
application for the Sine Spiral could be: - Plotting the motion of a
bead in a hula hoop as it spins around one's waist. - Calculating the
position of various atomic/subatomic particles moving in relation to
each other over time. - Plotting the velocity and position of a point on
an automobile wheel as sit spins down a runway or curvy hilly road. -
Plotting the motion of a baseball spinning through the air as it travels
forward to the catcher over a period of time. - Calculating the motion
of a point on a bowling ball as it rolls down the lane over time. -
Calculating the speeds and positions of a set of points, on various
gears at work, in a clock in relation to each other over time. -
Calculating the motion of a point on a rocket ship, or of a point on a
space satellite as it orbits a planet. - Plotting the movement of a
chicken in a tornado.
All of these examples listed present graphing difficulties when
depicted on a normal graph. The motions in these examples could be
calculated on a computer and represented in a simulated fashion to show
the actual movement in space for one point in time at a time. Concurrent
Sine Spiral graphs can also be drawn for comparison of points on
multiple moving objects. However, it would be difficult to graphically
represent these motions for all points in time all at once. A simulation
could be like a video, where one can only view one place on the video at
a time. Viewing forward and reverse at the same time is not logistically
possible on a video. However, when motion is three-dimensionally graphed
on a computer using a Sine Spiral, it is possible to view these motions
for all points in time all at once. A very effective way to manipulate
and browse three-dimensional graphs (such as a Sine Spiral) on a
computer is with Virtual Reality equipment. With Virtual Reality
equipment, the perspective of the viewer can freely move around in space
(on the graph) and see the 3D objects in one's graph from any
perspective. In a Virtual Reality graph, the user can have total control
over what is viewed and how it is viewed.
Understanding the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, tangent,
and their inverse counterparts is a necessity for understanding Sine
Spiral Graphing. Trigonometric functions of real numbers, called
"Circular Functions" (or Wrapping Functions), can be defined in terms of
the coordinates of points on the unit circle with the equation x^2+y^2=1
having its center at the origin and a radius of 1. (Fig. 2)
There are three elements in a two-dimensional trigonometric
function: the angle of rotation (sigma), the radius of the rotation r,
and the (x,y) position of the point at that angle and radius. As can be
seen in Figure 3, the x and y portions of the graph are always
perpendicular to each other. Thus a right triangle is formed between the
x, y, and radius sides. Right triangle rules can therefore be applied to
this point in space (Brown/Robbins 190).
Such trigonometric functions as sine and cosine can be applied to
the triangle formed by rotation. These functions, sin and cos, are of
fundamental importance in all branches of mathematics. One can use
points other than those on the unit circle to find values of the sine
and cosine functions. (Fig. 4) If a point Q has coordinates (x,y), and
it is at angle sigma in reference to the origin, (cos sigma) = x/r and
(sin sigma) = y/r. To obtain a rough sketch of a sine wave, plot the
points (t, sin t) (Fig. 5), then draw a smooth curve through them, and
extend the configuration to the right and left in periodic fashion. This
gives the portion of the graph shown in Figure 5 (Swolowski 78).
A cosine can be graphed in the same fashion by simply shifting the
graph 90 degrees to the right. (Fig. 6) An object's circular motion can
be described by either a sine wave or a cosine graphed in the same
fashion. Such a wave is composed of the object's radius of rotation and
the vperiod (number of degrees in on cycle) per unit of time that it
rotates. Seeing an object's sine and cosine graph simultaneously greatly
helps in visualizing the object's motion analytically compared how it
found in real life. Watching an animation of an object spinning is the
same as seeing the x and y coordinates (cosine and sine) of the object
for each frame of the animation, one frame at a time. This is because
one could see a scale view of its whole two-dimensional motion over a
period of time. Visualizing an object's true motion in nature from
merely looking at a graph of its sine or cosine can be difficult to
conceptualize. For this reason, the Sine Spiral may be an improvement in
current co-linear graphing (Fig. 7).
Velocity over the period of one rotation on a sine curve can be
measured by dividing the distance traveled in one rotation by the amount
of time it takes to complete that one rotation. Velocity = change in
distance/change in time + direction.
Any change in velocity (a change in time) will change the distance
between peaks of the spiral. The whole Z-axis around which the spiral
revolves represents time passed. When the velocity is constant, the
distance from peak to peak in the spiral is constant or each distance
from one peak to another peak is the same. (Fig. 6) Therefore, if the
distance from one peak to another changes somewhere in the spiral, this
indicates that the velocity has changed at that point in time.
Within the Sine Spiral, some of the variables that can change in the
object's motion are velocity, radius of rotation, position of axis of
revolution, and the scale upon which measurements are based. The shape
of this spiral is an indication of any and all of these variables. The
change in the shape of the spiral correlates to the change in one or
more of these variables. (Fig. 7)
Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines a spiral as "A
three-dimensional curve (as a helix) with one or more turns around and
axis." In current circular motion, the sine of the angle of rotation
provides a Y value (Sine=Y/Radius of Rotation), while the cosine of that
same angle provides and X value (Cosine=X/Radius of Rotation). These X
and Y values are all that is needed to draw the two-dimensional models
of rotation known as the sine curve and the two- dimensional models of
rotation known as the sine curve and cosine curve (or sine wave). To my
knowledge it has not been thought possible to graph this same motion in
three dimensions though, because one needs an X, Y, and Z coordinate in
order to graph in 3D. There can be an X and Y coordinate by finding the
sine and cosine of a unit circle. All that is needed is a Z coordinate
to make the circular motion graphable in three dimensions.
That Z coordinate could be representable by time, or speed of
rotation, or even the period of degrees it takes for one complete
rotation. In a sine wave, the period is 360 degrees. Using the period of
degrees in one rotation, one can find a constantly increasing Z
coordinate by dividing the current number of degrees traveled by the
period of degrees it takes to complete one rotation. In short,
degrees/period. The period can be depicted by a set amount of time.
Finding a ratio between something that can be used as a reference point
(one second vs the number of degrees in one rotation) to one's current
progress in that measurement scale (number of seconds that have passed
vs number of degrees that have been traveled) determine where one is on
the Z- axis.
By dividing one's progress by a predetermined scale of reference, a
new dimension can be generated in which to plot on a graph in order to
illustrate this in three-dimensional fashion. This new dimension can be
called the "Z-axis". Now that there is an X, Y, and Z dimension
available, a three-dimensional model of an object's progress through its
path of circular motion is possible.
For 3D motion, one can draw three spirals over the same T axis and
where two of the spirals intersect, plot a point. Connecting the dots
between the points gives one a tri-spiral (a spiral or shape that
represents 3D motion over time). One can continue plotting the points
with several objects and where the tri-spirals intersect, the objects
intersect. One can break down the tri-spiral to find out where the X, Y,
and Z coordinates are in space and the time coordinates of the
To use the Sine Spiral to map the 3D motion throughout time, one
could mark the spiral with tags (or color code it) that tell one when
and how far down the Z-axis it travels. Then to graph several objects to
compare their motions and positions to each other, one can have a
computer draw lines of the same color of the Z-tag, linking all of the
objects that intersect on the two planes like the ZX plane, or the ZY
plane. That way, one could identify when objects like planets line up on
a plane or intersect.
There is much to benefit from in being able to graph an object's
progress at the same time as its position in space. One can see time
from an outside perspective and also see how an object's motion,
position, and speed relate to any point in time. In many circumstances,
it may be very useful to finally be able to get to see the general shape
of an object's travel through all points in time all at once. This new
method of graphing circular motion in three dimensions is the "Sine
The graph forms a regularly spaced spiral whose axis is a straight
line equidistant from the perimeter of the spiral. Changing the radius
of rotation around a center axis changes the radius of the spiral around
the Z axis. Changing the center of rotation in two-dimensional space (X,
Y coordinates) makes the Z axis of the sign spiral curve up, down, or to
the sides when graphed (instead of the normal straight line Z-axis).
For instance, an air hockey puck pinning in place would have a
regular sign spiral that represents a point on the puck's perimeter that
is traveling in a circle. Now if the spinning puck were to be slid
across an air hockey table, that same point (on the perimeter of the
puck) would have an irregular sine spiral whose radius would be
constant, but the Z-axis around which the graph spirals would
instantaneously bend at a ninety degree angle.
A computer can easily generate this three-dimensional picture of an
object "N" at point "T" in time if the speed of travel is irregular (or
at the ratio of degrees traveled to the period of one complete rotation
if the speed is constant). (Fig. 8)
Graphing any two-dimensional motion (motion that moves in any
direction on a flat plane), or rotation in three-dimensions using time
or progress as the third dimension allows one to look at time from an
outside perspective. The Sine Spiral can be used to graph any such
two-dimensional motion, or any number of combinations of such motion. It
can be used to graph several objects moving around in 2D (flat) space on
the same plane. The Sine Spiral can be used to graph an object which has
a rotation within a rotation, and so on (Fig. 9). In this case, each
next level of rotation is on an incrementally larger scale. To view some
of the higher levels of rotation, one must graph the object's motion
over a longer period of time. This concept can relate to complex motions
of a longer period of time. This concept can relate to complex motions
of a large scale found in, for example, the universe. Sine Spiral
graphing can literally be used to graph the motion of every particle in
perceivable universe for all points in observable time, simultaneously
(by bending the Z-axis appropriately to accommodate changes is axis
orientation). Using the Sine Spiral, graphing motion in the Z-axis, or
time, requires one to employ a means to mark or reference the Sine
Spiral in order to distinguish how deep down the Z-axis the motion has
Without a Sine Spiral, one can only pick three-dimensions to see on
a graph for all points in those dimensions. One could have X, Y, and Z
coordinates on a 3D graph all at once, but only for one point in time
per graph. Or one could illustrate motion in any two dimensions for all
points in time using the Sine Spiral. Here are some of the dimensions
from which one can choose: X, Y, Z, and Time. One can have four or more
dimensions on a graph by selecting 3 variables form out of the X, Y, Z,
and Time, as well as any number of descriptive, qualitative,
categorical, computational, or other quantitative dimensions. These
kinds of dimensions may appeal/apply to one's senses and could be
described in "real" dimensions such as the Z-axis and others.
With 3D applications using this concept (once improved methods of
graphing 3D motion with the sine spirals are better developed), other
more complex spirals can be mapped. Such 3D applications could include
the universe in their motion through space throughout all time to see
where certain ones meet or line up), and graphing the motion of
particles of a sun during a supernova (the spiral would look similar to
a tangent spiral as described below). The Sine Spiral may be an
improvement in the graphing of nonlinear and linear motion. With the
help of the recent Virtual Reality technology, most any computer can be
used to build 3D models such as Sine Spirals. We can construct and view
a Sine Spiral and have complete control over the graph, viewing it in 3D
space as if it were physically here.
There are many new math applications and theorems that may apply to
this concept. Different types of spirals are possible with the general
Sine Spiral method. Such shapes could include the Sine Tube (a sine
spiral whose period is infinitely small), the Tangent Spiral (which uses
a sine spiral whose period is infinitely small), the Tangent Spiral
(uses the equation Tan sigma = (y/r)/ (x/r) for the x and y
coordinates), and the secant spiral (uses sec sigma = 1/(x/r) for the
coordinate and csc sigma = 1/(y/r) for the y coordinate). Also, in
either two-dimensional or three-dimensional motion (when a graphing
method is available), an object can be spinning in a circle within a
circle (each level of rotation incrementally bigger than the previous),
and this will make a very special type of Sine Spiral that looks like a
spiral within a spiral within a spiral, etc., depending on how many
levels of rotation are going on. More new math applications ar sure to
be found that can apply to the Sine Spiral as it is used.
Graphing three-dimensional motion with the Sine Spiral is more
difficult to do, but can be done effectively. Graphing three-dimensional
motion using the Sine Spiral needs further refinement at this time, but
will hopefully be available for use in the near future. There are many
new avenues that open up as people figure things out in science and
math. The Sine Spiral may be another door in mathematics ready to be
opened up and entered. Through this door may be a whole new way to look
at things, a way to see objects in nonlinear motion from a standpoint
outside of time. ---------------------------------- Works Cited: Brown
R., and D. Robbins, "Advanced Mathematics: A Precalculus Course"
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 1987. Fleenor C., M. Shanks, and C.
Brumfiel. "The Elementary Functions".
Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1973. Gove, P.B., ed.
"Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged".
Springfield, MA: Miriam-Webster, 1986. Manougian, M.N. "Trigonometry
with Applications".
Tampa, FL: Mariner Publishing Co., 1980. Swokowski, E.W.
"Fundamentals of Trigonometry".
Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, Incorporated, 1982.
-------------------------------- Copyright 6/28/2003 Justin Coslor
Conical Satellite Orbit Graphing (See Diagrams dated 10/4/2004,
3/1/2004, and 9/15/2001)
I do think the conical satellite orbit graphing idea I thought of in
winter 2001 (or the year before) could still be something valuable in
detecting and calculating collisions and for 3D space junk detection.
It's based on the hypothesis that if you compress a half-sphere into the
shape of a cone, the 180 degree arcs become straight lines, and straight
lines are easier to represent, interpret depth of, and run calculations
on than arcs. Elliptical orbits would just re straight lines at an
angle, each line representing the orbital path of an object in space.
Where two or more lines intersect, a collision is possible at the point
by either accelerating or de-accelerating the objects that the lines
Each object in a hemisphere cone is represented by a maximum and
minimum altitude, and an angle representing the direction in which the
object is traveling. There is one cone for each hemisphere. The neat
thing about the conical format is that you can see how a bunch of
objects, traveling in different directions at various altitudes, stack
up along a common line of altitude protruding through the center of the
planet, sun, moon, atom, galaxy, etc, and you can see how this line of
altitude intersects each of those objects at two points in time (one for
each hypersphere cone), along their various paths of travel.
Conical orbit graphing is a way to group a set of satellites (or
other objects in orbit) by a single line protruding through the center
of the central mass out into space (with a longitude and latitude
coordinate for each hemisphere from which the line emerges). All sorts
of nifty computer software functions can be incorporated into this as
well, such as having a 2D map of the central mass (such as a planetary
map or electron orbital map) as a clickable image map that generates a
unique pair of orbit cones for each coordinate (one for each hemisphere
of the hypersphere for objects traveling 360 degrees or more around the
planet). It would have a timing component as well and can be used as a
multi-body gravitational clock, viewable with virtual reality equipment
or a regular computer. There can also be a range component that
highlights any possible collisions within a certain proximity of the
satellites in focus (the satellites that intersect a common axis of
altitude, have one pair of cones for each axis of altitude). The user
should also be able to zoom in and out, rotate the cones, focus on
different axis' of altitude, combine complex orbits with sine- spiral
graphing techniques (see my paper on that), and watch the satellites
travel along their path lines in real-time (at an adjustable rate) using
live or recorded data collected from sensors and observational
equipment. It would help if most modern satellites were equipped to
detect space junk and satellites around them and relay it back to the
ground so that the world has a constantly updated fairly accurate map of
all of the objects and space junk in orbit around the earth, since space
flight has been compared to flying through a high-speed shooting
gallery. Ideally, some kind of Star Trek-like/Tesla
Wardencliffe-tower-like shields or something are needed for the safety
of that hazard (but not for use as a weapon), but a good 3D navigational
map can't hurt. For each satellite the computer can run a conical orbit
graphing collision detection test for each point in time along it's
projected path of travel.
The main use of conical orbit graphing as I see it, is for detecting
collisions at points along a line of altitude, using one pair of cones
for each point in time (or as a 3D interactive video). The user should
be able to pick a time and x-y coordinate, see the satellites that
intersect that line of altitude, then zoom in on the part of the path of
the satellite that they are interested in, then click on a point in that
path, and a new set of cones will be generated using that point as an
altitude line in the center of the cones so that you can then see what
possible collisions and path intersections there are for that point in
the satellite flight path-time. All as straight lines so that it's
easier to comprehend in complex situations. The computer calculations
might even be quicker than calculating arcs. I'd assume elliptical arcs
to be the most computationally intensive using traditional methods, but
they too could probably be represented as straight lines in the software
(going diagonally across the cones from one height to another height,
and then the opposite for the other cone). It would be a 3D software
tool for visualization and collision-interception calculation (and might
be able to help protect all countries from incoming intercontinental
thermonuclear ballistic missiles by combing this visualization method
with a ground-based or space-based or airplane-based or reusable
non-offensive missile based laser/maser anti-ballistic missile defense
system. There might be many other beneficial uses for this visualization
method that I haven't thought of yet (such as charting asteroids around
Saturn or something; though hopefully it won't ever be used for, or even
be useful for offensive purposes of any kind).. I haven't written any of
the code yet or figured out much of the math yet to make it possible
yet. Scholarly help is encouraged. Copyright 8/28/2005 Justin Coslor
Applications of Conical Hyperhemisphere Graphing When Combined With Sine
Spiral Graphing (See my papers dated 5/6/1997 and 6/28/2003.)
A Sine Spiral graph can be used to depict how an object rotates in N
dimensions as it moves from point to point in time (as though it were
rotating in place through time without actually traveling forward along
a path). Then those time coordinates can be linked to a conical orbit
graph of the distance vectors that the object moves through along its
path (or use a 3D Cartesian Coordinate grid of its path if it isn't
going to travel a full orbit around the planet...or not...). This
combination of graphing techniques works regardless of whether the
object is below, on, or above the surface of the Earth, or other center
of mass in space. For instance it could be used for mapping the path of
a vessel that goes from under the ocean, up into the sky, and out into
space into an orbit around the moon or something. ***************** Each
layer of the hyperhemisphere cone is a polar grid of a different
altitude. Elliptical and circular orbits are represented as straight
lines going across a pair of cones and intersect with an axis of
altitude line that goes vertically through the center of each cone,
where the axis of altitude represents a line going through the center of
the planet and out both sides into space. Elliptical orbits go
diagonally across the cones in this fashion from one altitude to
another, and back the opposite way in the cone that represents the other
half of the hyperhemisphere. Circular orbits go straight across the
cones at whatever altitude and declination they happen to be on.
Space stations could use these mapping techniques to coordinate
their motion and to dock incoming spacecraft, and it could be useful for
spaceship navigation and satellite positioning, coordination, and
communication routing too. Navy submarines could use these sine spiral +
conical hyperhemisphere (or sine spiral + Cartesian or polar) graphs
when planning and plotting routes through the oceans of the world
through different depths and complex courses. Air-Force planes in
perpetual (or merely long distance) flight could also use it to plan or
plot their courses, so could airlines. It could simplify autonomous
agent motion through extremely complicated environments, such as space,
or for nanobots navigation in a chip or in colloidal fluid, or
autopiloted aircraft in extremely crowded skies (such as autopiloted
personal aircraft for overcrowded cities). Cross Domain Relations, for
the Mathematics of Alternative Route Exploration Aside from the first
order logic stuff, the ideas and depictions in this paper were
originally conceived of and are Copyright 5/22/2004 by Justin M. Coslor,
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED (Please contact me for conditions of use...). This
Rough Draft was typed on 6/9/2004 in AbiWord on an X86-Compatible
Personal Computer running GNU Sarge (a free Debian Linux Operating
System), and was encouraged by the FRDCSA.ORG project.
These ideas are intended to enhance the ability to discover and
invent new routes in any field of study, and to aid in evaluating the
relative utility of known routes, as well as to simplify some of the
problems posed by computability theory.
Figure 1.
From the foundations of relational logic, we already know that: if a
relation is xRy: X-->Y, then it is injective; or if xRy: X<-->Y, then it
is bijective; or if xRy: X-->(y1, y2, ..., yp), then it is surjective;
We also know that if a functional relation is xRy: y=f(x)=m where f(x)
represents an arbitrary function of the domain X that yields a set of
unique m's that are sub-ranges (y's) within the bounds of the range Y
(a.k.a. the Class Y), where each m corresponds to a uniquely arbitrary
domain x through the functional relation f(x). In this case, [f(x)]=R in
the equation xRy. (*Remember for later that any mathematical operator
(+, -, /, *, etc.) can be a relation. Any piece of computer software can
also be treated as a relation, since software performs operations, and
is basically a collection of algebraicly-tied operators.) But perhaps,
we can broaden the scope of the Context in order to allow for more
possibilities. This "broadening", may include metaphoric operations and
metaphoric relations between the data type(s) of the functional
relation(s) in focus and various specified number sets, orderings, and
systems of numbers (including symbolic ones). (*We'll cover more on this
later.) Let us introduce a new type of relation, that is a relation that
relates relations, and let us call it a Cross-Domain Relation, and
depict it as such: One goal of this paper is to show a system to
accurately depict the following kinds of relation: xCy: (x1, x2, ...,
xp)-->knEY (injective), or xCy: (x1, x2, ..., xp)<-->knEY (bijective),
or xCy: (x1, x2, ..., xp)-->(k1, k2, ..., kn)EY (surjective); where
every sub-range k that is an element of the range Y, has multiple
domains that relate to each k in a unique way (through a unique route).
Each sub-domain in the Domain X can come from different contexts and
each sub- domain may operate under a different relation to specific
sub-ranges in Y than other sub- domains relations to those same
sub-ranges in Y. In these relations, some of the sub-domains may be
injective, some may be bijective, and some may be surjective. In order
to label and order each set of sub-domains that is part of a unique
cross-domain relation, we introduce the ordering term "n". We can use
the "n" component here to differentiate and/or order cross-domain
relations, by combining the ordering of cross-domain-related sub-domains
(i.e. nCx) with the individual relations between those sub-domains and
any given sub-ranges (i.e. xRy), as such: nCx: N-->X (injective), or
nCx: N<-->X (bijective), or nCx: N-->{x1, x2, ..., xp} (surjective),
then nCxRy describes the cross-domain relation where n is an element in
the cross-domain N such that x=f(n), and x is an element of a particular
cross-domain subset n (as well as being a sub-domain of the domain X),
where x has a relation (a.k.a. a route) to a particular sub-range y in
Y.; (***Note: every x in X and/or every n in N can come from vastly
different contexts, yet still lead to the same y(s) in Y.) where for
each sub-range y, f(n) is every function in the cross-domain N that
leads to multiple sub-domains in X that lead to the the multilateral
result k (which is a specific singular sub-range y in the Class Y with
multiple relations leading to it from the domain X) through the route:
F[C{f(x)}]-->kEY (kEY means k is an Element of Y), where C{f(x)}=n and
y=f(x) and x=f(n), and k represents any specific unique sub-range in Y
that can be arrived at via multiple domains' functional relations, where
each of the multiple domain's relations goes from any sub-domain x in X
to the same specific sub- range y in Y; where F[N] is the set of all
routes to all k's in Y, K is the set of all k's in Y, and F[n] is the a
relation describing set of all routes to a specific k in Y. k is used to
depict sub-ranges that have multiple ways to arrive at them; that is to
say, ways that include origin variations, and intermediary relation
combinations (middle-man combinations). In short: "If some unique X's
yield some of the same unique y's through various relations, then those
X's are said to have "cross-domain relations", because those domains
have some relations whose end results have something in common."
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^This is what I was trying to draw and put into an
equation format. I'm not sure if I succeeded, but probably. It seemed
like there needed to be a formal word for what I was trying to depict as
relations that relate different contexts' functions' domains by a
representable equivalence or similarity in their ranges (when there is
exists such a representable equivalence or similarity), so that's how I
came up with the name "cross- domain relations". Computer software can
essentially be treated as such functions, for which cross-domain
relations that lead to alternative routes may exist for any given set or
class of software functions. It's basically all about alternative
routes. Such a mapping can be quite useful for exploring alternative, or
previously unconsidered, or unknown possibilities and modalities. In
Figure 1., X is a class that contains domains that lead to ranges within
the class Y. There may be other classes that lead to those ranges, even
if they do so indirectly through other classes by broadening the
applicable context. By saying "lead to them" I mean "relate to them" in
any "chosen" way(s). The route equations can get very complex the more
classes and destinations you're analyzing when looking for and mapping
cross-domain relations. In practice, the user ends up with a concise
pack of cross-domain relation equations that summarizes the entire
complexity of the known patterns in the contexts of any situation or
model. The equation packs can also be used to represent the possible
outlets to explore for new patterns based on perceived priority of their
beginning class of categories, and perceived
attainability/computability. . . mark off potentially infinite patterns
and recursive loops accordingly, after exploring the first few layers
only. Conclusion: Cross-domain relations can be used when depicting,
predicting, finding, manipulating, creating, using, analyzing,
backtracking, tracing, comparing, and reverse engineering alternative
routes to anything, in any field of application.
Examples: (*In the following examples I have defined the "underscore"
character "_" to be the equivalent of the logical statement "OR", which
is equivalent of the English language statement "and/or". I use the "_"
character to link multiple routes to a sub-range, so that the patterns
of the context of that sub-range can all be packaged into one continuous
string. Such a string can then be parsed easily and sorted according to
factors such as: route-scale (number of computable degrees or nodes v.s.
potentially infinite possibilities), route category, route-size, relative
route location, etc.)
Example 1:
In Figure 1., the domain x2 has an alternative route to y1 through
the cross-domain relation n1Cx2Ry1_n1Cx1Cy1 where n1Cx2Ry1=Route k1, and
n1Cx1Cy1=Route k2. ((In my examples I like to use C to represent
bijective relations, and R to represent surjective or injective
relations.) *Note that x1Cy1Cn1=n1Cx1Cy1 ) So in this example k1 and k2
are the known routes to y1, and since we know about more than one route
to y1, we can call k1 and k2 cross-domain relations. Or we can simply
reference that group of routes by the meta-name k1_k2.
Figure 1.
The following are Graph Theory Examples of Cross-Domain Relations:
(**In the following examples, I use R to represent an injective or
surjective route, and use C to represent the continuous directional flow
of a bijective route. I use the symbol "$" to indicate that the routes
on each side of the "$" have a bijective relationship. The "$" symbol is
used when comparing two or more routes. The "=>" symbol means "directly
implies".) Example 2: First have a look at Figure 2. (***Note: in ACB,
(a1Cb1)$(b1Ca1), because BCA exists.)
Figure 2.
Alternative routes to A from C:
ARC=a2Ra2 => a2 = ACCk1
ACBRC=a1Cb1Rb3_ a1Cb1Ca1Cb1Rb3 => ACCk2_ACCk3
ACBCDCC=a1Cb1Cb2Cd1Cd2_A$B$D$C=a1b2d2 => Routes ACCk4 through
(****Many more complex routes beginning at A and terminating at C
exist, and can be very explicitly depicted in this manner.)
Example 3: In Figure 2, by entering each line's node relationship
into a computer in a format such as: [ACB,BCD,DCC,BRC,ARC,ARF,FCE,FCC],
(<----This is the Context.) (Next I'll describe the Patterns in that
Context...) the computer can generate on the fly all of the possible
routes from any given node to any other given node, including curtailed
potentially infinite loop structures (by representing loop structures
via the "$" operator, as noted earlier), and it can explicitly represent
the optimal routes and rank the suboptimal routes using relation and
cross-domain relation notation. Perhaps in some situations, one might
even order the routes by largest perimeter of closed polygonal circuit
region to smallest polygonal circuit perimeter, followed by largest open
leg to smallest open leg, when declaring a context. (*****Where ";" is
the character that indicates the parsing of each closed-circuit
polygonal region or open leg in this notation variation.) This might
look something like: [ARC_CCF_ARF;ARC_ACB_BRC;BCD_DCC_BRC;FCE] ...if the
proportions were correctly represented in my diagram, that is...
Figure 2.
These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3 of possibility
thinking explorations in logic and thought and many of them are
probably flawed so the burden of understanding lies entirely on the
reader and gossip is not allowed.
This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

some thoughts I considered for book 3 of possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought

These are some thoughts that I considered for book 3 of
possibility thinking explorations in logic and thought and
many of them are probably flawed so the burden of understanding
lies entirely on the reader and gossip is not allowed.
This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.
Copyright 2/1/2005 Justin Coslor
Hierarchical Number Theory: Graph Theory Conversions Looking for
patterns in this: Prime odd and even cardinality on the natural number
system (*See diagram). First I listed out the prime numbers all in a
row, separated by commas. Then above them I drew connecting arcs over
top of every other odd prime (of the ordering of primes). Over top of
those I drew an arc over every two of those arcs, sequentially. Then
over top of every sequential pair of those arcs I drew another arc, and
so on. Then I did the same thing below the listing of the numbers, but
this time starting with every other even prime.
Then I sequentially listed out whole lot of natural numbers and did
the same thing to them down below them, except I put both every other
even and every other odd hierarchical ordering of arcs over top of one
another, down below the listing of the natural number system.
Then over top of the that listing of the natural number system I
transposed the hierarchical arc structures from the prime number system;
putting both every other even prime and every other odd prime
hierarchically on top of each other, as I previously described. *Now I
must note that in all of these, in the center of every arc I drew a line
going straight up or down to the center number for that arc. (See
In another example, I took the data, and spread out the numbers all
over the page in an optimal layout, where no no hierarchical lines cross
each other, but the numbers act as nodal terminals where the
hierarchical arches sprout out of. (See Diagram) This made a very
beautiful picture which was very similar to a hypercube that has been
unfolded onto a 2D surface. Graph Theory might be able to be applied to
hierarchical representations that have been re-aligned in this manner,
and in that way axioms from Graph Theory might be able to be translated
into Hierarchical Number Theory.
The center-poles are very significant because when I transposed the
prime number structures onto the natural number system there is a
central non-prime even natural number in the very center directly
between the center-poles of the sequential arc structures of the every
other even prime and every other odd prime of the same hierarchical
level and group number. The incredibly amazing thing is that when
dealing with very large prime numbers, those prime numbers can be
further reduced by representing them as an offset equation of the
central number plus or minus an offset number. The beauty of is, that
the since the central numbers aren't prime, they can be reduced in
parallel as the composite of some prime numbers, that when multiplied
together total that central number; and those prime composite numbers
can be further reduced in parallel by representing each one as their
central number (just like I previously described) plus or minus some
offset number, and so on and so on until you are dealing with very
managably small numbers in a massively parallel computation. The offset
numbers can be similarly crunched down to practically nothing as well.
This very well may solve a large class of N-P completeness problems!!!
Hurray! It could be extremely valuable in encryption, decryption,
heuristics, pattern recognition, random number testing, testing for
primality in the search for new primes, several branches of mathematics
and other hard sciences can benefit from it as well. I discovered pretty
much independently, just playing around with numbers in a coffee shop
one day on 1/31/2005, and elaborated on 2/1/2005, and it was on 2/4/2005
when describing it to a friend who wishes to remain anonymous that I
realized this nifty prime-number crunching technique, a few days after
talking with the Carnegie Mellon University Logic and Computation Grad
Student Seth Casana, actually it was then that I realized that prime
numbers could be represented as an offset equation, and then I figured
out how to reduce the offset equations to sets of smaller and smaller
offset equations. I was showing Seth the diagrams I had drawn and the
patterns in them. He commented that it looked like a Friege lattice or
something. I think After I pointed out the existance of central numbers
in the diagrams Seth told me that sometimes people represent prime
numbers as an offset, and that all he could think of was that they could
be some kind of offset or something. He's a total genius. He's
graduating this year with a thesis on complexity theory and the
philosophy of science. He made a bunch of Flash animations that teach
people epistemology. Copyright 2/1/2005 Justin Coslor Rough draft typed
3/19/2005. This is an entirely new way to perceive of number systems.
It's a way to perceive of them hierarchically. Many mathematical
patterns may ready become apparent for number theorists as larger and
larger maps in this format are drawn and computed. Hopefully some will
be in the prime number system, as perceived through a variety of other
numbering systems and forms of cardinality. (See photos.) Copyright
3/25/2004 Justin Coslor Hierarchical Number Theory Applied to Graph
When every-other-number numerical hierarchies are converted into
dependency charts and then those dependency charts are generalized and
pattern matched to graphs and partial graphs of problems, number theory
can apply to those problems because the hierarchies are based on the
number line of various cardinalities.
I had fun at Go Club yesterday, and while I was at the gym I thought
of another math invention. It was great. I figured out how to convert a
graph into a numerical hierarchy which is based on the number line, so
number theory can apply to the graph, and do so by pattern matching the
graph to the various graphs that are generated by converting numerical
hierarchical representations of the number line into dependency charts.
I don't know if that will make sense without seeing the diagrams, but
it's something like that. The exciting part is that almost any thing,
concept, game, or situation can be represented as a graph, and now, a
bunch of patterns can be translated into being able to apply to them.
Copyright 1/31/2005 Justin Coslor Odd and Even Prime Cardinality First
twenty primes: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53,
59, 61, 67, 71, 73. ------------------- *See the photo of the digram I
drew on the original page. What properties and relations are there
between the odd primes? First ten odd primes: 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 37, 43,
53, 61, 71. First five odd odd primes: 2, 11, 23, 43, 61. First five odd
even primes: 5, 17, 37, 53, 71. First ten even primes: 3, 7, 13, 19, 29,
41, 47, 59, 67, 73. First five even even primes: 7, 19, 41, 59, 73.
First five even odd primes: 3, 13, 29, 47, 67.
-------------------------- prime^(odd^4) = prime^(odd)^(odd)^(odd)^(odd)
= 2, 61, . . prime^(odd^3) = prime^(odd)^(odd)^(odd) = 2, 23, 43, 61, .
. . prime^(odd^2) = prime^(odd)^(odd) = 2, 11, 23, 43, 61, . . .
prime^(odd) = prime^(odd) = 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 37, 43, 53, 61, 71, . . .
prime^(odd)^(even) = 5, 17, 37, 53, 71, . . . prime^(even)^(odd) = 3,
13, 29, 47, 67, . . . ---------------------------------- Copyright
6/10/2005 Justin Coslor HOPS: Hierarchical Offset Prefixes
For counting hierarchically, prefix each set by the following
variables: parity, level, and group (group starting number). Then use
that group starting number as the starting position, and count up to the
number from zero placed at that starting position for representation of
a number prior to HOP computation. I need to develop a calculation
method for that representation.
Have a high-level index which lists all of the group starting
numbers for one of the highest rows, then the rest of the number's group
numbers can be derived for any given level above or below it. All
calculations should access this index.
If I was to look for the pattern "55" in a string of numbers, for
example, I might search linearly and copy all two-digit locations that
start with a "5" into a file, along with the memory address of each,
then throw out all instances that don't contain a "5" as the second
digit. That's one common way to search. But for addresses with a log of
digits, such as extremely large numbers, this is impractical and it's
much easier to do hierarchical level math to check for matches. The
simplest way to do it is a hierarchical parity check + level check +
group # check before proceeding to check both parities of every subgroup
on level 1 of that the offset number. The offset begins at zero at the
end of the prefix's group number, and a micro-hierarchy is built out of
that offset. For large numbers, this is much faster than using big
numbers for everything. Example: Imagine the number 123,456,789 on the
number line. We'll call it "N". N = 9 digits in decimal, and many more
digits in binary. In HOP notation, N = parity.level.group.offset. If I
had a comprehensive index of all the group numbers for a bunch of the
levels I could generate a prefix for this # N, and then I'd only have to
work with a tiny number that is the difference between the closest
highest group and the original number, because chances are the numbers I
apply it to are also offset by that prefix or a nearby prefix. The great
part about hierarchical offset prefixes is that it makes every number
very close to every other number because you just have to jump around
from level to level (vertically) and by group to group (horizontally).
I'll need to ask a programmer to make me a program that generates an
index of group numbers on each level, and the program should also be
able to do conversions between decimal numbers and hierarchical offset
prefixes (HOPs). That way there are only four simple equations necessary
to add, subtract, multiply, divide any two HOP numbers: just perform the
proper conversions between the HOPs' parity, levels, groups, and
Parity conversions are simple, level conversions are just dealing
with powers of 2, group conversions are just multiples of 2 + 1, and
offset conversions just deal with regular mathematics using small
numbers. Copyright 7/7/2005 Justin Coslor Prime Breakdown Lookup Tables
Make a lookup table of all of the prime numbers in level 1
level.group.offset notation, and calculate values for N levels up from
there for each prime in that same level.group.offset notation using the
level 1 database. 2^n = distance between prime 2^(n + m) and prime 2^(n
+ (m + 1)).
Center numbers are generated by picking another prime on that same
level somehow (I'm not positive how yet), and the number in-between them
is the center number. Center number factoring can be done repeatedly so
that, for example, if you wanted to multiply a million digit number by a
million digit number, you could spread that out into several thousand
small number calculations, and in that way primes can be factored using
center numbers + their offsets.
Also, prime number divisor checking can be done laterally in
parallel by representing each divisor in level.group.offset notation and
then converting the computation into a set of parallel processed center
number prime breakdown calculations, which would be significantly faster
than doing traditional divisor checking, especially for very large
divisors, assuming you have a parallel processor computer at your
disposal, or do distributed computing, and do multiprocessing/multi-
threading on each processor as well. Copyright 10/7/2004 Justin Coslor
Prime divisor-checking in parallel processing pattern search. *I assume
that people have always known this information. Prime Numbers are not:
1. Even --> Add all even numbers to the reject filter. 2. Divisible by
other prime numbers --> Try dividing all numbers on the potentially
prime list by all known primes. 3. Multiples of other prime numbers -->
Parallel process: Map out in parallel multiples of known primes up to a
certain range for the scope of the search field, and add those to the
reject filter for that search scope. When you try to divide numbers on
the potentially prime list, all of those divisions can be done in
parallel where each prime divisor is granted its own process, and
multiple numbers on the potentially prime list for that search scope
(actually all of the potentials) could be divisor-checked in parallel,
where every number on the potentially prime list is granted its own
complete set off parallel processes, where each set contains a separate
parallel process for every known prime. So for less than half of the
numbers in the search scope will initially qualify to make it onto the
potentially prime list for divisor checking. And all of the potentially
prime numbers will need to have their divisor check processes augmented
as more primes are discovered in the search scope. The Sieve of
Eratosthenes says that the search scope is in the range of n^2, where n
is the largest known prime. Multiple search scopes can be running
concurrently as well, and smaller divisor checks will always finish much
sooner than the larger ones (sequentially) for all numbers not already
filtered out. 12/24/2004 Justin Coslor Look for Ways to Merge Prime
Number Perception Algorithms I don't yet understand how the Riemann Zeta
Function works, but it might be compatible with some of the mathematics
I came up with for prime numbers (sequential prime number word list
heuristics, active filtering techniques, and every other number
groupings on the primes and on the natural number system). Maybe there
are lots of other prime number perception algorithms that can also be
used in conjunction with my algorithms. ??? -------------- Try applying
my algorithm for greatly simplifying the representation of large prime
numbers to the Riemann Zeta function. My algorithm reduces the
complexity of the patterns between sequential prime numbers to a fixed
five variable word for each pair of sequential primes, and there are
only 81 possible words in all. So as a result of fixing the pattern
representation language to only look for certain qualities that are in
every sequential prime relationship, rather than having infinite
possibilities and not knowing what to look for, patterns will emerge
after not to long into the computer runtime. These patterns can then be
used to predict the range of the scope of future undiscovered prime
numbers, which simplifies the search for the next prime dramatically,
but even more important than that is that my algorithm reduces the
cardinality complexity (the representation) of each prime number
significantly for all primes past a certain point, so in essence, this
language I've invented is a whole new number system, but I'm not sure
how to run computations on it. . .though it can be used with a search
engine as a cataloging method for dealing with extremely large numbers.
My algorithm is in this format: The Nth prime (in relation to the prime
that came before it) = the prime number nearest to [the midpoint of the
Nth prime, whether it be in the upper half or the lower half] : in
relation to the remainder of that "near-midpoint-prime" when subtracted
from the Nth prime. The biggest part always gets listed to the left of
the smaller part (with a ratio sign separating them), and if for the N-
1th prime if the prime prime part got listed on one side and in the next
if it's on the opposite side we take note of that. Next we find the
difference in the two parts and note if it is positive or negative, even
or odd, and lastly we compare it to the N-1th difference to see if it is
up, down, the same, or if N-1's difference is greater than 1 and N's
difference is 1 then we say it has been "reset". If the difference jumps
from 1 to a larger difference in N's difference we say it's "undo
reset". Also, the difference is the absolute value of the
"near-midpoint-prime" minus the remaining amount between it and the Nth
prime. Now each of these qualities can be represented by one letter and
placed in one of four sequential places (categories) to make a four
character word. Numbers could even be used instead of characters, but
that might confuse people (though not computers). *******************
"Prime Sequence Matcher" (to be made into software) *******************
This whole method is Copyright 10/25/2004 Justin Coslor, or even sooner
(most likely 10/17/2004, since that's when it occurred to me. I thought
of this idea to help the whole world and therefore must copyright it to
ensure that nobody hordes or misuses it. The algorithms behind this
method that I have invented are free for academic use by all United
Nations member nations, for fair good intent only towards everyone.
---------------------------------- Download a list of the first 10,000
prime numbers from the Internet, and consider formating it in EMACS to
look something like this: 12 23 35 47 5 11 6 13 . . . 10,000 ____ and
name that file primelist.txt ----------------------- Write a computer
program in C or Java called "PrimeSequenceMatcher" that generates a file
called "primerelations.txt" in the following format based on
calculations done on each of line of the file "primelist.txt".
primelist.txt->PrimeSequenceMatcher->primerelations.txt file:
primerelations.txt 2 3 2:1 diff 1 left, pos, odd, same 3 5 3:2 diff 1
left, pos, even, up 4 7 5:2 diff 3 left, pos, even, same 5 11 7:4 diff 3
LR, neg, even, down(or reset) 6 13 6:5 diff 1 right, pos, even, up(or
undo reset) 7 17 10:7 diff 3 . . . N __ __:__ diff __ For the C program
see pg. 241 to 251 of Kernigan and Ritchie's book, "The C Programming
Language", for functions that might be useful in the program. See the
scans of my journal entries from 10/17/2004, 10/18/2004, and 10/24/2004
for details on the process (*Note, there may be a few errors, and the
paperwork is sort of sloppy for those dates...), and turn it into an
efficient explicit algorithm. **2/22/2005 Update: I wrote out the gist
of the algorithms for the software in my 10/26/2004 journal entry. The
point of the generating the file primerelations.txt is to run the file
through pattern searching algorithms, and build a relational database,
because since the language of the primes's representation in my method
is severely limited, patterns might emerge. Nobody knows whether or not
the patterns will be consistent in predicting the range that the next
primes will be in, but I hope that they will, and it's worth doing the
experiment since that would be a remarkable tool to have discovered. The
patterns may reveal in some cases which is larger: the
nearest-to-midpoint prime or it's corresponding additive part. Where the
sum equals the prime. That would tell you a general range of where the
next prime isn't at. Also the patterns may in some cases have a
predictable "diff" value, which would be immensely valuable in knowing,
so that you can compare it to the values of the prime that came before
it, which would give a fairly close prediction of where the next prime
may lye. By looking at the pattern of the ordering of sentences, we can
possibly tell which side of the ratio sign the nearest-to-midpoint prime
of the next prime we are looking for lies on (and thus know whether it
is in the upper half or the lower half of the search scope). The search
scope for the next prime number is in the range of the largest known
prime squared. We might also be able to in some cases determine how far
from the absolute value of the difference between the nearest-to-
midpoint prime and the prime number we are looking for, that the prime
number that we are looking for is. Copyright 10/26/2004 to 10/27/2004
Justin Coslor I hereby release this idea under The GNU Public License
Agreement (GPL). ************************* Prime Sequence Matcher
Algorithm ************************* (This algorithm is to be turned into
software. See previous journal entries that are related.) Concept
conceived of originally on 10/17/2004 by Justin Coslor Trends in these
sequential prime relation sentences might emerge as lists of these
sentences are formed and parsed for all, or a large chunk of, the known
primes. ------------------------------- The following definitions are
important to know in order to understand the algorithm: nmp = the prime
number nearest to the midpoint of "the Nth prime we are representing
divided by 2" aptnmp = adjacent part of the nmp = prime number we are
representing minus nmp prime/2 = (nmp+aptnmp)/2 = the midpoint of the
prime nmp = (2 * midpoint) - aptnmp aptnmp = (2 * midpoint) - nmp prime
= 2 * midpoint We take notice of whether nmp is greater than, equal to,
or less than aptnmp. diff = |nmp - aptnmp| N prime = nmp:aptnmp or
aptnmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp|
| a | b | c | d |
| left | pos | even | up |
| right | neg | odd | down |
| LR | null | | same |
| RL | | | reset |
| | | | undoreset |
Each possible word can be abbreviated as a symbolic character or
symbolic digit, so the sentence is shortened to the size of a four
character word or four digit number. *Note: "a" only = "same" when prime
= 2 (.....that is, when N = 1) **Note: If "c" ever = "same", then N is
not prime, so halt. "abcd" has less than or equal to 100 possible
sequential prime relation sentences (SPRS)'s, since the representation
is limited by the algorithms listed below. Generate a list of SPRS's for
all known primes and do pattern matching/search algorithms to look for
trends that will limit the search scope. The algorithms might even
include SPRS orderings recursively. --------------------------------
Here are the rules that govern abcd: If nmp > aptnmp, then a = left. If
nmp < aptnmp, then a = right. If nmp = aptnmp, then a = same. If N - 1's
"a" = left, and N's "a" = right, then set N's "a" = LR. If N - 1's "a" =
right, and N's "a" = left, then set N's a = RL. If N's nmp - (N - 1)'s
nmp > 0, then b = pos. If N's nmp - (N - 1)'s nmp < 0, then b = neg. If
C = same, then b = null. Meaning, if N's nmp - (N-1)'s nmp = 0, then b=
null. If N's nmp - (N-1)'s nmp is an even integer, then c = even. If N's
nmp - (N - 1)'s nmp is an odd integer, then c = odd. If N's diff > (N -
1)'s diff, then d = up. If N's diff < (N - 1)'s diff, then d = down. If
N's diff = (N-1)'s diff, then d = same. If (N - 1)'s diff > 1 and N's
diff = 1, then d = reset. If (N - 1)'s diff = 1 and N's diff > 1, then d
= undoreset. [......But maybe when (N - 1)'s diff and N's diff = either
1 or 3, then d would also = up, or d = down.] If a = left or RL, then N
prime = nmp:aptnmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp| If a = right or LR, then N
prime = aptnmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp| If a = same, then N prime =
nmp:nmp, diff = |nmp - aptnmp|, but only when N prime = N.
----------------------------------- Copyright 10/24/2004 Justin Coslor
Prime number patterns based on a ratio balance of the largest
near-midpoint prime number and the non-prime combinations of factors in
the remainder: An overlay of symmetries describe prime number patterns
based on a ratio balance of the largest near midpoint prime number and
the non-prime combinations of factors in the remainder. This is to cut
down the search space for the next prime number, by guessing at what
range to search the prime in first, using this data.
For instance, we might describe the prime number 67 geometrically by
layering the prime number 31 under the remainder 36, which has the
modulo binary symmetry equivalency of the pattern 2*2*3*3. We always put
the largest number on top in our description, regardless of whether it
is prime or non-prime, because this ordering will be of importance in
our sentence description of that prime.
We describe the sentence in relation to how we described the prime
number that came before it. For instance, we described 61 as 61=31:2*3*5
ratio (the larger composite always goes on the left of the ratio symbol,
because it will be important to note which side the prime number ends up
on), difference of 1 (difference shows how far from the center the
near-mid prime lies. 31-30=1), right->left (this changing of sides is
important to note because it describes which side of the midpoint of the
prime that the nearest-to-midpoint prime lies on or has moved to, in
terms of the ratio symbol) odd same (this describes whether the
nearest-to-midpoint primes of two prime numbers have a difference that
is even, odd, or if they have the same nearest-to-midpoint primes.)
67=2*2*3*3:31 ratio, difference of 5, left->right same undo last reset.
By looking at the pattern in the sentence descriptions (180 possible
sentences), we can tell which side of the ratio sign that the next
prime's nearest-to-midpoint prime lies on, which tells you which half of
the search scope the next prime lies in, which might cut the
computational task in finding the next finding that next prime number in
half or more. A computer program to generate these sentences can be
written for doing the pattern matching. In the prime number 67 example,
the part that says "same", refers to whether the nearest-to- midpoint
primes of two prime numbers have a difference that is even, odd, or if
they have the same nearest-to-midpoint primes. I threw in the "reset to
1" thing just because it probably occurs a lot, then there's also the
infamous "undo-from-last-reset" which it brings the difference from 1
back to where it was previously at. Copyright 10/5/2004 Justin Coslor
Prime Numbers in Geometry continued . . . Modulo Binary I think that if
prime numbers can be expressed geometrically as ratios there might be a
geometric shortcut to determining if a number is prime or maybe
non-prime. Prime numbers can be represented symmetrically, but not with
colored partitions. (*See diagrams.) Here's a new kind of binary code
that I invented, based on the method of partitioning a circle and
alternately coloring and grouping the equiangled symmetrical partitions
of non-prime partition sections. (*Note, since prime numbers don't have
symmetrical equiangled partitions, use the center-number + offset
converted into modulo binary (see my 2/4/2005 idea and the 2/1/2005
diagram I drew for prime odd and even cardinality and data compression
on the prime numbers)). Modulo binary: *Based on geometric symmetry
ratios. **I may not have been very consistent with my numbering scheme
here, but you should be in final draft version. 1=1 2=11 3=111 4=1010
5=11111 6=110110 or 101010 7=1111111 8=10101010 or 11101110 9=110110110
10=1010101010 11=11111111111 12=110110110110 13=1111111111111
14=10101010101010 15=10110,10110,10110 16=1010,1010,1010,1010 Find a
better way of doing this that might incorporate my prime center number +
offset representation of the primes and non-primes. This is an entirely
new way of counting, so try to make it scalable, and calculatable.
Secondary Levels of Modulo Binary: (*This is just experimental. . .I
based these secondary levels on the first level numbers that are
multiples of these.) 0=00 1=1 2=10 3=110 4=2+2=1010 5=10110 6=3+3=110110
or 111000 or 101101 7= 8=4+4=10101010 9=3+3+3=110110110 10=1010101010
11= 12=3+3+3+3=110110110110 13= 14=10101010101010101010
15=5+5+5=101101011010110 16=4+4+4+4=1010101010101010 Draw a 49 section
and 56 section circle, and look for symmetries to figure out how best to
represent the number 7 in the secondary layer of modulo binary. There
needs to be a stop bit too. Maybe 00 or something, and always start
numbers with a 1. The numbers on through ten should be sufficient for
converting partially from base 10. Where calculations would still be
done in base 10, but using modulo binary representations of each digit.
For encryption obfuscation and stuff. It seems that for even numbers,
the half-circle symmetries rotate between 0,0 across the circle for
numbers that are odd when divided by two, and the numbers that are odd
when divided by two have alternate-half 0,0 symmetry. But numbers that
are prime when divided by two have middle- across 0,1 symmetry.
Copyright 9/30/2004 Justin Coslor Prime Numbers in Geometry *Turn this
idea into a Design Science paper entitled "Patterns in prime composite
partition coloring structures". In the paper, relate these discoveries
to the periodic table. (All prime numbers can be represented as unique
symmetries in Geometry.) 1/1 = 0 division lines 1/2 = 1 division lines
1/3 = 3 division lines 1/4 = 2 division lines 1/5 = 5 division lines 1/6
= 5 division lines = one 1/2 division line and two 1/3 division lines on
each half circle. 1/7 = 7 division lines 1/8 = 4 division lines 1/9 =
_____ division lines . . . Or maybe count by partition sections rather
than division lines. . . How do I write an algorithm or computer program
that counts how many division lines there are in a symmetrically
equiangled partitioning of a circle, where if two division lines that
meet in the middle (as all division lines do) form a straight line they
would only count as one line and not two? Generate a sequential list of
values to find their number of division lines, and see if there is any
pattern in the non-prime division line numbers (i.e. 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/9,
1/10, 1/12, ...) that might be able to be related to the process of
determining or discovering which divisions are prime, or the sequence of
the prime numbers (1/2, 1/3, 1/5, 1/7, 1/11, 1/13, 1/17, ...). 10/5/2004
Justin Coslor As it turns out, there is a pattern in the non-prime
division lines that partition a circle. The equiangled symmetry
partition patterns look like stacks of prime composites layered on top
of one another like the Tower of Hanoi computer game, where each layer's
non-prime symmetry pattern can be colored using it's own colors in an
on-off configuration around the circle (See diagrams.). Prime layers
can't be colored in an on-off pattern symmetrically if the partitions
remain equiangled, because there would be two adjacent partitions
somewhere in the circle of the same color, and that's not symmetrical.
Copyright 7/25/2005 Justin Coslor Geometry of the Numberline: Pictograms
and Polygons. (See diagrams)
Obtain a list of sequential prime numbers. Then draw a pictogram
chart for each number on graph paper, with the base 10 digits 1 through
10 on the Y-axis, and on the X-axis of each pictogram the first column
is the 1's column, the second column is the 10's column, the third
columns is the 100's column, etc. Then plot the points for each digit of
the prime number you're representing, and connect the lines
sequentially. That pictogram is then the exact unique base-10
geometrical representation of that particular prime number (and it can
be done for non-prime numbers too). Another way to make the pictogram
for a number is to plot the points as described, but then connect the
points to form a maximum surface area polygon, because when you do that,
that unique polygon exactly describes that particular number when it's
listed in its original orientation. inside the base-10 graph paper
border that uses the minimum amount of X-axis boxes necessary to convey
the picture, and pictograms are always bordered on the canvas 10 boxes
high in base 10. Other bases can be used too for different sets of
pictograms. What does the pictogram for a given number look like in
other bases? We can connect the dots to make a polygon too, that is
exactly the specific representation in its proper orientation of that
particular unique number represented in that base. Also I wonder what
the pictograms and polygon pictograms look like when represented in
polar coordinates?
These pictogram patterns might show up a lot in nature and artwork,
and it'd be interesting to do a mathematical study of photos and
artwork, where each polygon that matches gets bordered by the border of
it's particular matching pictogram polygon in whatever base it happens
to be in, and pictures might be representable as layers of these
numerical pictograms, spread out all over the canvas overlapping and
all, and maybe partially hidden for some. You could in that way make a
coordinate system in which to calculate the positions and layerings of
the numerical pictograms that show up within the border of the photo or
frame of the artwork, and it could even be a form of steganometry when
intentionally layered into photos and artwork, for cryptography and art.
Summing multiple vertexes of numerical polygon pictograms could also
be used as a technique that would be useful for surjectively distorting
sums of large numbers. That too might have applications in cryptography
and computer vector artwork.
See the diagram of the base 10 polar coordinate pictogram
representation of the number 13,063. With polar notation, as with
Cartesian Coordinate System notation of the pictograms, it's important
to note where the reference point is, and what base it's in, and whether
it's on a polar coordinate system or Cartesian Coordinate System. In
polar coordinates, you need to know where the center point is in
relation to the polygon. . .no I'm wrong, it can be calculated s long as
no vertexes lie in a line. In all polygon representations, the edge
needs to touch all vertexes. Copyright 7/27/2005 Justin Coslor Combining
level.group.offset hierarchical representation with base N pictogram
representation of numbers (See diagrams)
level.group offset notation is (baseN^level)*group+offset Pictogram
notation is as described previously.
If you take the pictogram shape out of context and orient it
differently it could mean a lot of different things, but if you know the
orientation (you can calculate the spacing of the vertexes in different
orientations to find the correct orientation, but you know must also
know what base the number is in to begin with) then you can decipher
what number the polygon represents. You must know what the base is
because it could be of an enormous base. . .you must also know an anchor
point for lining it up with the XY border of the number line context in
that base because it could be a number shape floating inside a enormous
base for all anyone knows, with that anchor point. Also, multiple
numbers on the same straight line can be confusing unless they are
clearly marked as vertexes. If multiple polygons are intersecting, then
they could represent a matrix equation of all of those numbers. Or if
there are three or four polygons connected to each other by a line or a
single vertex, then the three pictograms might represent the three or
four parts of a large or small level.group.offset number in a particular
base. Pictograms connected in level.group offset notation would still
need to be independently rotated into their correct orientation, and
you'd need to know their anchor points and base, but you could very
simply represent an unfathomably enormous number that way in just a tiny
little drawing. Also, numbers might represent words in a dictionary or
letters of an alphabet. This is literally the most concise way to
represent unfathomably enormous numbers that possibly anyone has ever
imagined. Ever. You could write a computer program that would draw and
randomize these drawings as a translation from a dictionary/language set
and word processor document. They could decoded in the reverse process
by people who know the anchor point keys and base keys for each polygon.
You can make the drawings as a subtle off-white color blended into the
white part of the background of a picture, and transmit enormous
documents as a single tiny little picture that just needs some
calculating and keys to decode. Different polygon pictograms, which each
could represent a string of numbers, which can be partitioned into
sections that each represents a word or character, could each be drawn
in a different color. So polygons that are in different colors and
different layers in a haphazard stack, could be organized, where the
color of multiple polygons, means they are part of the same document
string, and the layering of the polygons indicates the order that the
documents are to be read in. Copyright 7/28/2005 Justin Coslor Optimal
Data Compression: Geometric Numberline Pictograms
If each polygon is represented using a different color, you don't
even need to draw the lines that connect the vertexes, so that you can
cram as many polygons as possible onto the canvas. In each polygon, the
number of vertexes is the number of digits in whatever base it's being
represented in. Large bases will mean larger image dimensions, but will
allow for really small representations of large numbers. Ideally one
should only use a particular color on one polygon once. For optimal
representation, one should represent each number in a base that is as
close to the number of digits in that base as possible. If you always do
that, then you won't have to know what base the polygon is represented
in to begin with (because it can be calculated). However, you will still
need to know the starting vertex or another anchor point to figure out
which orientation the polygon is to be perceived of in. On polar
coordinate polygon pictograms, you will just need to know the center
point and a reference point such as where the zero mark is, as well as
what base the polygon is represented in (in most cases). Hierarchical
level.group.offset data compression techniques or other data compression
techniques can also be used. Copyright 7/24/2005 Justin Coslor Prime
Inversion Charts (See diagram) Make a conversion list of the sequential
prime numbers, where each number (prime 1 through the N'th prime) is
inverted so that the least significant digit is now the most significant
digit, and the most significant digit is now the least significant digit
(ones column stays in the ones column, but the 10's column gets put in
the 10ths column on the other side of the decimal point, same with
hundreds, etc.). So you have a graph that goes from 0 through 10 on the
Y-axis, and 0 through N along the X axis, and you just plot the points
for prime 1 through the N'th prime and connect the dots sequentially.
Also, you can convert this into a binary string by making it so that if
any prime is higher up on the Y-axis than the prime before it, it
becomes a 1, and if it is less than the prime before it, it becomes a 0.
Then you can look for patterns in that. I noticed many recurring binary
string patterns in that sequence, as well as many pallendrome string
patterns in that representation (and I only looked at the first couple
of numbers, so there might be something to it). 10/8/2004 Justin Coslor
Classical Algebra (textbook notes) Pg. 157 of Classical Algebra fourth
edition says: The Prime Number Theorem: In the interval of 1 through X,
there are about X/LOGeX primes in this interval. P=X/LOGeX scope: (1,X)
or something. The book claims that they cannot factor 200 digit primes
yet. In 1999 Nayan Hajratwala found a record new prime 2^6972593 - 1
with his PC. It's a Mersenne Prime over 2 million digits long. This book
deals a lot with encryption. I believe that nothing is 100% secure
except for the potential for a delay. On pg. 39 it says "There is no
known efficient procedure for finding prime numbers." On pg. 157 it
directly contradicts that statement by saying: "There are efficient
methods for finding very large prime numbers." The process I described
in my 10/7/2004 journal entryis like the sieve of Eratosthenes, except
my method goes a step farther in making a continuously augmented filter
list of divisor multiplicants not to bother checking, while
simultaneously running the Sieve of Eratosthenes in a massive
synchronously parallel computational process. Prime numbers are useful
for use in pattern search algorithms that operate in abductive and
deductive reasoning engines (systems), which can be used to explore and
grow and help solve problems and provide new opportunities and to invent
things and do science simulations far beyond human capability. (Pg. 40)
Theorem: An integer x>1 is either prime or contains a prime factor
<=sqrt(x). Proof: x=ab where a and b are positive integers between 1 and
x. Since P is the smallest prime factor, a>=p, b>=p and x=ab>=p^2. Hence
p<=sqrt(x). Example: If x=10 a=2 and b=5. p=3 p^2=9 so 10=2*5>=9. So
factors of x are within the scope of (2, sqrt(x)) or else it's prime.
a^2>=b^2. x^2>=p^4. x^2/p^4=big. Try converting Fermat's Little Theorem
and other corollaries into geometry symmetries and modulo binary format.
The propositions in Modern Algebra about modulo might only hold for two-
dimensional arithmetic, but if you add a 3rd dimension the rotations are
countable as periods on a spiral, which when viewed from a perpendicular
side-view looks like a 2-dimensional waveform. 9/26/2004 Justin Coslor
Privacy True privacy may not be possible, but the best that we can hope
for is a long enough delay in recognition of observations to have enough
time and patience to put things intot the perspective of a more
understanding context. Copyright 9/17/2004 Justin Coslor A Simple,
Concise, Encryption Syntax. This can be one layer of an encryption, that
can be the foundation of a concise syntax. *Important: The example does
not do this, but in practice, if you plan on using this kind of
encryption more than once, then be sure to generate a random unique
binary string for each letter of the alphabet, and make each X digits
long. Then generate a random binary string that is N times as long as
the length of your message to be sent, and append unique sequential
pieces (of equal length) of this random binary string to the right of
each character's binary representation. The remote parts should have
lots of securely acquired random unique alphabet/random binary string
pairs, such as on a DVD that twas delivered by hand. In long messages,
never use the same alphabet's character(s) more than once but rotate to
the next binary character representation on the DVD sequentially. Here's
the example alphabet (note that you can of course choose your own
alphabetic representation as long as it is logically consistent): a
010101 b 011001 c 011101 d 100001 e 100101 f 101001 g 110001 h 110101 i
111001 --------- j 010110 k 011010 l 011110 m 100010 n 100110 o 101010 p
110010 q 110110 r 111010 --------- s 010111 t 011011 u 011111 v 100011 w
100111 x 101011 y 110011 z 110111 space 111011 ------------------------
EXAMPLE: "peace brother" can be encoded like this using that particular
------------------------ 2/18/2005 Update by Justin Coslor Well, I
forgot how to break my own code. Imagine that! I think it had something
to do with making up a random string that was of a length that is
divisible by the number of letters in the alphabet, yet is of equal
bit-length to the bit-translated message, so that you know how long the
message is, and you know how many bits it takes to represent each
character in the alphabet. Then systematically mix in the random bits
with the bits in the encoded message. In my alphabet I used 27
characters that were each six bits in length; and in my example, my
message was 13 characters long, 11 of which were unique. I seriously
have no idea what I was thinking when I wrote this example, but at least
my alphabet I do understand, and it's pretty concise, and sufficiently
obscured for some purposes. Copyright 6/30/2005 Justin Coslor Automatic
Systems (See Diagram) There is 2D, and there are 3D snapshots
represented in 2D, and there is the model-theory approach of making
graphs and flowcharts, but why not add dimensional metrics to graph
diagrams to represent systems more accurately?
--------------------------------- Atomic Elements -> Mixing pot ->
Distillation/Recombination: A->B->C->D->E -> State Machine Output
Display (Active Graphing = real-time) -> Output Parsing and calculation
of refinements (Empirical) -> Set of contextually adaptive relations:
R1->A, R2->B, R3->C, R4->D, R5->E. -------------------------------------
Copyright 5/11/2005 Justin Coslor How to combine sequences: Draw a set
of Cartesian coordinate system axis, and on the x axis mark off the
points for one sequence, and on the y axis mark off the points for the
sequence you want to combine with it (and if you have three sequences
you want to combine, mark off the third sequence on the z-axis. ...for
more than 3 sequences, use linear algebra). Next draw a box between the
origin and the first point on each sequence; then calculate the length
of the diagonal. Then do the same for the next point in each sequence
and calculate the length of the diagonal. Eventually you will have a
unique sequence that is representative of all of the different sequences
that you combined into one in this manner. For instance, you could
generate a sequence that is the combination of the prime numbers and the
Fibonacci Sequence. In fact, the prime numbers might be a combination of
two or more other sequences in this manner, for all I know. 1/4/2005
Justin Coslor Notes from the book "Connections: The Geometric Bridge
Between Art and Science" + some ideas.
In a meeting with Nehru in India in 1958 he said "The problem of a
comprehensive design science is to isolate specific instances of the
pattern of a general, cosmic energy system and turn these to human use."
The topic of design science was started by architect, designer, and
inventor Buckminster Fuller. The chemical physicist Arthur Loeb, who
considers design science to be the grammar of space. Buy that book, as
well as the book "The Undecidable" by Martin Davis.
Chemist Istvan Hergittai edited two large books on symmetry. He also
edits the journals "symmetry" and "space structures" where I could
submit my paper on the geometry of prime numbers and patterns in
composite partition coloring structures. *Also, send it to Physical
Science Review to solicit scientific applications of my discovery. Send
it to some math journals too. Again, the paper I want to write is called
"Patterns in prime composite partition coloring structures", and it will
be based on that journal entry I had about symmetrically dividing up a
circle into partitions, then labeling the alternating patterns in the
symmetries using individual colors for each primary pattern in the
stack, similar to that game "The Tower of Hanoi". Study the writings of
Thales (Teacher of Pythagoras), who is known as the father of Greek
mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy, and who visited Egypt to learn
its secrets [Turnbull, 1961 "The Great Mathematicians], [Gorman, 1979
Pythagoras - A Life] ---------------------------- Connections page 11.
Figure 1.7 The Ptolemaic scale based on the primes 2, 3, and 5. C=1,
D=8/9, E=4/5, F=3/4, G=2/3, A=3/5, B=8/15, C=1/2.
------------------------- Figure 1.6 The Pythagorean scale derived from
the primes 2 and 3: C=1, space=8/9, D=8/9, space=8/9, E=64/81,
space=243/256, F=3/4, space=8/9, G=2/3, space=8/9, A=16/27, space=8/9,
B=128/243, space=243/256, C'=1/2, space=8/9, D'=4/9, space=8/9,
E'=32/81, space=243/256, F'=3/8, space=8/9, G'=1/3, space=8/9, A'=8/27,
space=8/9, B'=64/243, space=243/256, C"=1/4. ----------------- *1/4/2005
Someday try writing an electronic music song that makes vivid use of
parallel mathematical algorithms based on the prime numbers, actually
come to think of it, this concept was presented in an episode of Star
Trek Voyager. ---------------------------- 8/26/2004 Justin Coslor Notes
(pg. 1) These are my notes on three papers contributed to the MIT
Encyclopedias of Cognitive Science by Wilfried Sieg in July 1997: Report
CMU-PHIL-79, Philosophy, Methodology, Logic. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
15213-3890. - Formal Systems - Church Turing Thesis - Godel's Theorems
-------------------------------- Notes on Wilfried Sieg's "Properties of
Formal Systems" paper: Euclid's Elements -> axiomatic-deductive method.
Formal Systems = "Mechanical" regimentation of the inference steps along
with only syntactic statements described in a precise symbolic language
and a logical calculus, both of which must be recursive (by the
Church-Turing Thesis). Meaning Formal Systems use just the syntax of
symbolic word statements (not their meaning), recursive logical
calculus, and recursive symbolic definitions of each word.
Frege in 1879: "a symbolic language (with relations and
quantifiers)" + an adequate logical calculus -> the means for the
completely formal representation of mathematical proofs. Fregean frame
-> mathematical logic ->Whitehead & Russell's "Principia Mathematica" ->
metamathematical perspective <- Hilbert's "Grundlagen der Geometrie"
1899 *metamathematical perspective -> Hilbert& Bernays "Die Prizipien
der Mathematik" lectures 1917- 1918 -> first order logic = central
language + made a suitable logical calculus. Questions raised:
Completeness, consistency, decidability. Still active. Lots of progress
has been made in these areas since then. **Hilbert & Bernays "Die
Prizipien der Mathematik" lectures 1917-1918 -> mathematical logic.
Kinds of completeness: Quasi-empirical completeness of Zermelo Fraenkel
set theory, syntactic completeness of formal theories, and semantic
completeness = all statements true in all models. - Sentential logic
proved complete by Hilbert and Bernays (1918) and Post (1921). - First
order logic proved complete by Godel (1930). "If every finite subset of
a system has a model, so does the systems." But first order logic has
some non-standard models.
Hilbert's Entsheidungsproblem proved undecidable by Church & Turing.
It was the decision problem for first order logic. So the "decision
problem" proved undecidable, but it lead to recursion theoretic
complexity of sets, which lead to classification of 1. arithmetical, 2.
hyper-arithmetical, and 3. analytical hierarchies. It later lead to
computational complexity classes. So they couldn't prove what could be
decided in first order logic, but they could classify the complexity of
modes of computation using first order logic. ---In first order logic,
one can classify the empirical and computational complexity of syntactic
configurations whose formulas and proofs are effectively decidable by a
Turing Machine. I'm not positive about this next part. ...but, such
syntactic configurations (aka software that eventually halts) are
considered to be formed systems. In other words, ,one cannot classify
the empirical and computational complexity of software that never halts
(or hasn't halted), using first order logic. The Entsheidungsproblem
(First order logic Decision Problem) resulted in model theory, proof
theory, and computability thoery. It required "effective methods" of
decision making to be precisely defined. Or rather, it required
effective methods of characterizing what could or couldn't be decided in
first-order logic.
The proof of the completeness theorem resulted in the relativity of
"being countable" which in turn resulted in the Skolem paradox. ***I
believe that paradoxes only occur when the context of a logic is
incomplete or when it's foundations scope is not broad enough.
Semantic arguments in geometry yielded "Relative Consistency
Proofs". Hilbert used "finitist means" to establish the consistency of
formal systems. Ackerman, von Neumann, and Herbrand used a very
restricted induction principle to establish the consistency of number
theory. Modern proof theory used "constructivist" means to prove
significant parts of analysis. Insights have been gained into the
"normal form" of proofs in sequent and natural deduction calculi. So
they all wanted to map the spectrum of unbreakable reason. Godel firmly
believed that the term "formal system' or 'formalism' should never be
used for anything but software that halts.
------------------------------------- 9/1/2004 Justin Coslor Notes on
Wilfried Sieg's "Church-Turing Thesis" paper:
Church re-defined the term "effective calculable function" (of
positive integers) with the mathematically precise term "recursive
function". Kleen used the term "recursive" in "Introduction to
Metamathematics, in 1952. Turing independently suggested identifying
"effectively calculable functions" as functions whose values can be
computed (mechanically) using a Turing Machine.Turing & Church's theses
were, in effect, equivalent, and so jointly they are referred to as the
Church-Turing Thesis. Metamathematics takes formally presented theories
as objects of mathematical study (Hilbert 1904), and it's been pursued
since the 1920's, which led to precisely characterizing the class of
effective procedures, which led to the Entsheidungsproblem, which was
solved negatively relative to recursion (****but what about for
non-recursive systems?). Metamathematics also led to Godel's
Incompleteness Theorems (1931), which apply to all formal systems, like
type theory of Principia Mathematica or Zermalo-Fraenkel Set Theory,
etc. Effective Computability: So it seems like they all wanted
infallable systtems (formal systems), and the were convinced that the
way to get there required a precise definition of effective
calculability. Church and Kleen thought it was equivalent to
lambda-definability, and later prove that lambda-definability is
equivalent to recursiveness (1935-1936).
Turing thought effective calculability could be defined as anything
that can be calculated on a Turing Machine (1936). Godel defined the
concept of a (general) recursive function using an equational calculus,
but was not convinced that all effectively calculable functions would
fall under it. Post (*my favorite definition...*) in 1936 made a model
that is strikingly similar to Turing's, but didn't provide any analysis
in support of the generality of his model. But Post did suggest
verifying formal theories by investigating ever wider formulations and
reducing them to his basic formulation. He considered this method of
identifying/defining effectively calculable functions as a working
Post's method is strikingly similar to my friend Andrew J.
Dougherty's thesis of artificial intelligence, which is that at a
certain point, the compactness of a set of functions is maximized
through optimization and at that point, the complexity of their
informational content plateaus, unless you keep adding new functions. So
his solution to Artificial Intelligence is to assimilate all of the
known useful functions in the world, and optimize them to the plateau
point of complexity (put the information in lowest terms), and to then
use that condensed information set/tool in exploring for new functions
to add, so that the rich depth of the problem solving and information
seeking technology can continually improve past any plateau points.
(in 1939) Hilbert and Bernays showed that deductively formalized
functions require that their proof predicates to be primitive recursive.
Such "reconable" functions are recursive and can be evaluated in a very
restricted number of theoretic formalism. Godel emphasized that
provability and definability depend on the formalism considered. Godel
also emphasized that recursiveness or computability have an absoluteness
property not shared by provability or definability, and other
metamathematical notions.
My theory is a bottom-up approach for pattern discovery and adaptive
reconceptualization between the domains of different contexts, and can
provide the theoretical framework for abductive reaasoning, necessary
for the application of my friend Andrew J. Dougherty's thesis. Perhaps
my theories could be abductively formalized? My theories do not require
empiricism (deduction), to produce new elements that are
primitive-recursive to produce new elements that are primitive-recursive
(circular-reasoning-based/symbolic/repetition-based) predicates to be
used in building and calculating statements and structures, that can add
new information. To me, "meaning" implies having an "appreciation" for
the information and functions and relations, at least in part; and that
this "appreciation" is obtained through recognition of the information
(and functions' and relations') utility or relative utility via use or
simulation experience within partially- defined contexts. I say
"partially-defined" contexts because by Godel's Incompleteness Theorems,
an all-encompassing ultimate context cannot be completely defined since
the definition itself (and it's definer would have to be part of that
context, which isn't possible because it would have to be infinitely
recursive and thus never fully representable.
Turing invented a mechanical method for operating symbolically. His
invention's concepts provided the mechanical means for running
simulations. Andrew J. Dougherty and I have created the concepts for
mechanically creating new simulations to run until all possible
simulations that can be created in good intention, that are helpful and
fair for all, exceeds the number of such programs that can be possibly
used in all of existence, in all time frames forever, God willing.
Turing was a uniter not a divider and he demanded immediate
recognizability of symbolic configurations, so that basic computation
steps need not be further subdivided. *But there are limitations in
taking input at face value. Sieg in 19944, inspired by Turing's 1936
paper formulated the following boundedness conditions and locality
limitations of computors: (B.1) there is a fixed bound for the number of
symbolic configurations a computor can immediately recognize; (B.2)
there is a fixed bound for the number of a computor's internal states
that need to be taken into account; -- therefore he can carry out only
finitely many different operations. These operations are restricted by
the following locality conditions: (L.1) only elements of observed
configurations can be changed. (L.2) the computor can shift his
attention from one symbolic configuration to another only if the second
is within a bounded distance from the first. *Humans are capable of more
than just mechanical processes. ---------------------------------- Notes
on Wilfried Sieg's "Godel's Theorems" paper: Kurt Godel established a
number of absolutely essential facts: - completeness of first order
logic - relative consistency of the axiom of choice - generalized
continuum hypothesis - (And relevant to the foundations of mathematics:)
*His two Incompleteness Theorems (a.k.a. Godel's Theorems.
In the early 20th century dramatic development of logic in the
context of deep problems in the foundations in mathematics provided for
the first time the means to reflect mathematical practice in formal
theories. 1. - One question asked was: "Is there a formal theory such
that mathematical truth is co- extensive with provability in that
theory?" (Possibly... See Russell's type theory P of Principia
Mathematica and axiomatic set theory as formulated by Zermelo...) - From
Hilbert's research around 1920 another question emerged: 2. "Is the
consistency of mathematics in its formalized presentation provable by
restricted mathematical, so-called finitist means? *To summarize
informally: 1. Is truth co-extensive with provability? 2. Is consistency
provable by finitist means? Godel proved the second question to be
negative for the case of formalizably finitist means. Godel's
Incompleteness theorems: - If P is consistent (thus recursive), then
there is a sentence sigma in the language of P, such that neither sigma
nor its negation not-sigma is provable in P. Sigma is thus independent
of P. (Is sigma the dohnut hole of reason that fits into the center of
the circular reasoning (into the center of, but independent from the
recursion)?) - If P is consistent, then cons, the statement in the
language of P that expresses the consistency of P, is not provable in P.
Actually Godel's second theorem claims the unprovability of that second
(meta) mathematical meaningful statement noted on pg. 7. Godel's first
incompleteness theorem's purpose is to actually demonstrate that some
syntactically true statements can be semantically false. He possibly did
this to show that formal theories are not adequate by themselves to
fully describe true knowledge, at least with knowledge that is
represented by numbers, that is. It illustrates how it is possible to
lie with numbers. In other words, syntax and semantics are mutually
exclusive, and Godel's second Incompleteness Theorem demonstrates that.
In other words the symbolically representative nature of language makes
it possible to lie and misinterpret.
Godel liked to explain how every consistently formal system that
contains a certain amount of number theory can be rigorously proven to
contain undecidably arithmetical propositions, including proving that
the consistency of systems within such a system is non-demonstratable;
and that this can all be proven using a Turing Machine.
Godel thought "the human mind (even within the realm of pure
mathematics) infinitely surpasses the power of any finite machine."
**But what about massively parallel Quantum supercomputers? Keep in mind
the boundary and limitation conditions that Sieg noted in his
Church-Turing Thesis paper of dimensional minds in relatable
timelines... (Computors). 8/26/2004 Justin Coslor Concepts that I'll
need to study to better understand logic and computation: Readings:
Euclid's Elements Principia Mathematica Completeness: quasi-empirical
completeness, syntactic completeness, semantic completeness consistency
decidability recursion theoretic complexity of sets classification
hierarchies computational complexity classes modes of computation model
theory proof theory computability theory relative consistency proofs
consistency of formal systems consistency of number theory modern proof
theory constructivist proofs semantic arguments in geometry analysis
sequent and natural deduction calculi recursive functions
Metamathematics Type Theory Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory effective
computability Lambda-definability investigating ever-wider formulations
primitive recursive proof predicates provability and definability
meaning: [11/11/2004 Justin Coslor -- Meaning depends on goal-subjective
relative utility. In other words, Experience leading up to perspective
filters and perspective relational association buffers.] utility and
relative utility simulation deductively formalized functions boundedness
conditions locality limitations formalizably finitist means choice,
continuum, foundations syntax & semantics incompleteness undecidable
arithmetical propositions hierarchies: arithmetical, hyper-arithmetical
(is hyper-arithmetical where all of the nodes' relations are able to be
retranslated to the perspective of any particular node?), and analytical
hierarchies hierarchical complexity computational complexity Graph
Theory Knowledge Representation Epistemology Pattern Search,
Recognition, Storage, and retrieval Appreciation
This is an unfinished writing and I disclaim all liability.

Book 2 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.
Book II:
Networks of Questions
2/28/98 Everything I know about questions
6/17/2005 Question Networks: option questions v.s. spectrum questions
5/25/2005 Question expectation templates and question context intersections
5/24/2005 Question asking systems
5/10/2005 Re-defining basic question thought forms
5/11/2005 Writing Tips
10/20/2004 Regarding Education
6/1/2005 Choice
5/31/2005 Creativity
5/28/2005 Intuitions
8/13/2005 Ideas and Probabilities

Book II:
Networks of Questions
Everything I know about questions.
By Justin Coslor
(These ideas are all copyright by Justin Coslor on their respective
dates. I very much want to share these ideas, but I may want to work in
collaboration on related projects, so I withhold all intellectual
property rights to this material. The work in this document is just a
small selection of my ideas. Please do not steal my work via Tempest
equipment or by any other means. If you are interested (due to tempest
surveillance since I haven't shown anyone this,) and wish to
collaborate, feel free to contact me at the above email address, and I
will keep your technological secrets as long as you don't exploit me.
Also, I'm egalitarian and I don't build weapons. Let's get that strait.
Realize, I'm living on food stamps and measley disability stipend that
barely pays the rent.) 2/28/98 Standard Inferences About actions: who
what happened why when where how. Most everything else just uses one or
a couple of these inferences. 10/6/2003 Query As far as questions are
concerned... It seems like there are yes/no questions, option questions,
spectrum questions, ind-depth (and short) descriptive questions,
computational questions, essay questions, etc. Some are subjective (of
opinion), some are neutral, some are definitive, some are explanatory,
some are geometrical/visual, some are mathematical, some are of finite
domain, some are impossible, some are biased, some are traps, some are
falsely/inaccurately stated, some are open-ended, some are
meaningless/pointless, some are direct, some are indirect, some are of
infinite domain (a snapshot), some are time/space sensitive, some are
quantitative, some are qualitative, some are recursive. 8/1/2004
Questions (a re-write) Questions can be used to define agendas; or
indicate knowledge; gaps; or inquire about attributes, associations, and
relations; or speculate; or to demonstrate something or make a
statement; or be used for introspection or inspection; or to infer,
deduce, or search for the elements of a pattern or context or its
system(s) or relations; or to map assumptions (an assumption being the
context that defines a set of beliefs); or to analyze and re-analyze
data and information. 3/15/2005 Networks of Questions
In considering ideas and information that is new to me, I ask
networks of questions. The questions can be framed as dependency charts.
Now what is a good way to understand dependency charts? List out the
major nodes (most well-connected nodes) as open-ended definitions, and
form lexicons out of the interconnected definitions. Next map out the
rest of the nodes axiomatically using those definition structures. Turn
this into a software for common sense perception. Maybe make a web
crawler cognition engine that can learn the meaning behind things so
that it can solve problems by figuring out new ways of thinking about
things (adapting the context of question/perception networks). 3/15/2005
Experimentation Sometimes experimentation is necessary to solve problems
and answer questions, because some nodes of information or questions or
contextual perception networks are otherwise unreachable, and often
entirely unknown to exist. 4/15/2005 Question Networks, continued...
Abductive reasoning: When does a function discover or prove an axiom?
What metric makes analogy recognizable? Do recursive lexicons have the
potential for infinite macro-scale growth? Do they have the potential
for infinite micro-scale growth? Or will they all be governed primarily
by the initial categories? Form networks of questions to gain valuable
perspectives on topical and problem data. Model question engines in a
careful evolutionary goal manner with substainability and capability and
necessity as the primary objectives. Map the spectrum of inquiry.
Expectations->Intentions->Experimentation (scientific
combinations)->Dependency Chart Gaps and Representation
Gaps->Formulation of questions incorporating "known" data. 5/4/2005
Answers We're surrounded by answers, but they're all meaningless and
often impossible to even detect without knowing at least some of the
questions that they are derived from. Without this question/answer
connection, there is no consciousness, awareness would not exist.
Copyright 5/10/2005 Justin Coslor Re-defining basic question
thought-forms: Why? = Is there a reason for how this came to be, and
what is it? What? = The existence of this shall be called by a name that
needs to be defined, and we are inquiring about that. When? = This
occurred or shall occur at what time and day? How? = By what process
does this function? Notice that I had to use "what" in every one of
these (except I tried not to use "what" in it's own definition, which
was difficult). Therefore "what" is the most important thought form to
focus on. "What" is the algebraic domain of the relation "that", or
"this", or "these", or "those"; and the range is unknown, and is
entirely unbounded. "That", is a pointer to a specific instance of
something in existence (whether it be in physical or Platonic reality).
The difference between Platonic objects and physical objects is that
Platonic objects are just pointers to other pointers, whereas physical
objects are pointers that point to themselves in a loop. Physical
objects can bound and/or link (like a chain) other physical objects
because if we geometrize the representation of the pointers we have
physics, since the pointers loop. We exist partially in physical
reality, and partially in Platonic reality since we can make conversions
between the two. It's like the difference between particles and waves.
Copyright 6/17/2005 Justin Coslor Question Networks: Option questions
v.s. spectrum questions
A lot of ambiguity is in every question. For instance, if you asked
a question today you'd get one answer most likely, but if you asked that
same question 10,000 years from now you'd probably get a much different
answer. The scope of a question can be narrow or it cana be wide. With a
narrow scope, a question might be a basic question that can be modified
by many options, or it can be a bunch of cases, as in specific
questions. Those are option questions. They lay out perspective question
When the scope is very general or comprehensive of a lot of
possibilities, then it is a spectrum question because it is intended to
explore a range of possibilities that are within the same domain. Option
questions seek to explore multiple questions that are not necessarily of
the same domain. Copyright 5/25/2005 Justin Coslor Question expectation
templates and question context intersections
Questions contain an expectation template of the kind or class of
answers that thet inquisitor is looking for. Often times though, the
answers that are found or generated, or the answers that are of the most
use, do not match the question's expectation template. Often times,
answers that ar suitable cannot be derived or located until the question
is elaborated, generalized, or otherwise modeled using different
representation, such as analogical equivalencies of its objects,
objectives, contexts, and relations.
Every question is the intersection of several contexts, where behind
the scenes, each context has its own unique expectation template; such
as: - 1. The type of question: who, what, where, when, why, how, and its
structure and methods. - 2. The semantic purpose of the question
indicated by the question's structure: to define a context, to define a
pattern or variable property, to state an open-ended knowledge structure
and indicate the unknowns and data access points, to explore a domain or
a range, etc. Or to state facts alongside the question, to indicate
expectation parameters of the answer(s). - 3. The setting of the
question is object(s) and relation(s). Associated objects and relations
can be explicit or implied, but does result in expectation parameters. -
4. The existential time frame or solidity or transitory frame cycle of
the question's objects and relations in regard to their setting is
another context involved in definitive consideration of answer
expectation parameters. - 5. - 6. . . etc. There may be many more
foundational contexts that intersect in the formation and existence of
every question. Copyright 5/24/2005 Justin Coslor Question asking
systems Question -> Perception of meaning of question -> Search and
answer retrieval -> answer formulation -> interpretation of answer. In
The more methods of knowledge representation that are available to
model the perception of the meaning of the question, the more depth and
breadth the search scope will have in the answer retrieval process, and
the experimental data combining buffer will have more possibilities to
form experimental combination answers with. If the answers are
experimental, then they may need to be tested or proven valid. Not all
valid answers are useful though, and not all questions can be modeled
accurately. Question-Answer systems and Question asking systems are
subject to priority systems, in their exploration of patterns in
contexts. Every question or series of questions is a rough draft of the
question that will produce or point to the desired answer that contains
the right level of detail of suitable content. Copyright 5/10/2005
Justin Coslor Re-defining basic question thought-forms: Why? = Is there
a reason for how this came to be, and what is it? What? = The existence
of this shall be called by a name that needs to be defined, and we are
inquiring about that. When? = This occurred or shall occur at what time
and day? How? = By what process does this function? Notice that I had to
use "what" in every one of these (except I tried not to use "what" in
it's own definition, which was difficult). Therefore "what" is the most
important thought form to focus on. "What" is the algebraic domain of
the relation "that", or "this", or "these", or "those"; and the range is
unknown, and is entirely unbounded. "That", is a pointer to a specific
instance of something in existence (whether it be in physical or
Platonic reality). The difference between Platonic objects and physical
objects is that Platonic objects are just pointers to other pointers,
whereas physical objects are pointers that point to themselves in a
loop. Physical objects can bound and/or link (like a chain) other
physical objects because if we geometrize the representation of the
pointers we have physics, since the pointers loop. We exist partially in
physical reality, and partially in Platonic reality since we can make
conversions between the two. It's like the difference between particles
and waves... Copyright 5/11/2005 Justin Coslor Writing Tips
When I want to write, to figure out what to write I try to figure
out a priority system, where I aim to invent the most important new idea
that I'm either interested in (topically) or that is very important but
that is only interesting enough to write down for somebody else to
explore. Once I've focused on a topic I start asking questions and map
it out and associate it to other areas and build networks of questions
and answers and arbitrary data.
I have to feel like writing and be relaxed and well hydrated
(slightly caffeinated helps), and it's best when I'm thinking at my best
(not bogged down by emotions) I don't consider this entry an "idea"
since I feel awful and am terribly lonely and depressed and have
heartburn at the moment. I write best when I'm either really really
happy (a bipolar high), or really really depressed (a bipolar low).
10/20/2004 Justin Coslor Regarding Education
If people could be taught first how to learn on their own, and next
how to find and update their sources of information and resources, and
then be taught creative and consistent logic and how to interact in
their chosen forums of discourse, along with some skills as to how they
can negotiate their insights and nurtured talents for wellbeing and
non-harmful prosperity to an extent limited to what they can
successfully and comfortably manage without bloating into the arena of
greed or ill- intent; then they would have a great potential for doing a
lot of good in the world and in the happiness of their daily lives.
Lives lived purposefully. 10/28/2004 Justin Coslor It's important to be
semi-autonomous rather than being just another domino. Copyright
6/1/2005 Justin Coslor Choice
Choice depends on having recognized options to choose from. The
availability of options depends on a system of awareness, and the
explorative mapping of solution spaces and/or experimentally created
generation. Also an evaluation system or metric is necessary for the
selection process to pick a suitable option. The initiation of choice
can be voluntary or forced; and it can be activated out of necessity, or
independently. Copyright 5/31/2005 Justin Coslor Creativity
Creative processes start out with a chosen medium, and then a random
process is activated that generates a lot of possibilities, then it is a
matter of choosing the best or most desirable possibilities and
elaborating on them and linking them. That is what creativity means to
me. The creator may also have several goals or requirements in mind, and
be aware of juggling prerequisites. Copyright 5/28/2005 Justin Coslor
Intuitions are sequences of inspiration, and are part possibility
thinking, part logical thinking, and part random chance phenomenon.
Intuitive truth requires proof. Copyright 8/13/2005 Justin Coslor Ideas
and Probabilities
Ideas change probabilities, and ideas come from experimentation:
search, sort, and shuffle (grouping and storing patterns in contexts).
Ideas guide courses of action and affect expectations, of which
reactions are based on, and those are some of the probabilities ideas
can change, but they can also pave the way for new systems and
Intentions guide experimentation, and logic guides methodology.
Axioms define logic and modes of proof. Innate programming (instinct)
and use of methodology in real-time guides intentions.
Useful ideas change contexts dramatically, and in doing so, many of
the patterns in those contexts are able to form lots of new associations
and possibilities. The most sweeping ideas are at the axiom level, and
as new axioms are added, contexts expand and develop greater depth and
greater interconnectivity.
This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

Book 1 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.
Book I:
Patterns In Contexts
8/25/2005 Stuff that occurred to me while going through some of my
old journal entries (about eight pages worth).
8/22/2005 Numbers & Patterns Across Contexts
5/1/2005 Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations
8/24/2005 Properties
8/24/2005 Patterns In Contexts: Neural Nets As Priority Systems
10/8/1999 Patterns In Contexts: a computational model for representing
information metaphorically through abductive reasoning
8/5/2005 Augmenting Ideas: Generating New Perspectives on Information
8/6/2005 Epistemology Systems
5/23/2005 Some definitions for Patterns In Contexts Theory
8/2/2005 Cliff Partitions
5/23/2005 Object-oriented processing
5/27/2005 Simulated Models and Utility Axioms
5/22/2005 Operation Spaces continued - Tomographic Data Structures
5/21/2005 Operation Spaces: Grids V.S. Networks
5/14/2005 Key axioms and branch axioms in pattern collections
11/7/2004 Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets
9/23/2004 Am I reinventing the wheel?
8/20/2004 Programming
8/4/2005 Programming Languages
9/22/2004 Patterns In Contexts Cognition Kernel
6/13/2004 Complexity
6/5/2004 Linker Patterns
5/31/2004 Patterns In Contexts Cognition
9/7/2000 Knowledge Mining
7/13/2005 Pattern Occurances
7/5/2005 ePIC Goal Representation
6/3/2005 Cross-Domain Relations in Analogical Relations
6/3/2005 Patterns In Context and Question Asking Systems for
Object-Oriented Programming
5/30/2005 Complexity Progressions
9/7/2004 Metaphoric Operations on Patterns Across Contexts
8/23/2004 Information Theory Quotes
12/25/2004 Metaphoric Operations
1/9/2005 Visual Dictionaries and Axiomatic Abductive Simulation
8/7/2005 Patterns In Contexts: 3D Engine
1/9/2005 Graphical Representation and Visual Heuristics
7/20/2005 Creativity & Understanding
7/17/2005 Concepts
7/8/2005 Measurement Systems
7/2/2005 Re-contextualized Patterns
6/25/2005 Observing patterns and differences
6/24/2005 Patterns Matching
6/20/2005 Remote-Controlled Contexts Via Pre-Processor Switchboards
6/12/2005 Definitions
6/5/2005 Geometric Abstractions
6/4/2005 Index of Topics
6/4/2005 Abstraction
6/3/2005 Analogical Recursions
5/25/2005 Implicit V.S. Explicit Knowledge
5/16/2005 Analogy, Metaphor, and Examples
5/4/2005 Sight
4/25/2003 Computer Vision
5/6/2005 Rules Are Behavioral Expectations
1/7/2005 Categories: Part 1
11/7/2004 Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets
9/12/2004 Some Thoughts on Information Theory
10/22/2004 Some Methods of Proof
8/12/2004 Axiom Notes
6/8/2004 Contexts
6/5/2004 Perception
8/10/2005 Perception -- continued from 6/5/2004....
5/17/2003 A.I. Notes
10/20/2004 Mission Statement
Book I:
Patterns In Contexts
Copyright 8/25/2005 Justin Coslor
Stuff that occurred to me while going through some of my old journal entries
(about eight pages worth).
Analogies mimic patterns across contexts via cross-domain relations.
That's the basis of Analogical Reasoning. Every pattern in every context
is unique to the properties and axioms of the contexts they exist in.
I've written this book without doing a lick of research or reading
(except where indicated on a few entries), as an experiment to see if I
could generate some new foundations of knowledge and understanding. Some
experts say I succeeded.
A symmetry is an example of an internal algebra. Unique symmetries are
atomic repetitions, and are the simplest form of patterns, distinct from
perceptually apparently random chaos. (I don't believe in ultimate
Analogical mimicing results in similar, yet distinctly different patterns.
All truth is but an approximation of a deeper truth. Understanding is
subject to computational complexity of the perceiver and the data forms and
content perceived.
Knowledge is the quest of discovery, and understanding is the growth of
the perceiver. It's how possibilities happen through careful navigation.
There are no dead ends.
Mark fundamental landmark differences in analogically mimiced patterns,
for possible classification category augmentations (for navigation and
data retrieval purposes). Beware of oversimplification of data streams
in order to fit a pattern into a perceptual mold.
Even if my ideas overlap with existing knowledge, they provide a new way
of understanding that knowledge, and that is valuable because my ideas
are not based on mimicry since I haven't studied topics related to them
much (except a college philosophy course and K-13 math). These ideas
exist for the most part in their own context. They can be no doubt eventually
be linked to ideas in other contexts though. Lexicons can often be linked to
external contexts.
Copyright 8/22/2005 Justin Coslor
Numbers & Patterns Across Contexts
Metaphorically speaking, prime numbers are injective and composite numbers
are surjective, when translating functions from one context to another.
Similarly, single-repetition patterns are injective and composite
patterns are surjective, when translating relations from one context to
another. This is an essential part of analogical reasoning.
Copyright 5/1/2005 Justin Coslor
Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations.
(See diagram.)
1. All variables have properties.
2. All properties are independent of their variable's context(s).
3. All properties have some combination of qualitative relations,
quantitative relations, existential locations, and existential
4. Every variable exists within a context and can vary
from context to context.
5. Contexts are composed of networks of patterns, patterns are composed of
networks of variables, and variables are composed of networks of properties.
6. Information can be represented as patterns in contexts, and in that way it
can be represented metaphorically through analogical reasoning and abductive
reasoning. Relations of various kinds, location(s), and condition(s) (apon and
of) exist at all of the various levels, and those are the data access
As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby declare it
universally free for use and modification, except I don't condone it's
use in weapon systems or for deception of any kind. This legal agreement
cannot be modified ever, and all modifications of this logic and/or data are
bound by this same agreement. You may sell applications and/or services that
use this logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself
and you may not try to prevent others from understanding or using the
logic in any way except if they try to use it for deception or military
weapon applications. Sincerely, Justin Coslor. May 1st, 2005.
Copyright 8/24/2005 Justin Coslor
These are first-level definitions of some useful kinds of properties, any of
which can be networked together to create relations and variables and
patterns and contexts that may exist in physical and/or platonic reality:
* qualitative identifiers: Categorical names and cross-references.
* qualitative factors: Qualitative pieces of composite patterns.
* quantitative identifiers: Cardinalities (orderings), scalers, and surjective
* quantitative factors: Representational methods of measurement of dimension
* states: Observable distinct configurations that mark and increment step
* conditions: Dependencies that distinctly configure each state.
* cycle counts: A tally that is increased with each repetition of a process.
* recursions: A self-defined process or network (an internal algebra), or a
function that calls itself.
* repetitions: An algebra, atomic elements that repeat, composite patterns
that repeat, or symmetries.
* activity level: The number of cycles per step (positive, negative, random,
or null).
* step counts: A tally that is increased as conditions of each state
transition is reached.
* location: A place in a memory grid where identifiable data is stored.
* positions: The sequence coordinates of variable in N-dimensional orderings.
* orientations: The perspective that data maps are observed from: This may be
contextual, or spatially framed position maps, and perspectives may even
have translation conditions of their own.
As you can see, activity level is just one kind of property, and priority
systems such as neural nets can be based on that property. Other kinds
of systems can be based on other properties.
* Relations are the juxtaposition of infrastructures, which result in an
Copyright 8/24/2005 Justin Coslor
Patterns In Contexts: Neural Nets As Priority Systems
Neural nets are essentially priority systems for allocating and
de-allocating priorities of networked elements such as variables on a grid.
Each network can be considered a context, and can be said to be a network of
patterns composed of variables and relations. If the patterns are
functions, then the priority of each pattern determines the level of activity
(cycles per step) of each pattern's function(s).
Some priority level results in a random level of activity, and the other
priority levels result in either positive levels of activity, negative
(reverse) levels of activity, and an undefined priority setting results
in no activity.
Context: ABCDEFG * R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8 == a network of patterns (see diagram).
Where each pattern == (a variable)(a relation Rn), and the level of activity
of each pattern is:
(undefined, -3, -2, -1, random, 1, 2. 3)(a variable)(a relation Rn),
and the activity level determines how many cycles per step that the
relation Rn operates on the variable, and the pattern it is linked
to. These values could be anything, this is just an example.
Activity level is one type of property of the variable.
***Variables are composed of networks of properties.
***Patterns are composed of networks of variables and relations.
***Contexts are composed of networks of patterns and relations to other
contexts. Properties can be things like qualitative and quantitative
identifiers and factors, states, conditions, cycle counts, recursions
and repetitions, activity level (cycles per step), step counts, locations,
positions, orientations, etc.
Patterns in Contexts:
a computational model for representing information metaphorically
through abductive reasoning.
All ideas herein are Copyright by Justin Coslor on their respective dates.
These notes are a progression of the concepts in the order they occured to me.
10/8/99 Invent a digital method or circuit (fast physical algorithm) for
mimicking a pattern. Do it by modeling the pattern's relationships
metaphorically (as a metaphor of existing memory or experience).
If circular reasoning is involved, what is the least experience or innate
memory required to start the circular reasoning engine?
Topic: Circular reasoning engines (in logic and computation).
11/19/1999 The definitive nature of knowledge. This occured to me as a
pseudo-sophomore at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA USA.
(It's a first draft so please forgive it's sketchyness.)
All knowledge=information, which can be represented as metaphors. Metaphors
are applied to specific contexts and general contexts=multiple contexts.
A. All knowledge is metaphors applied to >= 1 context.
B. A metaphor is a set of associations (links, patterns) that can or is
applied to a context.
A single context...A single specific context...general/nonspecific contexts.
C. A context is a set of restrictions (restrictions on information,
associations, links, patterns, sometimes even contexts).
Therefore the statement A is equivalent to this statement:
"Each piece of knowledge is a set of associations that can be applied to >= 1
set(s) of restrictions."
The use of this I had in mind is to make a computer software that could
understand and manipulate (and maybe even apply) metaphors. Many other ideas
occurred to me today too, possibly due to doing yogi breathing and meditation
exercises and taking vitamins since my health had been suffering.
10/31/2003 Epistemology Framework for Artificial Intelligence "Patterns in
Contexts" continued...
* A pattern is a collection of symmetries, where each partition section of
data of every symmetry in the collection corresponds to another partition
section of data in that collection, or sometimes corresponds to a piece
or pieces of data in another collection (or other collections) which may or
may not be part of a similar symmetry in that other collection.
If data has recognizable features, it is a pattern. Repetition is what
makes a symmetry, and is what makes a pattern's features recognizable.
Unique partition sections of data are the atomic elements that a pattern's
features are composed of. A symmetry is a type of repetition,
but a repetition isn't always a symmetry (see metaphor definition below).
* A context is a map of patterns within (thus bounded by) either a set or
stream of data in which other patterns are ignored or are not apparent.
Or a context bounded by a larger pattern than the map itself
(which itself is a pattern that may or may not be part of the larger pattern),
such as the ordinal of the map or a pattern larger than the boundaries
of the scope. There can be many parallel streams, waves, or sets of data
in, traveling through, across, or around the self-updating mapping of
patterns which is chosen to be the context.
Sometimes the corrresponding partitions of data that make up a repetition
are translated by some pattern with each iteration, such as in a methaphor.
Yet similarity remains apparent (identifyable by some means).
Again, I believe that information is patterns in contexts, and that
information is metaphoric in nature. Tip: If confused by this write-up
of my premise, try reading the sentence in reverse order then back through
Information is a symphony of symbolism and symmetry.
Information, by it's very nature, is a division. Yet it strives to become
whole again, and at the very least, to become balanced.
4/7/2004 Category Theory: Abductive context changing using identified
metaphoric patterns. Some dimension additions for alternating or specializing
the application of a pattern or set of patterns:
- Location
- Relative rate, relative timeline framework
- Newly recognized relations found under sequential and parallelly recursive
brute force and intuitively adaptive experimental logic search strategies --
Yields hypothetical considerations which can be temporally prioritized and
recursively checked and updated from state to state and organized
intelligently by current 1. depth, 2. branch size, 3. branch cardinality
(alpha-numeric, etc), 4. task growth rate, and 5. average task completion rate
(for scaling computability).
When you figure out why a variable is a variable in a particular way, that
understanding becomes a new relation to consider, which in effect and affect
either increases or decreases the dimensionality of the variable's context.
Some dimensions that are added usually increase task completion rate (such as
specialization) other dimensions that ar added usually increase task growth
rate (such as broadening the context or broadening the number of class
categories to consider). Generalization can in some cases merge categories,
classes, and/or contexts, or blur them for simplicity, and can increase or
decrease completion rate.
Generalization is useful for experimentation.
All truth is but an approximation of a deeper truth.
A pattern is like a function, and a context is like a field.
Each has relations, variables (when thought of metaphorically),
and often the potential for variations and unconsidered variables of
A working definition of the mystery of consciousness might be ascribed to the
interplay between 1. perspective, 2. priorities, 3. intentions, and
4. awareness; all of which depend on the flexibility, state, and mechanisms of
belief held by the subject.
My data symmetry section analysis technique for perception through patterns in
contexts may be able to play a key role in automating axiom and theorem
discovery for any given context (i.e. contexts such as the integers, the
reals, wavefield analysis, map data, behavioral intention charts,
language/speech modeling and representation, transform sequences, etc.).
Any pattern discovered within a particular context can be applied to any of
the known axioms and theorems of that context, and patterns that are
discovered can sometimes be related to undiscovered axioms in that context.
Anytime an axiom or theorem is discovered in a context, the entire context is
redefined (as well as its subcontexts), and in doing so, its scope is
narrowed. Choose -> Search -> Experiment -> Classify -> Test -> Prove.
Choose/define context -> search for patterns -> searchfor patterns that relate
discovered patterns -> postulate a classification for each discovered
For each relation, if a classification category does not exist that
closely matches the relation, then further experimentation, context choosing
(add and/or subtract context dimensions), and pattern searching must be done,
starting with the characteristics of all partially matched categories, until
an accurate or exact classification or category definition can be derived.
After the relation's category is realized, search for more examples of that
relation and derrive a proof of it. If the relation can be proven to be
applicable to all patterns in a given context and all subsets of that context,
it can be said to be an axiom of that context.
Context can be thought of as a network as well as a shell that encompasses
abstract nodes. The context of a set is merely its powerset, that is, until
relations ar applied. I don't believe in randomness, but I do believe that
some contexts are larger or deeper than the scope of our perceptions.
A context can also be thought of as a network of patterns, or even the network
of relations that tlinks patterns. But when relations are applied to a
context, it becomes an organism. An organism that is capable of translation
(metaphoric operations), modification (adaptationn), division
(duplication/reproduction/partitioning, and/or growth and association with
other contexts.
There are patterns, and they exist within and between/across contexts, and
there are relations that act as reasoning engines that operate on the systems
of patterns and contexts.
Patterns can have analogue distortion, digital distortion, or metaphoric
distortion. Contexts can be approximations of larger contexts, and
elaborations or extensions of smaller contets or extensions of other contexts
in general There can be relatively unique (somewhat unique, minimal
commonality) patterns and contexts. Note: the word "commonality" is based on
the greek root "monality", which is the "commonality" of the prime numbers.
Each prime number is a "co-monality." This can be visualized in terms of
geometry, to some extent. Every prime number is balanced, and is symmetrical,
and contains a unique number of dimensions, which are also unique kinds
of dimensions. Patterns and contexts and relations can also be symmetry pieces
of other patterns and contexts and relations, regardless of whether or not
they are distorted in any given state or piece or part or linkage.
Every context is founded on its own set of axioms and theorems, and adding an
axiom to or from a context's foundation fundamentally changes the context
profoundly, yet some structures may remain un-affected.
(*Note many of these notes may become invalid or ridiculous as you read more,
so mental filtering may be necessary.)
This is a quote from my journal.
""Metaphor" is a relational model of recursion, where the circular
reasoning (in recursive definitions & recursive functions) cross-relates
the elements of definitions & functions from multiple (or different)
contexts. That is why cross-domain relations are so crucial to the metaphoric
representation of knowledge and knowledge systems (logics)."
"I also believe that information is metaphoric in nature (has algebraic
interconnectivity), and that it can be represented as a composition of
patterns in contexts, where the contexts themselves can be patterns, and the
atomic elements of each pattern are composed of symmetry sections
(partitiopns of data, where each partition is part of a local or dislocated
repetition (a symmetry, and algebra)). And it is only through the repetition
of a data section that part of a pattern can become recognizable from
apparently random white noise. Randomness and white noise are probably
patterns that are larger than the scope of our perceptions, so the data
appears random.
And I say that metaphors can be represented geometrically because all of
the prime numbers (the balance points in the universe) are symmetrical when
represented geometrically, and it is likely through primarily symmetrical
sensory and cognitive structures that our minds can interpret information.
And I think of metaphors not as A=B, but more like the similarity of the
juxtaposition of A's elements in the context of B, and B's elements in
the context of A, in terms of general systems theory.
I equate truth with workable patterns that become more and more refined
and defined as they get used. I believe that all truth that we are capable
of perceiving is but a small approximation of the whole truth. And that
the truth/patterns that we are capable of using is often subject to perception
within varying contexts. But there seem to exist connections between
information none-the-less, through whatever means. Possibly since (in my
opinion) everything came from oneness)."
Scope & Context -> Boundaries and Restrictions/Limitations
Class -> Purpose
Type -> Syntax
Pattern Definitions -> Semantics
Data Element Groups -> Configurations (Data Maps & Dependencies)
9/22/2004 Patterns in Contexts Cognition Kernal
Database -> Metabase -> Context Rotator -> Experiment Application Field
Summarizable subjectively/objectively
Metaphoric Linkers
Patterns Toolkit
Augmentation Socket Parameters
Analysis Scope Dimensionality
of (Input/Internal perspective "eyes")
Geometry & quantitative & qualitative properties of simultaneous interrupts
and their instantaneous functional interrelations and interactions
across multivariate sequence states (such as time & symmetry equivalencies).
*Every set state is but an approximation of the possible combinatorial
11/20/2004 Epistemology thoughts on Metaphor Abduction
Metaphors hide cross-domain relations between generalized nouns,
adjectives, and systems within a semi-subjective context of perspective.
The descriptive mappings of metaphors and multi-layered metaphoric operations
are generallymore foundational than their analogical counterparts, as the
metaphoric objects and relational context is generalized (from set, type, and
categorical specifics), which simplifies the computational complexity of the
models' qualitative factors, and provides new bases for consideration and
re-application of data, relations, and knowledge. Metaphor generation provides
the architectural basis and objective of considering newe relations and data
experimentatiopn for deriving and arriving at new models of understanding.
data --> context unknown
patterns --> hypothetical contexts
relations --> categorical context parsing
metaphoric relations --> cross-domain functions across contexts
specific knowledge --> contextual scope focusing/narrowing
analogies --> applies metaphoric relations to different examples of specific
knowledge for partial transitivity
new knowledge --> modifies existing contexts to incorporate new axioms.
4/6/2005 Prioritization and choice in decision systems
(Part of a reasoning engine.)
New action (such as prioritization or actual action)
Evaluaction ->criteria
initiative factor(s)
Inventing industries with patterns in contexts
What the world needs more of in order to support the ever rising
population levels, is more industries. An entire industry can be created
simply by developing a new kind of alagorithm, or an algorithm that creates a
niche for people to fill with services or products.
An algorithm can be developed by applying an axiom to a new context.
This may require forming or describing a new context or kind of context, with
intentions and expectations and attributes or properties in mind, as axoms are
chosen and adapted to make that possible. Theorems can then be derived from
those axioms, that are specific to that context, and when possible, they can
be metaphorically related to theorems in other contexts. This is the basis for
the patterns in contexts model for creating new information. It relates
directly to abductive reasoning, analogical reasoning, and cross-domain
Axioms depend on which dimensions they can exist in and apply to.
For they are the links that connect different dimensions, parts of dimensions,
and sets of dimensions, with the goal of unique lowest-terms representation.
Usually they incorporate at least some implicit knowledge or material
structure in their model.
Copyright 5/1/2005 Justin Coslor
Property grouping axioms in cross-domain relations.
(See diagram.)
1. All variables have properties.
2. All properties are independent of their variable's context(s).
3. All properties have some combination of qualitative relations, quantitative
relations, existential locations, and existential conditions.
4. Every variable exists within a context and can vary from context to
5. Contexts are composed of networks of patterns, patterns are composed of
networks of variables, and variables are composed of networks of properties.
6. Information can be represented as patterns in contexts, and in that way it
can be represented metaphoricly through analogical reasoning and abductive
reasoning. Relations of various kinds, location(s), and condition(s) (apon and
of) exist at all of the various levels, and those are the data access points.
As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby declare it
universally free for use and modification, except I don't condone it's use in
weapon systems or for deception of any kind. This legal agreement cannot be
modified ever, and all modifications of this logic and/or data are bound by
this same agreement. You may sell applications and/or services that use this
logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself and you may
not try to prevent others from understanding or using the logic in any way
except if they try to use it for deception or military weapon applications.
Sincerely, Justin Coslor. May 1st, 2005.
Copyright 8/5/2005 Justin Coslor
Augmenting Ideas: Generating New Perspectives on Information
Today in the 61C Cafe I was talking to my friend Jason Bacasa telling him
about how I come up with ideas. Besides keeping an ever growing network of
questions in the back of my mind, I take a topic or generate a topic by
combining keywords, and then think about how that topic is typically
represented, then I try to epistemologically dissect that representation and
then rebuild the content using different, if not more foundational
contextualization of those concepts. Then I go off on a tangent exploring the
most interesting parts by associating other concepts, patterns, contexts,
and operations to the new representation of the concepts in the original
It is often very valuable to have alternative representations of ideas
and concepts and topics because each representation can yield a useful
perception. If there is any word sense ambiguity, or use of metaphor,
then each alternative representation can yield many perceptions, each of
which could uncover previously unseen or unconsidered aspects of the topics,
ideas, and concepts. So in the end, exploring and mapping out alternative
representations of concepts, ideas, and topics is a way to augment their
knowledge base, by generating new perspectives on the information, which
can generate entirely new contexts, which can generate entirely new
knowledge bases, by treating all information metaphorically. People are
currently very good at metaphoric interpretation and analogical reasoning.
Computer programs currently are not. It's the next step towards
computational methods of abductive (round-about scenic-route) reasoning.
Anyway, Jason said I should make a program that does what I do, i.e.:
a program that recontextualizes information from different perspectives
of association, sort of like a choose-your-own-adventure story, but more like
a choose-your-own-perspective program. Like a computer program that generates
alternative representations of ideas, topics, and concepts. Or even more
generally, a computer program that generates alternative representations of
patterns (thoughtforms) in a variety of contexts (settings).
Copyright 8/6/2005 Justin Coslor
Epistemology Systems
Categories, and complete dictionaries as foundations. Quantified objects
(and systems) can be juxtaposed into relations that balance alternative
representations of objects and systems via a structural or syntactic
methodology that acts as a transformation into some of the possible
alternative representations of the quantified objects and systems.
Algebras as alternative representations of information. Algebras can
rename, or point to representations of information, as well as interconnect
and dissect informational objects and systems. All objects and systems
are named.
Simulations, recontextualizations, and "polymachines" as alternative
models of systems.
Proof is contextual, in other words: proof is dependent on perspective and
representation. In much larger contexts than the original context in which
something was proven, most "proof" becomes incomplete or uncompatible, and
sometimes even false if more foundational epistemological structures are
found to have been overlooked. Proof is complete, logically consistent
introspection of perceptions of concepts.
Any given proof is only applicable to specific axiom sets. I.E. a proof
based on one axiom set may be incomplete or uncompatible or even false in a
context composed of a different set of axioms. Therefore concepts must be
analogically translated into other contexts and their translations must be
formed concurrently with their proof validity in their new context, as a
best-fit categorical search procedure. The proof is a complete, concise
system, so the proof in it's new context can be considered to be a
polymachine, since it is an alternative representation of that system. A
polymachine is a set of cross-domain relations that operate on
analogically-matched patterns from an original context to a new context, and
represents an alternative form of a system in a different context.
Polymachines are created by inductive, deductive, or (in the case of
analogically translated proofs) abductive reasoning. Cross-domain relations
are relations that analogically match the domain of a relation in one context
to the domain of a relation in another context whose range approximates the
same infrastructure and quantitative parameters while leaving the qualitative
parameters categorically open-ended; they are a form of analogical reasoning.
Input Devices->Internal model buffer->Association and repetition
filter->Analysis/comparison engine->Perceptions on experience->Algebraic
Conceptualization->Character sets and dictionaries, or number systems and
axiom sets -> statements, arguments, inquiries, propositions, implications,
operations, filtrations, combinations, exegesis, dissertation, assignments,
contextualizations, templates, associations, compositions, dissections,
introspections, modifications, adaptations, introductions, translations,
transformations, distortion, refinement, recontextualization, proof,
mapping, search, buffering, sorting, indexing, encoding, decoding,
regulation, pattern formulation, trans-substantiation (joke), frollick.
Copyright 5/23/2005 Justin Coslor
Some definitions for patterns in contexts theory
Metaphoric objects are informational objects defined by their
relational properties. In relational contexts, sub-contexts of each
property are independent of the application context. Qualitative factors
are computed by mapping and defining a lexicon of their properties.
Qualitative factors are reflective and algebraic usually. Quantitative factors
are computed by counting and performing materialistic operations on them,
and mapping them in that way. Quantitative factors are materialistic and
geometric usually.
Copyright 8/2/2005 to 8/3/2005 Justin Coslor
Cliff Partitions
Cliff partitions are perceptual references that distinguish deeply layered
patterns from surface patterns, much like a cliff wall bordering the ocean.
In the ocean, every couple of feet down an ocean wall is a new layer, much
like how layers of pixel groups can be laid out on a visual canvas, with some
stacked up several layers high on an edge.
Cliff partitions are essential markers of where a topology has a steep
slope that may or may not be an overhanging awning above a hidden hollow or
cave. In topology, cliff partitions are useful for analyzing the depth
perception of a view.
In linguistics, cliff partitions may indicate a sentence that is placed in
the wrong order, or it may indicate a sudden change of topic, or a jump from
one perspective of a context to a deeper or more superficial depth of
perspective of that same context. Cliff partitions in linguistics may also
indicate the boundaries of a given context, where one context ends and another
begins. Cliff partitions are only conceptual perceptual references in
linguistic domains, as writers and speakers linearly paint a nonlinear
picture with their words.
Copyright 5/23/2005 Justin Coslor
Object-oriented processing
Grids (a.k.a. manifolds), networks, and gridded networks all can house
patterns in contexts of information data sectors as the representation of
knowledge (knowledge is information that contains meaning). Grids, networks,
and gridded networks are materialistic operation spaces for knowledge
representation, whereas the notion of "patterns in contexts" are the Platonic
operation spaces that form the meaning behind the scenes on the materialistic
operation spaces. Identifying the representation of knowledge in an operation
space as "patterns in contexts" and specifying the details allows us to work
with the information in an object-oriented manner.
Copyright 5/27/2005 Justin Coslor
Simulated Models and Utility Axioms
If a network or grid is composed of N elements, then it is capable of
simulating every possible permutation of those elements by forming internal
networks and sub-networks (& grids). Grid networks allow for an infinite
number of combinations to be simulated though, but only some simulations are
of any use. Maybe there are utility axioms that can be defined to tell us what
classes of models contain useful representations. It seems like some factors
that might determine whether or not a model is useful would be:
1. Compatibility with existing useful models.
2. Novel representation or novel perspective.
3. Incorporation of new information.
4. Novel capability.
5. Ability to link two or more other models together.
6. Ability to prune other models.
There may be many more factors directly related to evaluating the worthiness
of a model. Simulation allows for recontextualization of models and problems
and systems.
Copyright 5/22/2005 Justin Coslor
Operation Spaces continued - Tomographic Data Structures
In the gridded network system, as described previously, a multidimensional
array is built between selection of nodes in a network, where elements of this
array can be used to build internal networks between the primary node anchors
of the array, or between other nodes in other networks --as in cross-domain
relations. This process can repeat to an infinite depth, in the order of
network node to array anchor to array node to tomographic network to
cross-domain relation network to array grid, cyclically. This is a way of
creating tomographic data structures of an infinite depth and of infinite
permutations, due to the potential for infinite depth, all without adding any
extra primary nodes. Every array element and every node represents a relation
to or between their anchors or parent nodes.
Copyright 5/21/2005 Justin Coslor
Operation Spaces: Grids V.S. Networks
Rows and columns and layers are dimensions of a grid, but dimensions can
also be parts of an N-dimensional array. Each of the dimensional intersections
form a unique partition that relates or is categorized by it's parent sets'
position along their own sequences. So in this way, elemenets on a grid
(i.e. in an array) come from multiple parents, wheras elemenets in a network
can often come from only one parent (an injective branch). However, in some
networks, such as where a planar geometry can exist by the interconnection of
more than two nodes, multiple parents can be a grid of subspaces between the
nodes on the plane that they make, and in those subspaces multivariable
position and quantized quality relations can be said to exist, that are
anchored to multiple origin points (each vertex be treated as an origin,
and angles between them only serve to define the partitioning of the planar
grid). I'll call this kind of transformation of a network "a subspace grid
of vertices". Maybe this combination of a grid network can enhance the
operation space by making any nodes on a network able to be related to
eachother, in grid format, between particular data sections on the subspace
grid as well as between other primary nodes.
The other kind of operation space is the Swiss cheese like structure that
surrounds a subspace geometrized grid transformed network. The inner edge of
that space is where one context ends and other contexts may begin to exist.
Copyright 5/14/2005 Justin Coslor
Key axioms and branch axioms in pattern collections.
Patterns are composed of smaller parts, with the smallest parts being
repetitions of unique elements in which no sub-patterns are apparent; also,
these smallest parts exist and their repetitions make them algebraicly
recognizable due to certain axioms, which act as fundamental truths
(self-evident assumptions) for which no proof is said to be needed.
This being said, we can say that all patterns that are unique in some
manner must contain at least some unique axioms, and if we look at a
collection of basic patterns and determine what is unique about each one
and what is in common between them, and then figure out how those
similarities and differences ar ordered on an axiomatic level, we may discover
key axioms and branch axioms which can be represented in a nodal network
The value of this is that we can then understand, at the most basic level,
what makes a pattern exist, what makes a pattern recognizable and similar to
other patterns, and what makes a pattern unique.
We can use that understanding to select axioms suitable to generate a set
of patterns with a measurable degree of flexibility/adaptability, to use
in constructing a system of perception, similar to a painter mixing paints on
an artists pallete, while he mixes concepts in his mind's eye.
Copyright 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor
Hypothetical Relation Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets:
If categorical names have been assigned to finite elements in a domain,
the rest of the data in the set can be hypothetically considered to be
relations or parts of relations (on those elements and elements not in that
buffered data set). Or they may be elements of categories you don't yet
recognize or know of yet.
9/23/2004 Justin Coslor
Am I reinventing the wheel?
Today while studying a diagrammatic map on "Can Computers Think?" that
Seth Casana gave me I learned of work that has already been done in Artificial
Intelligence that is very similar to some of the concepts that I came up with
on my own.
For instance, there has been work done in the area of making computer
software that can understand "analogies". That is very similar to my concept
of "metaphoric operations". Also, in 1989 in seems, Keith Holyoak and
Paul Thagard created ACME, which is a connectionist network that discovers
"cross domain analogical mappings." That soundsd just like my concept of
"cross domain relations for alternative route mathematics", that I have
written about prior to reading anything about it, and I came up with it all on
my own earlier this year. Here are some Analogy Systems:
Copycat - Douglas Hofstadter and Melanie Mitchell 1995.
SME - Brian Falkenhaimer, K. Forbus, and D. Gentner, 1990.
ACME - Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard, 1989.
8/20/2004 Justin Coslor
In the preface to the introductory computer programming book
"The Little Lisper" second edition ISBN 0-574-21955-2 it says: (that in LISP)
"the primary programming activity is the creation of (potentially) recursive
definitions." Now to me, that sounds like the main task (and goal) is to map
out and/or define patterns that are either finite or infinite and to put them
into a relational context that is capable of transforming incoming data
patterns by relating them to stored data patterns, so that the output can be
1. represented, 2. stored, and 3. used/manipulated. I believe this because
nothing is more recursive than a pattern (nothing is less recursive than a
pattern as well, except that which is totally random). Patterns always exist
within a context or contexts, otherwise they are not recognizable and look
like random garbage (see Godel's Theorems). On page vii it also says that
"LISP is the medium of choice for people who enjoy free style and flexibility.
LISP was initially conceived as a theoretical vehicle for recursion theory and
for symbolic algebra." (and likely Lambda Calculus & the EMACS environment for
Artificial Intelligence)... LISP syntax looks very similar to my old nonlinear
style of thought notation, with its parenthesis within parenthesis (which was
good for scaling depth on tangents and concept descriptions).
Copyright 8/4/2005 Justin Coslor
Programming Languages
"Programming languages are formal languages that have been designed
to express computations." - How to Think Like a Computer Scientist -
Java Edition
In other words, programming languages are mappings of balanced processes.
The flow of any kind of process can be mapped, if not only approximated by a
systematic contextualization of patterns and relations involved in the
process. Every system is like a state machine in motion, where the elements
and operators are encapsulated by their interconnectivity via
contextualization, which is a form of perspective of finite scope.
Formal languages have fully defined axioms, and are consistent and
complete in the mechanics of their methodology. But what is the methodology of
mappings of balanced processes in general? The universality concept applies to
them: they are consistent and complete because they are balanced about a tight
contextualization, where the interconnectivity of the process's elements acts
like a fulcrum (when thought of quantitatively), with no element left
unconnected. That's why patterns in any context can be transformed through
operations into different patterns, so long as there is a method of
representing both sets of patterns. The balance comes from having multiple
methods of representing each state of the elements in the process. The mapping
comes from being able to contextualize the processes, which is only possible
if the processes have finite scope, and are completely defined (thus
interconnected), and must be systematic (thus logically consistent) in
order to be precisely mappable with regularity throughout their states of
Copyright 9/22/2004 Justin Coslor
Patterns In Context Cognition Kernel
[Database]-> [Metabase]-> [Context Rotator]-> [Experiment Application Field]
The following are *a. Subjectively and *b. Objectively
1. Expandable,
2. Adaptable,
3. Translatable, &
4. Summarizable:
Metaphoric Linkers
Pattern Toolkit
Augmentation Socket Parameters
I. Analysis
II. Scope Dimensionality (of input/internal perspective "eyes")
III. Geometry & Quantitative & Qualitative properties of simultaneous
interrupts and their instantaneous functional interrelations and interactions
across multivariate sequence states (such as time & symmetry equivalences).
**Every set state is but an approximation of the possible combinatorial
Copyright 6/13/2004 Justin Coslor
Commercial or proprietary software is surjective or injective, but free
open-source software is bijective.
Part of the FRDCSA Tutorial (Free Research Database Cluster Study and
Apply) on frdcsa.org says a blurb from an ACM paper about measuring the power
of a set of axioms in order to measure the information contained within the
set of theorems that can be deduced from those axioms. It says that one can
only get out of a axiom sets what one puts in. The paper says something like:
"If a set of theorems constitutes t bits of unique information, and the set of
axioms that the theorems are based on contains less than t bits of unique
information, then it is impossible to deduce those theorems from that set of
My friend Andrew J. Dougherty of FRDCSA says that to understand the
general necessity of having more software, simply replace "theorems" with
"problems", and "axioms" with "programs", and "deduce" with "solve" in the
previous statement. Doing that we get: "If a set of problems constitutes t
bits of unique information, and a set of programs contains less than t bits of
unique information, then it is impossible to solve these problems using just
that set of programs. By "problems", I think he means "explicitly defined
problems", because an explicitly defined problem is a program that has yet to
be executed. Abduction may be necessary to define all of the elements and
operators of a problem in the process of turning a problem into a program.
I say, replace "theorems" with "context", and "axioms" with "patterns",
and "solve" with "create". This yields: "If a set of contexts constitutes t
bits of unique information, and the set of patterns that the contexts are
based on contains less than t bits of unique information, then it is
impossible to create those contexts from that set of patterns."
Copyright ?/5/2004 Justin Coslor
This is part of my method of knowledge representation for my
epistemological representation of artificial intelligence through Patterns in
Contexts. Contexts come from patterns that are combined. There can be patterns
noticed in the cross-examination of different contexts, but those "patterns"
are elements of a greater scope of context than any of the contexts being
cross-examined, that is to say, when those cross-context patterns are not
noticable when only examining any one of those contexts in relation to itself.
This method of knowledge representation may hopefully prove to be useful in
the abductive search for new axioms within and across representable contexts.
A context is represented by its systems of patterns (a.k.a. it's system of
Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor
New patterns can be discovered by experimenting with data sets: analyzing
them in relation to metaphoric operations on other data sets. Metaphoric
operations are operations that translate, juggle, predict/locate, and/or
transform specified elements across specified contexts.
Copyright 6/7/2004 Justin Coslor
New metaphors can be discovered by combining axioms that come from
multiple number sets, orderings, and/or algebras. Metaphors are esoteric
relations. The application of a metaphoric operation on a data set sometimes
results in the discovery of new axioms through the new perspective's set of
relations brought about by the application of esoteric relations.
Metaphoric perception is all about cross-domain relations. This is because
the application of metaphors brings about both:
1. relations between the range of the metaphor and the range of all applicable
operations (operations of applications) of the data set, and
2. new cross-domain relations (new domain perspectives) for both the
operations of potentially all applications of the data set; and sometimes new
cross-domain relations and new ranges for the system and set of relations
that algebraically defines the metaphor (when applying the unmatched relations
that are not bijective of the operations of applications of the data set)
metaphorically (i.e. algebraicly to the metaphor).
Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor
Linker patterns
Linker patterns require both an observation buffer (that is at least of
equal size to the sum of the contexts to be linked), and linker patterns
require an operation buffer that is at least as big as the observation buffer
(though far larger is necessary for some observations, even though the amount
of data that ends up in the operation buffer may be far less, in some
instances, than the amount of data filtered out of the sum of the contexts
into the observation buffer).
Data gets filtered out of every applicable context by the linker
pattern's "filter specifications", right into the linker pattern's
observation buffer. Then the linker pattern's set of metaphoric patterns
operates on the observation buffer one at a time or in parallel, but inside
the operation buffer.
The linker pattern contains a set of metaphoric patterns whose elements
are referenced algebraically to the applicable data elements present in the
observation buffer for every possible metaphoric pattern combination present
in the linker pattern innately.
Metaphors which are algebraically a complete set of elements to
applicable/valid data elements are used in the observation buffer, then inside
the operation buffer they perform their calculation (translating, juggling,
and/or transforming of the data section by the metaphor) and the linker
pattern then places the output in an organized form (so it can be referenced
later), and those outputs are placed into a buffer called "the unified
context" of the original contexts. This "unified context" includes the linker
pattern's filter specifications and metaphor set that was used (i.e. the set
that was computable).
Linker patterns can duplicate themselves to divide up the work of
applying their metaphoric pattern sets to the observation buffers' data (and
they update each other with each successful operation).
Each linker pattern is like a mobile set of operators that copies select
groups of contexts and gives birth to unified contexts (which are new
contexts). It is each linker pattern's unique set of filter specifications
that differentiates one linker pattern from another.
New axioms and theorems that are found elsewhere and within each operation
are found and get added to the metaphor set after the valid discovered
patterns are provably generalized. They are placed in all of the linker
Linker patterns can also update each other's set of metaphoric patterns by
sharing ones the other doesn't have, and copying new ones from the other.
The observation buffer performs general quantifier type matching.
Copyright 5/31/2004 Justin Coslor
Patterns In Context Cognition
A context is any specified number set, ordering, or system of numbers that
is representative of something (symbolic).
Take the desired outcome (the goal) and break it down into unique aspects.
Treat each aspect as an element of a context that contains it, or as an
element of several contexts that contain it. each element/aspect may have its
own unique context at first. We will be striving to find the pattern or
patterns that link all aspects of the goal into one context.
A "linker pattern" can be a linker of the contexts that each of the
elements of our goal exist within. Such a pattern links contexts together by
assigning a system of translating, juggling, predicting/locating, and/or
transforming the specified elements across their specified contexts.
This "linker pattern" is metaphoric, and can act as the "unified context" in
which we will search for the aspects of our goal, as well as search for
alternate routes to each of these aspects (for optimization).
After this experimental search has completed and an optimal cross-domain
relation search for shorter routes to each aspect has been completed, we will
have generated the optimal route map to our goal.
Cross-domain relations can also be thought of as possible associations, or
simply as patterns. They can very explicitly depict ambiguous relationships,
such as when they are used with graph theory. Cross-domain relations are
a little bit like surjective and bijective networks in logic but where two
domains lead to the same range in a number set, even when the domains come
from different contexts. They can also be thought of as alternative routes.
Cross-domain relations can be searched for that relate aspects of our goal
that are also aspects of goals that have different unified contexts than our
goal. It's important to mark the optimal routes out of the cross-domain
relations, but keep the other relations (possible routes) for use in future
goal structures. By linking multiple goals in this manner, we expand our
network of understanding.
Copyright 9/7/2000 Justin Coslor
Knowledge Mining
Maybe amassing huge intelligent databases that can draw conclusions and
make abstractions and predictions towards goals that can recognize & ask for
specific data it needs to output one or more units of truth, which could help
demystify fields of study and help major breakthroughs occur, if not by simply
abstracting and relating so much specific data and general patterns in so many
areas; to help bring everything to one's fingertips. A massively parallel
search and correlation engine:
The computer has to be able to understand a goal enough to figure out how
to better understand that goal, so that it can design it's own searches
(determine its own search criteria), and know what a conclusion would look
like and would require to be complete enough to make an abstraction.
What is the criteria of a conclusion? Is a conclusion just one particular
perspective in every situation? How can the perspective be intelligently
shifted and rotated in a search to generate and array of complimentary
conclusions? At what point does the difference in goals generate opposing
conclusions? (i.e. when do conclusions become apparently contradicting when
using the same set of data...) Taking this into account, what difference
in goals produces contradictory conclusions (perceptions) when searching
(parsing) intersecting sets of data?
Input something like a handbook of chemistry and physics, with a goal of
making valid correlations that are not a listed part of that original data
set. Start out with general patterns like input types, leading to language
semantic patterns, leading to patterns of contextual settings, leading to
metaphoric patterns between contexts, *leading to applications of the
generalized raw data to the metaphoric patterns, leading to generalized
predictions of the outcome of the previous step*, parsing the conclusions
listed in the raw data and matching it to the metaphoric mold (the pattern and
logic) that led the contained data elements (or equivalents) to that listed
conclusion. . .in short: enable the software to understand how the data
elements were led to the conclusion listed in the raw data, so that those
patterns (metaphoric molds or logic operations) can be understood enough to be
applied to the raw data in different permutations (ways) to uncover
conclusions of previously unconsidered possibilities. Those patterns and
derivation/discovery methods could also be used as a guide for designing
new patterns built from recombining the old patterns with unique data.
And since unique data almost always is unique due to its being composed of
at least some unique patterns; parsing the old (known) patterns from new
(unknown) patterns might make it easier to clarify what exactly the new
pattern is or at least how it operates (or at the very least, its function).
This is knowledge mining. . .One form of artificial intelligence.
Circular Reasoning:
I aught to look up the dictionary definition of a bunch of the key words
in this.. Hey, why not all of the words? A number could correspond to the
number of words the dictionary definition of each word had to reference
(on every level of the tree of lookup words, each branch pausing when it ends
up at it's own word (a loop)) until the parts of the world applicable to the
context of the base word have been described (mapped)), until an upper limit
has been reached on each word. The highest number out of all of the words will
be the number of words in the applicable dictionary to the context of that
paragraph (no repeats). It will be a complete system of circular reasoning.
A complete system of circular reasoning is where every word in a
dictionary is mapped to at least one other word in that dictionary. Some may
be mapped to every word in that dictionary. A complete system of circular
reasoning is one unit. It is aversion/perspective model of a truth. And
different ones can be combined to build complex systems of truth. Like
mitochondria building cells building structures.
Copyright 7/13/2005 Justin Coslor
Pattern Occurrences
Some patterns are designed or brought about intentionally, and other
patterns are brought about naturally, and others are brought about as an
unintentional consequence of bringing about intentional patterns, such
as in unintentional contexts that are created as a result of layering
patterns, and grouping patterns, and modifying patterns.
Some patterns occur naturally according to certain variable probabilities
specific to their contexts, while others are subject to haphazard creation,
randomness, and free will.
Copyright 7/14/2005 Justin Coslor
Since all patterns are composed of repetitions, and since the repetitions
are what makes the parts recognizable, and since anything that is recognizable
can be considered a pattern, the reference pieces for the parts of each
pattern can be local, as part of the pattern's context, or the reference
pieces can be remote, as part of other contexts that are accessible to the
perception system. The reference pieces are instances of the repetitions that
make the parts recognizable, and are usually cataloged by order of exposure to
them, as well as by associations.
When new patterns are encountered they are either recognized (thus
categorizable), or they are unrecognizable (thus not categorizable) because
their parts and properties are unknown, or they are partially recognized (thus
potentially categorizable and partly referencable). If the pattern is
new and it is recognized, then its parts are already known but are arranged in
a new configuration and with potentially new properties due to the novel
association of its parts.
So basically, once the perception system is exposed to contexts, the
pattern matching/classification system begins its task of dissecting new
patterns into reference pieces, and classifying recognizable patterns into
association contexts and utility contexts, and assigning priority ratings to
everything so that the perception system can decide what to pay attention to.
Priority ratings get constantly updated, and depend on how much bandwidth and
processing power the perception system and reasoning engine have available.
The reasoning engine does all of the heavy calculations, task and priority
assignments, memory management, simulation modeling, and most of the decision
Copyright 7/5/2005 Justin Coslor
ePIC Goal Representation
(ePIC = electronic Patterns In Contexts)
A goal is an abstract construct, and the attainment of a goal is to fill
in all of the details of the goal either:
1. in Platonic Reality (information space), or
2. in physical reality (matter configuration space).
If the details have been filled in in Platonic Reality, then the result is a
simulation. If the details have been filled in in physical reality, then the
result is a working model. A prototype can be a preliminary model or
preliminary simulation.
The abstract construct of a goal is the starting point for changing your
reality in some way. One need only be able to partially perceive of the
abstraction to initiate the existence of the goal, but to fully specify it, a
viable plan needs to be formulated. Usually there are unknown variables in
every abstract goal, and specifying each variable becomes an iterative
process. Often the abstract goal can be stated in the form of a question, and
is the result of the questions that arose from some problem. Often times
further questioning of the problem impetus is necessary to specify the goal
and in doing so, the problem gets solved as the unknowns become decided or
Many goals are qualitative/categorical subjective/objective priority
system calculations, that rely on preference, perspective, universal truths,
contextual restrictions, and contextual properties. However, all problems,
goals, and solutions can be represented as patterns in contexts, such as
undecided patterns in partially determined contexts, that evolve through
storing and grouping of categorical, qualitative, and quantitative patterns
across different contexts into an experimental buffer/model space towards the
sufficiently representative construct or construction of networks of
systems of patterns, that satisfy the objectives of the problem and goal,
in the context of the final form of the problem and goal.
The Patterns In Contexts concept is an epistemological language,
which I strongly believe can be used to represent anything, any concept,
and any information of any kind, including first person, second person,
third person information in past present or future tense,
and it adapts well into any other language.
Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor
Cross-Domain Relations in Analogical Relations
A true cross-domain relation would have two domains that each lead to the
same range. Analogical relations do something very similar to this, however
not quite. In an analogical relation, the relation between the domain and
range of one context is mimicked across a somewhat similar domain and range in
a different context (only some properties need to be similar for the analogy
to be formed, since a barely recognizable similarity needs to exist).
The result is like having generalized an abstraction of the two
domains and the relation, and using that abstraction to perform the
abstracted relation on the second domain in the other context.
This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

Book 1 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.
Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor
Patterns In Context and Question Asking Systems for Object-Oriented
The patterns in contexts model of knowledge representation and question
asking systems based on forming networks of questions and networks of patterns
in networks contexts can be used to make a profoundly sophisticated
object-oriented programming system capable of doing analogical reasoning,
deductive reasoning, as well as induction and recursions that are simply not
representable in other systems. In this system there is a constant
acceleration of computational complexity, all of which is progressively
designed to simplify the system while augmenting abilities and understanding.
Copyright 5/30/2005 Justin Coslor
Complexity Progressions
Every state of a complex pattern can be said to be the result of a
progressive augmentation of the previous state or model/version by a new or
repeated pattern, or by multiple patterns. That is, unless data loss has
occurred due to random deletion or a random addition process.
Copyright 5/31/2005 Justin Coslor
Pattern Details & Randomness
Every pattern is the iterative accumulation of modulations and
augmentations of sub-patterns, right down to the atomic repetitions that
are the first forms that are recognizable from randomness.
Atomic repetitions may come in a wide variety of non-interoperable modes
of partitioning, each of which is subject to a unique perception system that
is capable of buffering and filtering its own particular spectrum of atomic
repetitions that are partitioned from patterns and randomness that are
unrecognizable to that mode.
Randomness comes in two main forms: there is randomness that is compatible
with the partition mode of a given perspective system, thus being countable or
measurable via the mathematical comparison of the atomic repetitions of that
mode (because it is just a randomization of those atomic repetitions);
and the other kind of randomness is composed of randomized patterns that are
partitioned in modes other than that which is compatible with the
current perspective system.
It is undecidable whether or not there exists a randomness that cannot be
partitioned by any mode of perspective, i.e. a randomness that is not the
randomization of some set of patterns or atomic repetitions.
Copyright 9/7/2004 Justin Coslor
Metaphoric Operations on Patterns Across Contexts
I want to learn LISP and use it to make an intelligent agent capable
of doing metaphoric operations on patterns across contexts.
2/17/2005 Update by Justin Coslor:
I guess now, most Artificial Intelligence Programming is starting to
be done in Java since it is cross-platform and simple to use.
Copyright 9/8/2004 Justin Coslor
To do this, the sub-agents will need to be able to research raw data
configuration sets to look for algebraic repetition that can be considered to
be patterns in the sea of cached buffered inputed/observed/recognized
In order to recognize something, it will have to have a known set of
basic recursions (repetitions) to begin with. The prime numbers ar a good
source to start out with (since they are the natural balance points in the
Then it will need to try to describe each data configuration set
(data map) whose atomic repetition symmetries can be characterized or
parsed. This description will be known as the pattern's type, and
patterns with similar types will be grouped into classes.
To describe a metaphoric operation will require generalizing the
differences between each type description in a particular class, and
then mapping the observed relations (between each of these types) in the
form of a nodal network. That nodal network will be a metaphoric object
that summarizes the class.
Create metaphoric objects for all of the classes in the context (aka
scope) of your total original cached raw data. Then form relations
between different metaphoric objects, and combine and reconfigure
different metaphoric objects, with the original metaphoric objects being
treated as axioms of that particular context. The metaphoric object
relations can be treated as templates for filtering other raw data
contexts in the search for known patterns which contain their own
distinct uniqueness, that will will warrant the generation of new types
in new classes. Every context has its own types in their own classes.
In other words, every raw data set has its own patterns in their own
contexts. This is how to relate different raw data sets to extract their
relational axioms, and the combination and reconfiguration of different
contexts' axiom sets (metaphoric objects) is what I call metaphoric
Copyright 8/23/2004 by
Justin Coslor.
Information Theory Quotes
""Metaphor" is a relational model of recursion, where
the circular reasoning (in recursive definitions &
recursive functions) cross-relates the elements of
definitions & functions from multiple (or different)
contexts. That is why cross-domain relations are so
crucial to the metaphoric representation of knowledge
and knowledge systems (logics)."
Copyright 8/26/2004 by Justin Coslor:
"I also believe that information is metaphoric in
nature (has algebraic interconnectivity), and that it
can be represented as a composition of patterns in
contexts, where the contexts themselves can be
patterns, and the atomic elements of each pattern are
composed of symmetry sections (partitions) of data,
where each partition is part of a local or dislocated
repetition (a symmetry, an algebra). And it is only
through the repetition of a data section that part of
a pattern can become recognizable from apparently
random white noise. Randomness and white noise are
probably patterns that are larger than the scope of
our perceptions, so the data appears random. And I say
that metaphors can be represented geometrically
because all of the prime numbers (the balance points
in the universe) are symmetrical when represented
geometrically, and it is likely through primarily
symmetrical sensory and cognitive structures that our
minds can interpret information. And I think of metaphors
not as A = B, but more like the similarity of the
juxtaposition of A's elements in the context of B, and
B's elements in the context of A, in terms of general
systems theory.
I equate truth with workable patterns that become
more and more refined and defined as they get
used. I believe that all truth that we are capable of
perceiving is but a small approximation of the whole
truth. And that the truth/patterns that we are capable
of using is often subject to perception within varying
contexts. But there seem to exist connections between
information none-the-less, through whatever means.
Possibly since (in my opinion) everything came from
Here's another quote from my journal Copyright
11/24/2003 by Justin Coslor:
"Information is a symphony of symbolism and symmetry."
Here's another journal entry Copyright 12/23/2003 by Justin
"Information, by it's very nature, is a division. Yet
it strives to become whole again, and at the very
least, to become balanced."
::Metaphoric Operations::
Metaphors are geometrical, in a sense, that is to say they follow mathematical
geometries. That is to say, metaphors can be thought of in terms of
geometrical patterns and systems. This is because metaphors can be diagrammed,
and diagrams have a relative/nodal/graph-theoretic logic about them, and
through the logic of their patterns and systems they can be recognizable as
having a sort of relational geometry (at least in the unseen
Platonic-reality). Patterns have an algebraic repetition at their foundation,
and the most basic repetitions are symmetries. The most basic symmetries can
be perceived through prime numbers, in that they are the fundamental building
blocks of more complex symmetrical and a-symmetrical structures. A-symmetrical
structures are constructed out of symmetrical structures, just as non-prime
numbers (composite numbers) are constructed out of prime numbers and
relations/functions. Metaphoric operations are relational templates that are
axiomatic, adaptable, reconfigurable, and versatile. This is because they are
collections of relations whose options have been generalized to optimize those
qualities for relating similar, and different qualitative domains across
contexts. Each context's qualities' relations are unique to that context's set
of axioms. One might say that domains are qualitative, while the domain's
ranges can be qualitative OR quantitative. Metaphoric operations relate
different consistent, recursively complete, contexts by copying or moving
elements from each context into the separate but more versatile context of the
metaphoric template. Once the elements have leave their original context,
their original context's axiom set(s) may be altered, as well as some of the
context itself (and sub-contexts, if any are relevant). Metaphoric contexts
may only need to copy some of the axioms of their element's original contexts,
because they have axioms of their own that help to allow for the relation of
the axioms that are buffered in from multiple other contexts. The metaphoric
template's original axioms also help to relate the qualitative elements which
are the current primary focuses, that were constructed out of relevant axioms
from the external contexts. New knowledge is created when the qualitative
elements' axioms sets are adapted to form new qualitative elements and
relations out of the augmentation of the metaphoric template's context's axiom
sets, by the elements' external axiom sets. With metaphors, anything that
isn't explicitly cross-domain related is ignored. Qualities are itemized as
they are noticed or as they are deemed relevant. Personally, I feel like the
diagram of metaphoric operations is a lot prettier than the description...
Copyright 12/25/2004 by Justin M. Coslor
Copyright 1/9/2005 Justin Coslor
Visual Dictionaries and Axiomatic Abductive Simulations
Maybe as part of building the logical framework for a systematic visual
dictionary, we could try representing each image both as a set of angular or
situational perspectives; but also I think it's important to try to axiomatize
the image properties into contexts, and by doing so we can do abductive
creative constructions (and abstractions of those to some approximate goals),
such as by perceiving each image as a series of nodes (graph theory vertices)
and connections that are all linked together both contextually in the physical
space, and conceptually in the historical-timeline/platonic interaction space.
By doing this, the heuristic (guess-work) training can be semi-automized
and the intelligence data on the scenario objects can have a far deeper
meaning and farther reaching applications. Deepening the understanding of
content and its abductive recombinations and metaphoric
transcombinations, both increases the potential for creating new applications
and tools, and increases the versatility and effectiveness of existing tools
and applications. Deepening understanding of content creates new contexts and
reconceptualizes stuff by augmenting axiom sets that the contexts are based
Copyright 1/21/2005 Justin Coslor
Axiomatic Visual-Layer Interpretation
Forming stronger linkages between axiom sets deepens the meaning of
content of all structures that are based on those axioms. It can also
complicate things by cluttering the contexts that those structures act
within if the linkages are formed sub-optimally. Such is the case of an
image with ambiguous layering. This has applications to steganography,
computer vision, and virtual-reality educational environments, etc.
Copyright 8/7/2005 Justin Coslor
Patterns In Contexts: 3D Engine
I think Java3D, combined with some inexpensive virtual reality equipment,
will be the ideal environment for exploring Patterns In Contexts theory
visually. Critical to that is a software that is able to parse video data into
2D objects and build 3D geometric reconstructions of those objects along
with the parameters of their observable range of motion, and do heuristic
guessing at the backsides of the objects that are hidden from view or just
make the 2D objects into 3D avatars that always face you regardless of which
side of theme you are on. That way, video data can be geometerized and
represented as Patterns In Contexts, and 3D worlds can much more easily be
created by mixing together objects and behaviors from an enormous archive of
experience (from video sources) that is all parsed and sorted categorically by
a visual dictionary that maps adjectives and nouns and verbs to pattern
properties such as qualitative geometric relations, axiomatically defined
variables and operations, and contextually associated references of objects
and their pattern groupings. Each entry of the visual dictionary will contain
an up-to-date list of all objects in the pattern archive that contain the
geometric or otherwise visual property defined by that visual dictionary
entry. Scale, color, orientation, state, position, and quantitative data in
many cases can be ignored by the visual dictionary, unless the entry is
directly intended to describe one or more of those properties.
Copyright 1/9/2005 Justin Coslor
Graphical Representation and Visual Heuristics
Make a website loaded with graphs, diagrams, flowcharts, and simplified
geometric reconstructions of stuff, events, places, flows, tools, intellectual
understanding, interpretations and translations, programs, systems, etc. Call
it "mapworld" or "graphworld." Make webcrawling intelligent agents that
generate extensive thorough, and systematic visual dictionaries online.
Similarly, there should be a webpage utility where you can enter the
URL (Uniform Resource Locator = website address) to some text or copy/paste
in some text directly and it could try to abstract visual perceptions of the
text content's meaning and represent it in the form of a diagram or graph,
etc. It could also try researching images on the internet that are related to
the text. I realize that the second part might be difficult, since there
aren't very many visual dictionaries in existance yet, and computer vision and
machine learning technologies may not be that advanced yet (but maybe they
are...?). Heuristics (guess-work on visual data and in language processing is
just a matter of logical deduction, manual training of Bayesian statistical
and Connectionist techniques, and
metaphoric/analogical/cross-domain-relational mappings across contexts,
to bridge systems not yet adapted to each other.
Copyright 7/20/2005 Justin Coslor
Creativity & Understanding
Language is permutations of semantics, governed by syntax and context,
with meaningful intention.
What is the language of creativity?
What are its semantics?
What is its syntax?
What is its context?
The language of creativity always contains either:
1. new semantics or new permutations of semantics, and/or
2. new syntax, and/or
3. new context.
*Creativity does not always convey meaningful intention.
The semantics of creativity are new patterns and/or old patterns thought
of in new ways (recontextualized patterns). The syntax of creativity is
either internally defined by the language of the format (if the format is
known), or else (if the format is new) it is externally defined by the
naturally occurring partitions and connections of the organic objects and
systems of developments of the natural universe, or by the connections and
partitions present in the diagonalizations of synthesized patterns juxtaposed
through a relational operator or operation, and/or the diagonalization of the
juxtaposition of synthesized patterns and natural patterns juxtaposed through
a relational operator or operation, and/or the diagonalization of the
juxtaposition of natural patterns juxtaposed through a relational operator or
The context of creativity is always at least partially new. Creative
expressions composed entirely of entirely new patterns (not just modified
ones) in entirely new contexts with external syntax that has never before been
known of and that is unrelatable to known syntax will always appear random and
entirely undecipherable unless the person or interpretation program is capable
of analogical abductive reasoning. However there will be no conclusive proof
that the analogies drawn will be correct. The analogies may be qualitatively
correct in the metaphoric sense, but they will never be proven quantitatively
correct to the knowledge of the analyst. There has to be some decoding method,
key, or common ground known to the analyst in order to decipher such a
creative expression.
Copyright 7/17/2005 Justin Coslor
Layers of states and states of layers (As in "finite element state
machines" and similar systems):
Mathematics -> connections and differences in maps of possibilities
Philosophy -> depth of possibility maps models of truth progressing
Science and Technology -> exploration of possibilities through careful
experimentation and adaptation to discoveries
Can you think of more? It is definitely possible.
Look for stuff like those descriptions. Juxtapose operators and abductively
reason into applications.
Copyright 7/8/2005 Justin Coslor
Measurement Systems
In measurement, two or more quantities or qualities are compared to one
another, such as a unit of measure applied to a starting point and ending
point of another object. When a unit of measure is undefined, you look for the
minimum unit(s) of commonality between the objects and mark the overlap points
and the center-points between the starting and ending points, and the center
points between those points, etc. If any number systems or other patterns are
used as division or counting units (such as prime numbers), as well as
center-point binary tree parsing, we realize that "all measurement is really
comparison by parsing or partitioning". The units of the partitioning or
parsing can be native common denominators of the observer's perception system
and the object.
The intersection of the juxtaposition of multiple objects is another
native unit of parsing, which itself can be parsed into smaller units via a
number system or other pattern. Common ground or compatibility is necessary
for comparison, and since measurement is a form of comparison, measurement is
an act of perception adaptation via parsing or partitioning. It's the act of
trying to perceive of an object via the perception system of something
else, and often times perception systems miss a lot because there are often
lots of valid ways for a particular observer to perceive of things, and it's
an undecidable problem about whether a perception system is not recognizing
other undefined potential aspects of the object, let alone know what it is not
perceiving through its axioms and atomic units of partitioning, and methods of
parsing and grouping, and methods of determining anchor points,
interpretation, starting and ending points, edge detection, pattern layering,
and buffer sizes and contextualization, etc.
Active measuring is when ea system's partitioning structure and
methodology/reasoning system is constantly updated as something is being
measured. An example of active measuring is a system capable of learning, such
as an adaptive or evolutionary perception system, such as an artificially
intelligent reasoning system or human being. A perception system that is
merely adaptive but not evolutionary is autonomous or semi-autonomous, but not
intelligent, since it only knows the context that it currently exists in. By
storing perception systems adapted to multiple contexts, a system can then
often map out the commonalty and differences between each context and form a
general common-sense perception system which can be analyzed inductively,
deductively, and abductively by its reasoning engine.
Analysis via comparison of the domains and ranges of functions that exist
in different contexts is an abductive reasoning process since it is a form of
analogical reasoning. Once again common ground must be mapped between the
functions being compared or else an external perception system will have
to artificially map its units onto both functions so that compatible parsing
and partitioning can proceed in a measurable, if not blind (thus artificially
simulated) representation.
Passive measuring is when the measurement and perception system's
reasoning engine is not updated by internal induction, deduction, or abduction
during measurement, nor after measurement. Passive measurement is merely
mechanical and not adaptive or evolutionary.
Copyright 7/2/2005 Justin Coslor
Re-contextualized Patterns
It's interesting how patterns and their implications change as their raw
data is re-contextualized and/or perceived from different perspective systems
and contexts. The parameters of each context shapes the possibilities of its
patterns' applications, implications, and recognized states of existence.
Often times the possibilities of contexts overlap, and are subjective in
the sense that there may exist several possible ways to perceive of and
interpret a context, where each way may have equal or varying levels of
probable truth in its systems, depending on the perspective system and
intentions/expectations of the observer and/or the controller.
Copyright 6/25/2005 Justin Coslor
Observing patterns and differences
Combining my poem about "Sight" with my poem about "Reasoning Engines",
leaves me thinking about the line "from color comes shape" and the line about
"thinking as storing and grouping knowledge", and how it takes a pattern to
perceive of a pattern, such as one colored shape outlining or juxtaposing
against another colored shape, and how each of these shapes (and color
information) gets stored as a piece of knowledge (a pattern), and how both are
grouped together by their situational context. The differences between them
are patterns not origininally apparent in either piece of knowledge prior to
their comparison, unless those patterns are stored in the perceiver's virtual
knowledge base from prior experience or innate programming.
So you can try grouping every atomic pattern with every other atomic
pattern (time allowing), and as long as you're working with more than a
one-dimensional medium, the differences between each atomic pattern being
compared one-to-one will constitute a unique atomic pattern. This sort of
comparison is one way of coming up with new knowledge in mediums that exist in
two-dimensional (or greater) qualitative and/or quantitative and/or
conditional mediums, and mediums that combine different types of properties.
* Comparing unequivalent objects always creates partitions in either one or
both of the objects. The remainder partitions are sometimes entirely knew but
virtual objects. *
From color comes shape,
and from shape comes size,
we triangulate images
that come into our eyes.
"Reasoning Engines"
1. Knowledge as patterns in contexts.
2. Thinking as storing and grouping knowledge.
* Language contextualizes perceptions. The language used in each perception
identifies and indicates patterns that have been parsed through comparison. *
Copyright 6/24/2005 Justin Coslor
Pattern Matching
Previously I've written about how if you divide a circle into a
bunch of equiangled sectors and if there is a prime number of sectors
then no symmetrical alternating coloring patterns exist, but if there is
a non-prime number of these equiangled sectors, then you can color in
alternating sectors or groups of sectors to form symmetrical patterns
that correspond to each of the composite number pieces.
To apply this to pattern matching, simply cut the circle so that its
sectors lie in a straight line and then look at the coloring patterns to
match pieces of that linear pattern to strings of numbers, where each
color might be a particular number, or just do it in binary. In this
manner you can make numerical landmarks in raw data streams to look for
patterns within potentially random data.
When only a piece of one of these composite number symmetry patterns
shows up in a linear data stream, that may indicate that other layers of
patterns may be overlapping it. The thing that makes these patterns
recognizable from randomness is the juxtaposition of their unique
alternating prime partition patterns. An individual prime partition
pattern piece that has been linearized is indistinguishable from any
other linear prime partition pattern piece unless you know for sure that
you're seeing the whole thing. But when you juxtapose two or more of
these patterns together in the form of a composite symmetry pattern even
a fragment of that pattern can dramatically narrow down the
possibilities of its origin. Copyright 6/20/2005 Justin Coslor
Remote-Controlled Contexts Via Preprocessor Switchboards (See Diagrams)
Instead of having injective, surjective, and bijective, maybe there
could be a preprocessor module that is bijective that goes in front of
all surjective and injective relations. For a surjective relation: P1 =
surjective ARP1 = bijective ARB = surjective = ACP1B For an injective
relation: ARP2 = bijective P2RB = injective ARB = injective = ACP2RB A
and B are domains P1 and P2 are preprocessors R is a relation, C is a
cross-domain relation.
In effect, the preprocessor becomes a duplicate of the domain
element in A, but independent of the context of A. So since the
preprocessing is done outside of A, you can have single-line inputs from
A, and you can take several domain elements out of their contexts and
perform their relations via remote control.
In the second diagram, the cross-domain relation BCP2 is turned off,
so context D doesn't contain its relation (P2RD) unit P2 gets turned
back on. In that diagram, D is a remote-controlled context via the
preprocessor operations switchboard S.
A, B, and C are each in their own contexts and they combine in
context D. The preprocessor modules allow for simple remote control like
an operations switchboard. Copyright 6/12/2005 Justin Coslor Definitions
Defining something by cataloging it's properties and relations is
blind unless you specify the particular context of the thing, and the
sub-contexts of the properties and relations it is composed of. Context
is both an exoskelletal structure as well as an endoskelletal structure.
Context is is defined by both the external limits as well as the
internal limits. Copyright 6/5/2005 Justin Coslor Geometric Abstractions
When doing abstraction on geometries and photos of patterns (symmetry
formations, repetitions of patterns, and that which is recognizable from
randomness), maybe all that is needed is a map of intersection points
for each level of connectivity: i.e. a map of all points where two lines
intersect, a map of all points where three lines intersect, etc. The
union of all of those maps should form a sufficient geometric
abstraction to recreate a recognizable approximation of the original
model of photo patterns. Copyright 6/4/2005 Justin Coslor Index of
Topics *(Remember to finish adding topics to this index, as it is only a
partial list of ePIC-related topics I've written about so far.) choice
creativity patterns contexts variables properties relations:
quantitative, qualitative, cross-domain, analogical abstraction models
simulations axioms: key, branch knowledge: implicit, explicit,
representation intuitions complexity progressions pattern details
randomness analogical recursions question asking systems question
expectation templates object-oriented processing operation spaces: grids
v.s. networks analogy metaphor examples Copyright 6/4/2005 Justin Coslor
Abstract relations are relations described by descriptions that are
the simplified form of lexicons, where the details have been stripped
and only the categorical data remains, along with some quantitative data
(possibly. . .I'm not sure yet....), such as the dimensions and data
types. Relations are fairly easy to abstract because you can just build
an itemized list of the operators and verbs used on or in the general
context of the domains that use them. Copyright 6/3/2005 Justin Coslor
(See example diagrams) If a domain A is cross-domain related to a domain
B analogically, that relation can be injective, or subjective; or if it
is bijective, even if it's bijective to another element in the domain
than the starting point, then we can say that the relation is recursive.
This is an example of analogical recursions, because since all bijective
relations are recursive, and analogical reasoning deals primarily with
cross-domain relations, then all cross-domain relations that are
bijective are analogical recursions. Another form of cross-domain
analogical recursions comes from alternating back and forth through a
set of relations between two or more domains, where the active element
in the active domain is determined by some function on the ordering of
the elements in that domain (a sequence function on the cardinality).
Injective analogical recursions can also exist in a back and forth
system that ultimately loops between the various domains of two or more
contexts. Copyright 5/25/2005 Justin Coslor Implicit V.S. Explicit
In knowledge bases, facts and data are stored in patterns and
contexts explicitly, but that same information may also belong to other
contexts, and can be arranged into different patterns and may have
unidentified relations to patterns in that data set and/or to patterns
not in that data set.
Often times there are multiple hierarchical levels and recursions of
patterns in contexts and sub-contexts in patterns, and bridging across
these levels are more of the same in many cases. Data that is implied
can be treated as though it is hidden, though its role may be very
important in the context of the data that depends on it. In the
perception of questions, lots of implicit patterns and contexts are
necessary to generate and adapt simulated models of the knowledge that
is involved with the possible ways to represent the meaning of the
question, as well as for generating models of the expectation parameters
of the context templates involved with goal search, answer retrieval,
and answer formulation (for discovering or constructing suitable content
of the right level of detail). This is because every question is the
intersection of multiple contexts, or rather every question is an
attempt at adapting multiple contexts into compatibility, and thus
unknowns must be declared. Copyright 5/16/2005 Justin Coslor Analogy,
Metaphor, and Examples Now due to my lack of a dictionary on hand I'll
create some of my own definitions (the names can be changed later). An
analogy is like half of a metaphor. An analogy gives an elaborated
example of a relation, whereas a metaphor gives an example of a relation
across multiple contexts (a cross-domain relation). An example of an
analogy is like saying: An apple is like an onion. Both rot, and are
edible. An example of a metaphor is: Apple is to onion as postman is to
salesman. An analogy is essentially a simile plus a moral or
explanation/elaboration. A metaphor may describe the same relation(s) as
an analogy in that it juxtaposes two or more pieces of information. This
is similar to generating a unique diagonal length from a box generated
by using one sequence or variable quantification as the x axis and
another sequence or variable quantification as the y axis to produce a
unique qualitative variable or sequence... Add more dimensions to the
diagonalization to combine more variables or sequences or functions...
Then just rotate the diagonal axis until it is horizontal. But metaphor
goes a step farther and presents another example of that relation, but
in a different context. *Examples are contextualizations of patterns. A
relation between qualitative variables is thus a diagonalization of
their quantitative mappings. In this way, qualitative mappings can be
represented geometrically. Patterns are composed of variables and
relations between variables. **Variables are usually qualitative
property sets that have been quantitatively mapped into juxtaposition
with their enumerated algebraic repetitions. Juxtaposition via
diagonalization is a form of an operator. ***Operators are forms of
juxtaposition of variables and patterns. Addition sequentially
juxtaposes variables and patterns on a grid. Subtraction is the opposite
of addition, as it removes variables and patterns from a grid.
Multiplication sequentially adds to columns of categories, one category
at a time. Division de-references and parses columns of categorical
values, and is the opposite of multiplication. Addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, 2D geometry, trigonometry, algebra, calculus,
etc, ... all are operations that can be performed on a grid. Change the
operation space (i.e. change the context), and the axioms that these
operations are based on may no longer apply; but some may, and those are
the axioms we want to collect for a wide range of adaptability, and can
be used in forming general systems theory grids and networks.
As far as I know about operation spaces, there are grids and there
are networks. Each can be within each, they can come in many different
forms, and translations are possible between them, but the translation
between a grid and a network always relies on a core set of axioms that
are in common between the two data structures. Copyright 5/4/2005 Justin
Coslor (Based on a theory I had around the year 2000) Sight --------
From color comes shape, and from shape comes size, we triangulate images
that come into our eyes. --------------------------- Fall 2001 to
4/25/2003 Justin Coslor My fundamental theorem of Computer Vision: I
believe that from color comes shape and from shape comes size;
comparatively/relatively/contexually. I'll have to read about the
cognition of vision to fill in the details and check out software and
plasticware/firmware/hardware models of visual perception. Learn known
mathematical techniques. Copyright 5/6/2005 Justin Coslor Rules Are
Behavioral Expectations Here are some types of rules: Laws, priorities,
environmental limitations (physics), trends, norms, common sense,
personal limitations, societal beliefs, personal beliefs, lazy
tendencies & optimizations, conditions, terms of use or license
agreement, policy, ethics, morals, probability judgments, priority
judgments, game theoretic strategy, preemptive negotiation, real-time
negotiation, post hoc proc negotiation, design considerations,
navigational control, pattern guidelines, pattern maps, mathematical
modeling and calculation, combination possibilities, case-by-case
possibilities; forum dimensionality, axioms, theorems, and restrictions;
units and parsing and sorting methods and requirements; activation,
deactivation, and flow control theory, network access methods, network
exchange methods, network dynamics. Here are some qualifiers for those
kinds of rules: Global, situational, regional, local, continuous,
temporal, static, dynamic, linear, parallel, hierarchical, symmetric,
independent, context specific, general, intentional, unintentional,
conscious/unconscious, automatic, manual, modal, type, categorical. Find
an ontology that lists concepts related to a given concept, in a
hyper-linked format. Similar to encyclopedia references (see
Wikipedia.org) or book topical references in the public library's card
catalog. Copyright 1/7/2005 Justin Coslor Categories: Part 1 Even if
categories get proven to be inaccurate (*Are accuracy proofs based on
any subjective information?), then useful information about the
compatibility of the data elements can be discovered as parameters get
refined. Ultimately, it is the compatibility of the elements, both in
and between data sets, that makes the fundamental definitions of the
categories. Copyright 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor Hypothetical Relation
Highlighting in Undefined Data Sets: If categorical names have been
assigned to finite elements in a domain, the rest of the data in the set
can be hypothetically considered to be relations or parts of relations
(on those elements and elements not in that buffered data set). Or they
may be elements of categories you don't yet recognize or know of yet.
Guessing about Neural Architectures... This is a journal entry,
Copyright 9/12/2004 by Justin Coslor.
I could be totally wrong about this, but it is currently presumed,
by me at least, that neural architectures tune to, receive, translate,
and transmit various wavelengths of patterned energy configurations. The
tuning functions may be in one unit, the receivers/input devices may be
in another unit; the translation/manipulation apparatus may be in
another unit; the translation/manipulation apparatus may operate in a
unit of its own, and the transmission/re- communication apparatus may be
in a unit of its own as well.
There is likely data loss in the imperfections and limitations of
the tuning apparatus, the receiving apparatus, and the re-transmission
apparatus successively; however, the translation/manipulation apparatus
may apply experience-based heuristics to fill in the holes and sharpen
or simplify the distortions and puzzles in the data field. Each cluster
of nodes, as well as the relation nodes themselves sometimes perform
negotiations for syntactic and semantic consistency. Such negotiations
are likely interfaces composed of multi-purpose reconfigurable general
cellular nodes. Meaning might be derived from information streams by
creating translations and equivalence representations in other classes
and other contexts, and by defining and rating utility functions and
organizing them in such a way that their priority can easily be
determined relevant to the general function of the class of relations
they belong to in generalized/easily-specialized contexts. The neat
thing about information, rather than cause and effect, is that it can be
re-conceptualized and re-contextualized and re-framed/re-patterned.
10/22/2004 Justin Coslor (after reading pg. 11 “Modern Algebra” by
Gilbert and Vanstone) Some methods of Proof: - Assumptions (context) -
Examples of problems or experience - Critical questions of interest -
Representative language choice -Translation/Mapping -> same or different
context? - Inventory of context axioms - Define critical question's
search scope - Assume all questions are somewhat answerable - Convert
other knowledge into current representation and abstract relationships
without regard to hierarchical depth - Group compatible relationships -
Mark partial compatibilities as overlapping sub-contexts - Hypothesize
mappings that assume each relationship to be the answer to a series of
questions - Look for hypothesized questions similar to questions of
interest - If found, remap original examples in terms of those similar
mappings of hypothesized questions - Define inconsistencies and address
them - Represent conclusion - Explore relations of conclusion to other
contexts - Blah blah blah, I should study more. 8/12/2004 Justin Coslor
Axiom Notes (Here are some note I took at the public library today.)
Structuring XML Documents / David Megginson CLP MAIN SCI&TECH QA76.76H94
M44 1998 The National Strategy To Secure Cyberspace February 2003
http://www.gpoaccess.gov - Perhaps people and machines should be trying
to prove the limits of proof. - There are many shapes of non-Euclidean
geometric reality. - Perhaps quanta of energy is a form of matter that
exists on non-Euclidean spiral and tubular planes? Maybe quanta breaks
off from matter and electrons that exist on non-Euclidean spherical
planes during orbit changes and altitude changes? I read part of the end
of the book Thinking about [TLC] LOGO: A graphic look at computing with
ideas. pg. 206&207 ISBN 0-03-064116-0 Each set of axioms is based on a
unique working model of the universe. (Regardless of the completeness of
the model.) In many cases, there is some overlap between different sets
of axioms, because many contexts have some properties and/or patterns
that are in common. Metaphoric operations describe the relations between
the properties and/or patterns that are in common between unique
contexts. More than that, each set of axioms attempts to define a
working model of the universe, and that no model of the universe is
complete (hence it is a model) other than the universe itself; and from
within the universe, a model of the universe can only be approximated,
and to a varying degree of accuracy and/or applicability at that.
8/20/2004 Justin Coslor Update: So essentially, a set of axioms is only
as good as the model they attempt to describe. Copyright 6/8/2004 Justin
Coslor Contexts
A context is a relation that defines a group of patterns. A pattern
that is not related to any other patterns is isolated, and can for the
most part be considered "invisible" to other contexts. A context can
also be considered to be a pattern, and can sometimes also be considered
as subject to this "isolation" concept. Patterns that exist within
networks of contexts are the most easily located, since cross-domain
relation-based experimental search and discovery methods need not be
applied to locate or define them, as is necessary in many cases to find
isolated patterns (i.e. island knowledge). Networks can consist of
relations (surjective, injective, and bijective ) and cross-domain
relations (which are potentially multi-node route reverse-surjective
relations). Data turns into knowledge as the patterns and contexts and
networks of contexts are mapped out. Copyright 6/5/2004 Justin Coslor
Every multi-state organization or cognitive organism exists on a
higher plane than it is capable of perceiving, because nothing can
monitor every aspect of itself (unless every cell is symmetrically
identical) since the monitoring devices (sensors, etc), even when
recursive, cannot monitor every aspect of themselves. This is because in
order to perceive of something we must classify it in terms of something
else we have perceived, and since we were born in motion, our
consciousnesses pass forward from state to state, processing information
(perceiving of things in terms of the physical universe) until parts, or
the entirety of our bodies have fully ceased to move (i.e. until the
breakdown of the subparts).
As Godel's theorem implies: "no set can map its powerset". After
some developed mental subparts have broken down, the structures of the
consciousness that they were physically translating may continue to
operate outside of the rest of the brain's physical time-frame. The
latency of the various cognitive architectures in the brain may have a
great deal to do with the relativistic self-observations of
multi-sensory experiences. Since after all, some parts of the mind/body
connection and mind/brain connection operate at near the speed of light
(as electrons flow between the parts of each cell). Copyright 8/10/2005
Justin Coslor Perception -- continued from 6/5/2004.... On 6/5/2004 I
wrote that "The latency of the various cognitive architectures in the
brain may have a great deal to do with the relativistic
self-observations of multi-sensory experiences." In other words, people
think at different rates and depths from time to time, and that can
create recall and encoding obstacles in grouping and interfacing
memories between different cognitive states. However, those kinds of
qualitative and quantitative differences between the contents of
memorized perceptions can create bridges into depthier re-perceptions
for recognition into fine- tuned contexts. 5/17/2003 Justin Coslor A.I.
Notes Today I did a http://Google.com search on OpenCYC
Thought Treasure V.S. OpenCyc came up. I guess both are major
knowledge base ontology management systems, i.e. Reasoning Engines.
Thought Treasure seems to have more stuff for Natural Language
Processing than OpenCyc, but it is only free for noncommercial use. The
Cyc technology though is the world's largest and most complete general
knowledge base and commonsense reasoning engine. The CIA uses it, and
did about 500 man-years worth of data-entry into to. OpenCyc is a much
smaller subset of Cyc, and is open-source.
Cycorp runs opencyc.org, and also makes ResearchCyc for R&D in
academia and industry. Dependencies: none Languages: CycL, SubL, Java
(other API's on the way) Platforms: Linux (Win32 coming soon) Sites:
http://opencyc.org foundry.ai-depot.com/Project/OpenCyc /Amygdala /Fear
/GAUL /Joone /LogicMoo /OpenAI /SigmaPi /Simbrain 10/20/2004 Justin
Coslor Mission Statement
Free open-source software is quite possibly the best hope, in
conjunction with the freely accessible Internet, to give the common
citizens a fighting chance at building foundations for their decendents
in the midst of the mechanized empires of greed that thwart and encroach
on their liberties and livelihoods in their attempts to squeeze and
control the creative potential of supposedly free individuals who might
otherwise be nurtured to blossom as citizens of a humbly selfless and
harmonious planet Earth, that we all know can happen.
This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

continued Book 4 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.
------------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor
New Kinds of Electric Generator/Electric Motors In the diagram I drew,
you can use toroidal coils inside roller wheels that roll on the inside
of the magnet tube. Permanent magnets or horseshoe electromagnets can be
used around the outside (since they are three times stronger). The axle
is split in the middle and one end of each of the rollers' coil wire
goes to each corresponding separate half of the roller's axle, which in
turn comes in contact with the corresponding dived separate main axle
end cap, and just have a spring- loaded contact terminal on each half of
the axle. Another model could also have a split axle terminal, and could
have a frictionless magnetic bearing surface internally. 11/7/2004
Justin Coslor Batteries. In the October 2004 issue of Popular Science,
they talked about a thing where the European Space Agency and Team
Encounter allow people to pay $25 to have a photo + description get
etched onto a High Density Rosetta nickel chip and get send off into
space on a solar sail spacecraft. The chips are expected to last at
least 1000 years. Gold substrate CDROMs last about 10 years. D-Skin.com,
for $6, sells five CD skins that prevent scratches. Put a copy of my
friendly intelligence diagram on one of those nickel chips. It acts kind
of like microfiche. We might make some friends. Around 200 B.C.E.,
Parthinians in present-day Baghdad make a crude battery, an iron rod
surrounded by a copper cylinder inside a clay jar filled with vinegar.
-------> Try stacks of copper or zinc and bismuth plates separated by
two silicon rods between each junction and fill the container with
vinegar or bleach that you've added extra salt to, or use condensed
urine or something as the go-between, and put it in a tempered glass or
tempered ceramic container and attach terminals. Around 1898, size-D
zinc-carbon batteries made their debut inside a paper tube along with a
bulb and a brass reflector - which became the first "electric hand
torch". What we know of today as the flashlight.
Would bismuth be a good substitute for carbon or graphite in a
battery? Would stainless steel be useful instead of iron in a wet cell?
Stainless steel has some toxic materials in it though. Would bismuth be
a good substitute for lead in batteries? They're similar on the periodic
table, however bismuth is nontoxic and diamagnetic. Water is a conductor
and it's in vinegar. Sodium chloride is too, and acidic fluids are often
in batteries as well. Maybe acids have extra electrons and bases have
extra holes? ------------------------------------ 11/7/2004 Justin
Coslor See pg 35 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science by
Brian and Brenda Williams. Battery idea #1:
Do electrolysis on salt water to make bleach, which probably will
act as an acidic conductor. Then put the bleach in a glass or ceramic
jar and make a solid bismuth coil and put it in the bleach filled jar,
and take a solid zinc rod and electroplate it with magnesium or dip it
in magnesium and put it in the middle of the bismuth coil (or if a
bismuth tube is used instead, put it in the middle of that with some
space between it and the magnesium-coated zinc rod), and make some kind
of cap with a pressure release cannister and valve. It might work as a
great battery, but keep it outside just in case it leaks or explodes.
The bleach might crystallize (which is good) if you add a bunch of extra
salt to it after doing electrolysis. If it does crystallize, it's less
likely to leak. --------------------------- 11/7/2004 Justin Coslor
Battery idea #2: Drugstore battery.
Open up a tin can and dump the contents out and fill it up with
Pepto Bismal and take a plastic cap and roll up some aluminum foil and
jam one end of it into the cap and wrap the other end of it in wax paper
and fold it over the edge. (You might have to boil the water out of the
Pepto Bismal to thicken it into bismuth.) Next wrap some more tinfoil
around the rim of the can and fold up an extension terminal from it. I
don't know if this will work at all. Copyright 10/31/2004 Justin Coslor
Diamagnetic Energy Generation Satellites
When a coil is passed through a magnetic field it generates a
current of electricity through the coil. So, make a satellite that has a
coil made out of diamagnetic material, and at night it should generate a
current because the earth's diamagnetic field bows out on the dark side
of the Earth due to the solar wind form the sun. As the Earth turns, the
coil will be passing through that bowed out diamagnetic field. It's
necessary to use diamagnetic material for the coil because it will be
used to turn the diamagnetic field of the earth (which is between the
poles) into an electric current running through the coil. A coil made
out of non-diamagnetic material would not be receptive to the
diamagnetic field. Some examples of diamagnetic materials are pyrolytic
graphite, bismuth, water, and salt. The reason that ice floats is
because water is diamagnetic, and ice is more diamagnetic than water, so
it repels the water's diamagnetic field, and the diamagnetic field of
the Earth. One could theoretically make a gigantic coil out of ice, and
generate electricity with it.
One could also make a satellite that could travel through the
Earth's magnetic field in its equatorial orbit, and the diamagnetic coil
would produce an electric current perpendicular to the Earth's
diamagnetic field, and it could beam the electricity back to Earth in
the form of microwaves. One could even try making a satellite that can
just sit and levitate permanently in a semi-fixed position in space on
the dark side of the Earth. The moon is probably diamagnetic since one
side is always facing the Earth. (See related pictures.) 10/7/2004
Justin Coslor Electromagnetism People say that electric fields run
perpendicular to magnetic fields, so maybe the electric force can be
thought of as the active force in atoms, while the magnetic force can be
thought of as the stabilizing force in atoms, yet the two forces
correspond to each other to balance the energy and space in an atom, as
energy is always in motion, and space provides potential for that motion
to occur, whether it be in loops, knots, spirals or
transfer/transformation to other planes, shapes, and dimensions of
energy flow pathways. I like to guess at possibilities then check
science, math, logic, and philosophy or experiment to see if I got
anything right. It's my hobby. It helps me develop intuition and
reasoning ability. 9/26/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Coordinates Magnetic
North is offset from True North because the Earth wobbles at an angle
that causes there to be four seasons. The Prime Meridian goes around the
globe, and on one hemisphere it travels through Magnetic North, and on
the other hemisphere it travels through Greenwich, England. It also goes
through True North and True South. Figure out where the magnetic South
Pole is. Is it split into branches? It's probably in Antarctica. At what
points on the Earth's geomagnetic field coordinates (x,y,z polar
coordinates) are there severe distortions or landmark sub-fields? Is 360
degrees optimal for calculating an oblong spheroid? The Earth is not
round, but more of an oblong spheroid. Why did the Greeks choose 360
degrees? Greek astronomer Hipparchus (~165- 127 B.C.) made a map that
included Antarctica so they must have had advanced technology then. The
map I've seen is fairly complete, but it only shows one side of the
globe. If he was able to have a complete detailed map of Antarctica way
back then, then surely he had a way to obtain a map of the American
Continents? Ptolemy's map also denoted Magnetic North & South offset
from true North & South. Where exactly is the magnetic North Pole, and
how often do the poles flip and why? Does the Moon's orbit get pushed
away from the Earth temporarily during the flipping of the Earth's
poles? Probably, since the moon is mostly made out of diamagnetic
material. That's why we always see the same face of it, and diamagnetic
materials repel both North and South Poles and like to hover over the
mid-point between them (Satellite levitation application... Read
diamagnetic levitation article in New American Scientist around this
month.) Copyright 9/23/2004 Justin Coslor Magnetic Battery Idea Steam
and gas atoms and molecules probably contain more quanta than liquid
atoms and liquid molecules, which partially utilize each other's
electron shells. Where steam and gas atoms probably have higher electron
orbits and have their own repulsive/attractive field depending on the
spin. Crystallized atom and molecule configurations probably exist
because a bunch of atoms and molecules were either compressed into a
tight area and extended the orbit of their strong force electron shells,
or possibly the atoms might have been cooled from a liquid state while
under the influence of a magnetic field. [10/28/2004 update: The
magnetic field of an atom is the stabilizing force, and the electric
field is the active force. . .probably?] Is it possible to make
crystallized oxygen or crystallized hydrogen or other gases? [Then just
add energy of the atom's particular spectroscopic frequency to liberate
the molecules out of the crystallized form. They'd probably have to be
mixed with other elements to form crystals at reasonable temperatures.]
What if they were highly ionized gases or isotopes? What happens if you
put two conductor terminals on a quartz crystal and then bolt a magnet
onto each side of the crystal independently so that the magnets repel or
attract each other? Will that provide a steady supply of electricity due
to the compression forces on the quartz crystal? It might be a way to
make a magnetic electricity battery that doesn't run out until the
magnets lose their charge. Just attach a circuit or light to something
to the terminals. 8/23/2004 Justin Coslor Toroidal EM Fields (like for
fusion. . .see attached pictures): I'm not claiming that this is
correct, but maybe some elements conduct electricity and have a magnetic
field that is perpendicular to the flow of electrons and maybe other
elements conduct magnetism and have an electric field that is
perpendicular to the lines of flux. Maybe some elements do both, and
maybe some do neither. Gravity is proportional to how active an element
is at the quantum level, coupled with how interactive it is externally.
Make a toroidal field around a Peltier Stack (dissimilar metals like a
battery all stacked up), and blow gases with extra electrons into the
toroidal squasher and their extra electrons may travel up the Peltier
stack, sort of like a battery, but it could polarize the stack and maybe
could function as a power source without actually doing fusion. It could
also be a kind of electron stripper. ??? Gravity is about how the energy
of the internal interacts with the energy of the external. It might
merely be cyclic regions of space that have greater potential for motion
(for energy quanta and other cyclic space regions) than fairly neutral
space regions. I believe that space holds a compression and that the
function of space is potential for motion. Time is a function of motion,
and matter is energy quantas swirling in compressed cyclic space
regions. Maybe the space has knots in it to lock the quanta into cycles?
Who knows? ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/18/2004 Justin
Coslor Note to self: Diodes act as one-way gates. Transistors act like
adjustable-flow valves. They can be strung together to make Boolean
logic circuits. ---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004
Justin Coslor Crystalline Memory Lattices: Maybe one could use
intersecting laser beams to control the shadow-growth of semiconductor
crystals for making optical circuitry or maybe some frequencies will
grow lattice structures conducive to electron flow (Negative cells),
while others (or pits rather than peaks) might grow structures (or
carve/melt) conducive to receiving electrons (positive cells/holes).
---------------------------------- Copyright 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor
Super-cheap gigantic diamagnetic electromagnets: Try making an
electromagnet out of ice as the conductor. Take some plastic tubing and
fill it up with water, cap the ends, coil it up into a spiral, then
freeze it. Then take a larger piece of tubing (wider) and freeze (or
make a horse-shoe-style ice magnet). Then run electricity through the
ice spiral and see if it is able to act as an electro-diamagnet (since
water is somewhat diamagnetic). The lattice structure of the ice
crystals might be good for holding a diamagnetic charge. Who knows???
Try it. If it works, make an enormous one. What happens when you beam
light through the electrically conductive ice coil spiral?
------------------------------------ Copyright 9/6/2004 Justin Coslor
Supercomputer and Memory Technology Build a supercomputer out of
millions of memory units of the kind I designed earlier that have no
moving parts and operate optically. Locate the computer in either
Antarctica or in a very cold climate, such as on a satellite that stays
in the shadow of the Earth or underground on the dark side of the moon.
It could be nuclear powered, or powered by a thermocouple that runs off
of hot rocks (thermonuclear isotopes). use an instantaneous
communication relay between it and stations on the Earth (see physics
research in the book "The Dancing Woo Li Masters" by Gary Zukav). The
key component to the memory units is the new kind of laser range-finder
I designed when I was 16. 2/17/2005 Update by Justin Coslor: Recently I
came up with the optimal geometry for an entirely new and different (and
possibly better) solid-state dense nanotechnology memory geometry
design. See my most recent journal entry to this date on that topic, as
well as the partial diagram I drew that describes the mathematics behind
it. Copyright 9/24/2004 Justin Coslor Speculation about photodiodes,
photovoltaics, and the nature of energy transmission through materials.
Figure out how photodiodes work. I think they somehow convert light
into electrons. That would mean that the light quanta would add energy
to the diode's N-plate's electrons to bring the outermost electrons to a
higher orbit around the nucleus and eventually high enough to be able to
transfer over from one atom to an orbit around an adjacent atom capable
of supporting an extra electron. When all of the atoms on the N-plate
have electrons at transferable orbits they will hop over the junction
and start filling in the orbit holes in the P-plate's atoms. When the
P-plate's atoms fill up with transferable atoms, then electricity will
flow in either direction because the N-P plates will act just like a
regular conductor. In fact, you might not even need a P-plate unless you
wanted a one-way gate effect. Probably, you would have to use a material
that has a photon emission frequency that is the same as the kind of
light that you are exposing it to, in order for the photons to get
absorbed by the electrons orbiting around that material's nucleuses. Use
electron spectroscopy to find suitable materials for the spectrums of
light you expect to use the photovoltaic cells under.
Transparent photovoltaics could be made out of some kind of
crystallne materials (appropriately receptive to the incoming
wavelengths), and could be made very thick, where both the anode and
cathode structures could be transparent, and could be made of a
semiconducting crystalline block that has been formed while under the
polarizing magnetic field of a powerful superconductor. That way, every
molecule in the transparent crystalline block would act as a photodiode,
like miniature photovoltaic cells. Perhaps materials that do not look
transparent to us are quite transparent to their specific spectroscopic
frequencies of radiation, and that may be why they are able to "conduct"
those frequencies of radiation and in doing so, convert that energy into
electric/electron current. ???
Copyright 9/14/2005 Justin Coslor
A New Kind of Potentiometer (which can be used as a tactile sensor)
Details: Make it as a spring-loaded linear-action potentiometer
(variable resistor), where the farther the lever rod is pushed down,t e
more resistance there is on the current flowing across it between the
rod's conductive bearing surface, and the decreasingly (or increasingly)
conductive plate or channel that it glides on/in. It's a very simple
device, and clusters of them can be used in conjunction as sensors for
tactile kinetic force of varying magnitude, depending on the strength of
the spring at the bottom of the rod. It could be used n the finger-pads
or gripper-pads of a robotic arm. The glide plate/channel could be lined
with a carbon resistive strip similar to the one in regular slide-pots.
There could be some stranded insulated wire that comes off of the top of
the rod, and the rod itself could be insulated except for the bearing
surface. The ground wire would be at the top of the glide-plate's
resistive carbon film, so that as the rod gets pushed down against the
force of the spring at the bottom, the resistor would turn on or off
farther and farther depending on how it is designed. The conductive
bearing surface could just be a strip of metal with a rounded bend in
it, so that it has some spring action, and it could have a similar
rounded strip-spring on the back of it so that it pushes on the back
wall to exert some force in the direction of the carbon-resistive film.
Or the bearing surface could be a roller wheel with conductive
lubrication, such as graphite powder, and a back-wall spring similar to
the one just described or just have two independent bearing surfaces
opposite to each other with a hinge and a spring in the middle (although
that is an unnecessarily complex design). Or the bearing surface could
be like a miniature computer mouse ball in a cage that only travels
forwards and backwards and made out of metal. When I mentioned possibly
using a channel in some designs I meant it to be like a vertical gutter
that is rectangular, or triangular. A triangular gutter design would
probably be the easiest and most stable of the gutter designs to make,
and it would provide a lot of stability against possible twisting action
of the spring-loaded vertical push rod. See the photo of the brief
diagram that I scribbled for this invention. Contact me for terms of
licensing, development, publication, and mass-production.
JustinCoslor@gmail.com I'd like everybody to be able to buy these very
inexpensively for their projects, and send samples out to university
students and professors for free. All I'd like is the standard fair
National average inventor's royalty percentage on the gross profit of
the venture capital wholesale sales gross profit of these potentiometers
and off the gross profit of the sale of improved models so that I can
continue to come up with new inventions and have some spending money. I
shouldn't have to be poor forever, because that causes so much
unnecessary misery. It'd be wonderful if I had a better workshop and
some helpers and colleages and more resources to work with. Copyright
9/12/2004 Justin Coslor
Highly sensitive tactile/optical range-finding robotic finger sensor-pads:
For rich tactile data input (robo-fingerpad pressure sensors that
yield very detailed sensory input) sensors, add a stereo computer vision
range-finding unit to each finger, and have slider resistor tubes that
are spring-loaded under a rubbery surface skin, and make them flexible
if possible. (Update Copyright 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor: Think of sea
anemony-like manipulators that each have a little CCD range-finder setup
and tactile sensors for precise gentle manipulations.) I could probably
build a test pad out of drinking straws and little springs or rubber
bands glued to pins that are soldered to either trimpots on a
swivel-mount or tiny slider-resistors. The skin could be molded from
liquid latex or a piece of bicycle innertube, and the stereo-cameras
could be located up on the arm with fiber-optic light input extensions
that go right out to the finger tip pads where they can be precisely
angled to yield stereoscopic CCD range-finding data so that the fingers
will each visually know how far they are from the objects they are
trying to manipulate. Maybe the CCD's can be quadranted up into four
distinct camera matrixes per CCD (or more), each of which would be fed
light by it's own independent fiber optic cable that has an optics unit
on each end....? That would bring the costs and power-consumption down
dramatically because not as many actual digital cameras would need to be
used to obtain the effect of having a whole bunch of independent digital
cameras. Copyright 9/11/2004 Justin Coslor A cheaper kind of
touch-screen for computer kiosks for 2D operating system user interface
haptics and 3D augmented reality user interface haptics. Note: I suppose
this is similar to the haptics in the movie "Minority Report."
Instead of using expensive breakable touch screens, why not set up a
regular CRT computer monitor that has a piece of replaceable plexiglass
over the monitor face, in the form of a kiosk interface whose mouse
movements or click-movements are recorded by an overhead pair of digital
cameras that are running an open-source stereo computer vision algorithm
as drivers that utilize your own hands' movements as 3D haptics devices.
If the operating system is a 2D point- and-click environment, then your
index finger pointing in 3D angles will move the mouse and touching (or
nearly touching) the plexiglass plate will execute a click (selection).
If the operating system is a 3D environment, then perhaps all control of
the environment will occur at least several inches to several feet from
the plexiglass plate, and perhaps there could be an on-screen 3D
animation that mirrors the hand movements, with trainable hand gestures
to control different features and functions of the environment. The
important thing that I must explicitly note is that the stereo cameras
are to be situated on an extended arm overhead, and potentially out of
reach, and that they are to be located either directly above or behind
the user's head so that they are only focused on the user's hands (and
not their face) because they are not to be made in such a way as to be
able to digitally photograph the user's face, since that would be an
invasion of privacy which could potentially be mis-used.
Also, there might be a projection onto a plexiglass plate in front
of the face but behind the hands so that the hands can interact in an
augmented reality environment in addition to being haptics devices for
the above-described kiosk-like CRT screen's operating system. Copyright
10/29/2004 Justin Coslor Course Catalog and Skills Inventory (Software
Dig up my old note from years ago about how course catalogs can be
interconnected and turned into software that inventories and sorts
prerequisites and possibilities for which courses the student is
qualified to take based on the courses they've taken. It would help
students who aren't sure what to major in, to plan their school year, as
well as help in organizing quite concretely the knowledge they've
learned and the knowledge they can learn. The students can also build
hypothetical models of future courses of study with the software, and
can help teachers model new curriculums, and link their courses to other
people's curriculums. Libraries can use it too. Also, every student
should be able to see a summary page that lists one paragraph on the
topics that will be, or have been covered in each course in each
semester of their education, if not only just for the benefit of their
memory, to see what they've learned (or haven't learned), what they're
learning, and what they intend to learn (hypothetically) in the future.
That way, they can easily reference their educational background later
on in life, which is especially important if they are lifelong students
or researchers.
Artificial intelligence reasoning engines could be made that
generate comprehension tests and study guides and executive summaries
for any book in any language, and they could link related materials and
form historical and/or geographic timelines of the history and spread
and evolution of ideas and concepts. Such software might already exist
somewhere in some form.
Employers in industry might also like to look at these educational
coverage charts if they're looking for knowledge of specific skills in
applicants during their hiring process. Copyright 12/14/2001 Justin
Coslor Portable Robotic Hole-Threading Tool for Building Robots and
It drills a hole, then threads the hole with a tap, then runs a bolt
through the hole, then puts a washer and a nut on the other end of the
bolt. It might even clamp two pieces of material together while
fastening them together in the above described manner. It would be a
hand-held device, and someone could even make a version that's an
autonomous mobile device (for use in space or factories), and another
version could be a stationary tool bolted to the floor or something.
There could be several different models. I originally thought of this
several years ago through have not yet drawn schematics.
------------------- Components: Drill: high torque, high speed motor,
use gears and speed control. Tap: stepper motor + Air nozzle to blow
chips and slag away. Bolter: leveraged robo-wrist + gripper (or possibly
a robotic version of one of those spring-loaded universal wrenches).
Nutter: leveraged robo-wrist plus gripper. Clamp: as simple as possible,
like one of those 1-turn clamps or something with rubber pads. Sensors:
slag sensor detects chips and blows them away, torque sensors keep
machinery from jamming and breaking. Vision keeps track of what is in
each quadrant of a laser matrix projected onto the work surface. Parts
orienting system: Loads bolter and nutter and washers (part of nutter)
and keeps parts oriented and organized. Copyright 11/12/2004 Justin
Coslor Cottage Industry Explosion: Portable Inexpensive Manufacturing
Robots for Intentional Communities In America
Make portable inexpensive manufacturing robots hooked up to an
open-source computer terminal (possibly running the 3D modeling software
Blender, and some business & art software) as a whole cottage industry
manufacturing system that can be easily set up to refine materials and
produce products that can then be sold locally and over the Internet.
People would design their own products of course, and they can be
quite intricate and precise and easy to replicate due to the use of
robots and computer technologies. The software would make the business
part of it a snap. Design a general system and then use it to fabricate
duplicates of itself, and sell and install them exclusively to people
who live in Intentional Communities, so that America can win back its
manufacturing Jobs from China and India, as well as keep its high-tech
jobs from being outsourced. Copyright 11/5/2004 Justin Coslor Cottage
Industry Stuff Print up some tee-shirts, coffee mugs, bookmarks, and
refrigerator magnets of my friendly intelligence diagram. Post them for
sale on the Internet. Write a little booklet that goes with the diagram,
to include with each item, to help people understand the diagram. Look
for a bootable linux distribution that has life-critical software and
family business software. Order DSL and a bootable DVDRW drive and
download a copy of Knoppix.
Build the portable computer-numeric-controlled (CNC) machining robot
for carving ornamental wood furniture and paneling, and collect an
archive of geometrical designs and nature patterns to use, and template
concrete masonry patterns for face plates for beautifying buildings and
for making sculptures and walkways. Build the originals out of clay and
wood and use stereo digital cameras or a laser range-finder scanner to
digitize the designs. Sell these portable CNC machines inexpensively to
help Americans form cottage industries.
I could build ornate bookshelves and industrial design things that
could be environmentally friendly and quite useful. I'll need a shop to
use unless I just design it and have other people build it like Ikea
I could also sell Atmel AVR SP12 microcontroller programmer kits,
and already-put-together microcontroller programmers, and I could put
together an electronics assembly robot, and a very small very precise
set of robotic arms for doing fine work. 11/11/2004 Justin Coslor
Holographic Range-finding Orbiting Space Telescopes, for Holographic
Geometric Reconstruction of Distant Celestial Objects and Celestial
Systems (or point it at the Earth for Geographical Information Systems).
See pg. 59 of The Random House Book of 1001 Wonders of Science, for info
on how to make holographic images (depthy multi-perspective images). Do
that on a much larger scale but out in space or even have the
Holographic crystal on the Earth and have the space telescopes pointed
either at the Earth or put distant objects in space. Use a gigantic
holographic crystal that is sensitive to a wide spectrum of different
wavelengths (colors). Have the holographic crystal on a slightly
different orbit than the space telescopes, and the crystal should rotate
slightly to capture the changing perspective of the orbiting stereo or
triple space telescopes beamed at it. Put the space telescopes way out
in space. This is nothing new, but the first two space telescopes could
make the XY plane, and range- finding according to focal length, but add
a third space telescope to do XYZ geometric reconstruction of a remote
volume (the front face of the picture at least) with some distortion.
The third telescope could be above and behind the other two for extra
dimensionality, and that way there wouldn't be a blind spot, however in
other configurations the blind spot might indicate where the readings
start to become somewhat reliable. Copyright 10/29/2004 Justin Coslor
Safety Skin for Robots Make a fabric-like skin of flexible tactile
sensors to be put on the outside of robots, so that if a person (or
another robot or obstacle) bumps into the robot or gets in the way of
the robot, the robot immediately will shut down and disengage to prevent
the chance of injuries to the person. This would be an additional layer
of safety in addition to visual and/or sonar/IR/laser tachometer
environmental sensors. Copyright 10/20/2004 Justin Coslor Free public
archive of great anonymous writing and poetry There should be a website
that acts as a free public archive of great anonymous writing and poetry
throughout history. It could be searchable by a variety of interactive
intelligent means, and offer a secure round-the-world ping-pong
submission form that leaves no trail but is subject to human review as
to whether it is worth archiving. Also, it should be entirely based on
free open- source software that is eloquently coded and understandable
and proven. Copyright 10/11/2004 Justin Coslor Precise EM field sensing
nanocoil fabric Insulated conductive nanocoils could be useful for
sensing electromagnetic fields very precisely. Somebody could make
packets of independent nanocoils that could be laid out in a flexible
fabric form (or rigid) where each coil would be processed and a
numerical value would be passed to a unit of nonvolatile random access
memory. Then this coil fabric, much like a curtain, could be passed
through a room vertically to get a reading of the electromagnetic field
strength at each point in the room. It could be useful for figuring out
where to stick accupuncture needles in medical treatments too. It would
also be useful for teaching people how to use their own body's
bioelectric field in unison with the Earth's geomagnetic field to heal
themselves and others, and to people how to harmonize such forces
regardless of the situation. It seems like this kind of instrumentation
and a visual augmented reality software simulation interface to this
kind of sensory equipment could really improve people's awareness and
mentality, and thus their lives. Eventually they could learn to sense
the fields without the electronic equipment to some degree and not need
the apparatus anymore to stay healthy and balanced. Already there is
bioelectric feedback therapy, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-systems),
and augmented reality technology (which is a form of virtual reality).
9/8/2004 Justin Coslor Notes on the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh book
"Agents Unleashed: A public domain look at agent technology" by Peter
Wayner Copyright 1995, published by Academic Press, Inc. Agent
Technology: Setting Up Secure Networks Parallel and Distributed Programs
User Interfaces Being applied to agent technology: Genetic algorithms,
computational learning theory, classification theory,
adaptive-preference-based decision making automations, personal
oracles/prodigies, power librarians (parse text, translate languages,
figure out language ambiguities), emotional interface via animations,
network roaming ability, and virus protection. Agents are like viruses
that are designed to be helpful. Agents are often programmed in list,
and controlled by TCL (Tool Command Language), and transmitted via PGP
encrypted mime-encoded email. XLISP is a simple, free,
microcomputer-based implementation of a subset of the Common LISP
In LISP both the data and the program are stored in nested listt
trees. Inside the LISP environment, agents can easily build up, execute,
and tear down data structures. In LISP there ar no pointers, memory
allocation, and deallocation is automatic, and there ar some security
holes but they're patchable to keep agents from overstepping their
bounds. Common LISP uses a hierarchy of packages, which are separate
tables of variables, functions, and their names. These package
hierarchies offer structured access to variables, and can be used to
keep incoming agents from executing any system calls or handling local
memory. LISP's debuggers can be re- tooled to send an agent back home
along with the pre and post screen of the remote LISP compiler's
evaluation loop hooks when an agent causes a memory access or system
resource error.
Some smaller versions of LISP such as XLISP-Plus have
object-oriented features called Common LISP Object System. Dynamic
linking/binding to find the latest functions is used in some versions
like Scheme, which lead to the more algebraic C-Like syntax version
called Dylan. Commercial versions of LISP compilers have extra features
and are faster than the free compilers. Even compiled LISP code is
semi-interpreted and doesn't have a direct ability to manipulate
pointers because it needs to stay mobile in memory, so compiled LISP
code is a great environment for supporting agents that can act on it.
If I plan to program Aritificial Intelligence in LISP rather than
Java, then I should buy the book "Common LISP: The Language" by buy
Steele, for hardcore LISP programming. Check out other books too and
read reviews and recommends online. There are probably some free LISP
tutorials online as well. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin Coslor 2D
Wireframe Digitization of Digital Images for Computer Vision How would
the orientation matching algorithm work in the first three methods? (See
11/14/2002 algorithm.) Irregular objects: 2D width match 2D height match
Form a 2D square around the border of the object. Treat each pixel in
the image as an independent pivot point. For each pixel, draw straight
lines in a layer over top of the image at every possible angle that
intersect at the pivot point (all of which are as long as the longest
dimensions of the image). Measure how much of each line intersects with
the object, especially where there are two or more adjacent pixels in a
straight line. If you do this for all of the pixels you'll have a
coordinate database of angles and lengths and start and end points or
midpoints, which is very useful for forming groups by associating the
lines in the image in various ways, such as: intersection, adjacency,
parallelness, curvature template matching, and continuity of same line.
For some operations one can choose the line that intersects the longest
distance across the object. This is the longest intersecting line from
the current 2D perspective, whose midpoint is the pivot point. This is
useful for the following: at each endpoint of the longest intersecting
line draw a point. Draw a perpendicular line at each endpoint of the
line. Start out with a perpendicular line from the known schematics,
that is as long as the longest dimension of the object (at each
endpoint), and make sure that the perpendicular lines' midpoints are
centered on each endpoint. Now form a box at each half of the object and
reduce the width of the box until the outer edge touches the outside of
the object. Do this for each of the two halves of the object. Now you
have a tightly fitting box around that particular 2D object in the
image! The point of doing this is to be able to separate that object
from the rest of the image, and also to figure out the object's actual
perspective in the image, which can help at guessing 3D attributes. This
object can now be put into an object catalog, each image of which can be
rotated in 2D for matching against for doing approximative Bayesian
pattern matching that incorporates rotation attempts. (See related
diagrams from my handwritten journal.) Now rotate this box and 2D image
in the X,Y plane by N degrees about the pivot point until the box is
perfectly vertical and horizontal on the screen. Now you have the
computer show a front view of the 3D object model so that you can rotate
it forwards and backwards about the pivot point until you get the two
positions that match the length of the 2D image. Compare the two lengths
from the pivot point to the endpoints to find the longest or shortest
line for comparison to decide which of the two 3D positions to choose.
For each of these two possible positions we now want to find the two
positions in which the width matches by twisting the 3D object model,
and comparing the widest or shortest half of the box to the 3D model's
two possible width twistations to find out which width to choose. Now
you have the correct 3D perspective match of the 2D image and you know
the movements necessary to re-orient the object in reality to the 0,0,0
position. So just have the robot do it and begin again with the next
object, and the next, and the next, etc. Copyright 11/14/2002 Justin
Coslor Computer Vision Thought Build a little robot that can go around
its environment and pick things up and study them as objects. It would
need to be able to categorize, visualize, contextualize, and use
guess-work (heuristics) scientifically to discover each object's
function, unique and generalized characteristics (size, weight, shape,
color, physical flexibilities, bend points, and center of gravity),
symmetries, associated objects (around what objects is it generally
found and used with?), physics force vectors during use and storage
(this much weight pushes on the floor at these surfaces (points of
contact and interaction), material it is made out of (robot has a
portable microscope to analyze materials and to identify the presence of
cells), surface temperature (infrared vision module can help determine
what objects are alive, very hot or cold, or how much hotter or colder
they are than the ambient room temperature), internal composition (sonar
scanner with 3D computer optimization), and statistical analysis (out of
all the times it has been recognized, what is the average context of
objects & movements of it and the objects interacting with it?). For a
practical application, the robot would only need to recognize a few
objects and be able to ignore all of the rest of what it sees so that it
could focus just on what it needs to know and extract data needed to
accomplish its goal. It will need to simplify what it sees so that it
can quickly find what it is looking for. It should only store in its
memory the things that it will use frequently. It will frequently
identify a few particular objects that are in different orientations.
For this a simplified 3D wireframe model would be useful, also surface
color(s) (optional), symmetries, and center of gravity, or handles for
gripping on to (like symmetry lines). Let's say you have a mechanical
part and the vision system has a 3D wireframe model of its structure.
The robot grips its handle or its center of gravity, picks it up, then
figures out what orientation it is in. How does it figure out the
orientation? 1. It could have touch sensors like a little pin board
whose spring loaded pins reveal the shape (as a matrix of depths) while
the robot holds the part. After the shape is recorded in that
orientation, the vision system could match the shape to the 3D wireframe
model and then tell the robot arm to rotate the part in the XYZ to get
the part into 0,0,0 orientation so that it can be placed somewhere
accurately and systematically. 2. It could scan the part with a wide
laser range-finder, then match and reorient the part. 3. It could take a
digital photo (CCD camera) of the part from 0,0,0 orientation then
rotate the 3D computer model in the X,Y,Z until the part's current
orientation matches, then use an optimized X,Y,Z rotation algorithm to
find the shortest method of rotation to get from the original X,Y,Z
orientation to the desired 0,0,0 orientation, then the robot arm would
make that adjustment and place the part. 4. Use a part's tray with
little wells to catch the parts as they are shaken across the tray (like
on the SMART Cell manufacturing robotic system I use to work on at the
CMU Robotics Institute years ago). Copyright 8/7/2005 Justin Coslor
Binary Space Partition Trees
I'm currently on page 17 of the book "Java 3D Programming" by Daniel
Selman Copyright 2002, and it mentioned using binary space partition
trees as a method of sorting relative positions of objects so that the
objects don't need to be re-sorted when the viewpoint changes. It didn't
explain how binary search partition trees work though I think it means
forming a tree of nodes for each object, where each node represents a
vertex on the object, and the vertexes are sorted by order of depth
(layering). That way multiple objects can be compared by comparing their
vertex depth, and when the perspective changes a different node on the
depth trees becomes node #1, 2, 3, etc in terms of the layering.
Copyright 8/10/2005 Justin Coslor
Data compression for 3D polygonal objects
What needs to happen to make 3D and Virtual Reality and Augmented
Reality popular again is to have more software compatible with Google
Earth (A geo-spacial imaging software that can be used for navigation
--- which needs more functionality). But more importantly what needs to
happen is to have software that is able to represent 3D models using
hardly any data at all. Better 3D data compression is needed, possibly
like that stegonometry idea I had, where vertex coordinate systems are
represented as layered pictogram polygons (see the idea in my notes --
July 2005), where three linked polygons is a 3D point, or set of 3D
points, such as an entire 3D object's vertexes -- the first polygon
represents all of the x coordinates in a particular object. The second
polygon represents all of the Y coordinates. The third polygon
represents all of the Z coordinates successively, and form each
pictogram polygon in a different color for each of the objects in the 3D
scene. The whole thing is in the same base and on the same pictogram XY
coordinate system. The whole thing can be represented as a tiny vector
graphic such as a PNG file that represents an entire 3D rendered
mathematical model/visualization, which is very easy bitwise map which
translates directly into the 3D, so it'd be really fast for rendering
each abstract pictogram map of the object's vertex coordinates. Also, no
two pictogram polygon vertex pixels will fall on the same point in the
pictogram as long as all objects' 3D vertexes are separated by one pixel
or more in 3D space. This would be a highly compressed way to represent
the spacial coordinates of all polygonal objects in a 3D scene, in the
form of a tiny image file, and if you string together multiple pictogram
image files into a sort of a video sequence, the objects in the scene
could gradually move through 3D space sort of like a morph sequence,
into the positioning registered by the second pictogram image file in
the video sequence, etc. . .like a gif89 animation file, but as a vector
graphics image. That would save a lot of processing power and
representation space in recording and playing back 3D video sequences in
virtual reality. See my note from 6/13/2004 on information theory. In it
I translated an old paradigm of information theory into terms of
patterns in contexts. "If a set of contexts constitutes t bits of unique
information, and the set of patterns that the contexts are based on
contains less than t bits of unique information, then it is impossible
to create those contexts from that set of patterns." Well, since coming
up with this idea today about encoding 3D models, and the regular 2D
stegonometry version of it (see my other essay), I no longer believe
that this paradigm is true in all cases (such as this one, for example),
because it doesn't account for alternative perspectives of
representation of information (of patterns in contexts) which are
different and of different computational complexity, but are
analogically equivalent.
Copyright 8/11/2005 Justin Coslor
3D compression scheme
I've developed an alternative system of representing numbers (which
represents them as pictograms), which I turned into an alternative
method of representing 3D vertex coordinates of polygons. In it, each
sequential group of three digits in the pictographic polygon
representation represents the X coordinates for the vertexes from left
to right, or the Y coordinates for the vertexes from top to bottom, or
the Z coordinates for the vertexes from front to back. So in that way
depth and ordering of the vertexes is very organized and the 3D scene
can be drawn in layers very quickly from front to back so that it will
be easy to see which vertexes can be skipped due to their being hidden
around the backside of the object.
The three pictogram polygon numbers each get drawn in different
colors in the vertex map, and the three polygon numbers gets parsed into
either a set of X coordinates, a set of Y coordinates, or a set of Z
coordinates as previously described, where each partition represents the
three digit location of X, Y, or Z.
Probably what needs to happen as a next step is to make three
coordinate buffers: one for the X axis, one for the Y axis, and one for
the Z axis, and then copy the parsed sequences of groups of three
sequential digits into these buffers. Then there will either be a fourth
buffer that combines all of these numbers into a set of XYZ coordinates
representing the vertexes of the 3D object, or else the computer will
dynamically triangulate perspectives on the 3D object to be constructed,
where each sequential list of dynamically combined XYZ vertex
coordinates is generated from left to right, top to down, front to back,
based on a projection of an angular viewpoint of the original
orientation of the X, Y, and Z coordinate lists. That is how
re-orientations of perspectives get generated. If a polygonal pictogram
is to be built for each perspective, then the polygon points in the
pictogram can just be combined one column at a time for the X, Y, and Z
vertex polygons (in groups of 3 pixel column places on the pictogram's X
axis), then the vertexes just get placed on the 3D grid, and lines get
drawn between their boundary shells as a wireframe and skins get
If you wanted to get really simple you don't even have to use
pixels, you can just make an XY array of 1's and 0's, and have it 9 or
so digits high in the Y axis (2^9), and as long in the X axis as
necessary, and every group of N binary digits horizontally gets
multiplied by the level it's on in the Y axis to give you a set of
sequential X coordinates for vertexes of the object in the 3D space, and
in do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D object's vertexes'
Y coordinates, and do the same in another XY array for mapping the 3D
objects' vertexes' Z coordinates. Then an XYZ vertex coordinate list
gets dynamically generated for each perspective of this vertex
arrangement that gets requested. That's how to make an object's vertex
map in binary rather than pixels.
Also, hierarchical representation can be applied to generating
different 3D perspective's projection calculations. By putting the
coordinates in terms of hierarchical representation (as described in
previous essays), calculations can proceed much more quickly than normal
since it speeds up arithmetic by chunking the calculations into their
highest powers of 2 (which the computer can calculate in one
clock-cycle), times a multiplier, plus or minus an offset, which can
also be chunked similarly if it is large. That would speed up 3D
rendering of video sequences dramatically.
This is the format that I want to encode the vertex maps of objects
in the visual dictionary I intend to build, and I intend to
systematically and axiomatically categorize the visual objects in terms
of qualitative and quantitative properties, and cross reference each
object to a linguistic encyclopedia, thesaurus, and dictionary. Most of
this work will be automated. Copyright 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Thoughts
on Computer Vision: 2D Snapshot to 3D Wireframe The Process: Open image
Identify edges of objects Identify symmetries Identify duplicate objects
in different configurations to fill in holes in that kind of object
throughout. 3D Clues: Straight lines Corners and intersection points
Arcs Complex areas: generalize areas such as wrinkles in fabric, or
limbs on a plant, or grass (or just generalize by color). Random or
repeating texture on flat or curved surfaces can also give clues. Guess
at 2D perspective. Rotate perspective to rectalinear*. Guess at hidden
areas by filling in holes. Rotate to top perspective, and guess at
holes. Rotate to side 1 (*see diagrams) perspective, guess at holes.
Rotate to side 2 perspective, guess at holes. Build 3D wireframe. Of any
2D picture you basically can see three sides of a cube, and may have to
guess at the other three sides. It's important to note distorted areas
and account for that in the image processing and representation.
Copyright 9/29/2002 Justin Coslor
Computer Vision Thoughts Classify an object's parts by first
cataloging unknown details.
1. Catalog details
2. Catalog association of details
a. by position
b. by range of motion
c. by flexible areas of topography)
3. Catalog repeat patterns.
Gage size and distance by resolution of a known calibration point,
or guess. Do so without having to use active sensing such as radar,
laser range-finders, etc. Scale images down to the lowest resolution
possible while still being able to extract geometric information of a
reasonable precision. Write "3D shape-guessing software" that guesses
the 3D shape (generalized topography) of objects in a 2D image. It could
guess at the dimensions it could not see, and could not change the
perspective to any possible side or angle. I know this already exists,
but where, and for how much, and is it available anywhere as free
open-source software? It could progressively assimilate more complete
mappings of objects in view as you feed it more images of the scene or
similar scenes. 10/21/2002 Justin Coslor Imaginative new perspectives on
famous artworks. Do a painting of Leonardo DaVinci painting the Mona
Lisa in the same style and colors as his painting except from a
different view point of perspective. Study his self portraits and guess
at the unknown details. Do a whole series of paintings of famous artwork
scenes but from different perspectives in those same scenes as the
originals. All in the same style and colors. Copyright 10/01/2002 Justin
Coslor More thoughts on my Thermoelectric Generator Cloth invention 1.
Similar to an inverse Peltier junction 2. Could be embedded in hot
ceramic resistors to recover thermal energy. It could be used to capture
lost heat in electronic circuitry, such as in transistor heat-sinks. It
might need a regulator circuit (which could be embedded on a single
chip) to charge a battery or make use of the electricity directly for
non-critical functions in various circuits. It could be used in cars, on
the under side of the hood and inside of the radiator, and on the
exhaust manifold. it could be used to line hot-air balloons if made thin
enough. It could be used in nuclear power plants It could be wrapped
around radioactive hot rocks for use in space. It could be made out of:
1. metallic powder composites, 2. electroplated wire that can be woven
into a fabric before or after being electroplated. 3. woven dissimilar
metal wire. Inventions: T.E.G. cloth, PDA OCR hand-scanner software
Dremel CNC robotic arm and robotic clamp U CAD/CAM interface software.
Copyright 10/16/2002 Justin Coslor Inventory of revolutionary inventions
that I've invented (but not built) up to this date: 1. Thermo-Electric
Generator Cloth 2. Sine Spiral Graphing for Circular and Complex Motion
3. Conical Orbit Graphing for Satellite Path Visualization and Analysis
4. Dremel CNC Robot (suitcase sized) "Hands Building Hands" robotic
assembly system and haptics interface 5. Library PDA + Hand Scanner
Optical Character Recognition Portable Digitizing System (A software
that could be checked out temporarily from every libary in the world. 6.
New Kind of Cheap Laser-Rangefinder System (use not yet known)...laser
range-finders are normally very expensive. 2/25/2005 Update: I've since
invented a new kind of solid-state crystalline shadow-growth computer
memory device that has no moving parts, that my new kind of
laser-rangefinder would be perfect for accessing and writing the data
6/18/2005 Justin Coslor
There needs to be more geometric puzzles that people can fiddle with
with their hands while they talk or drink coffee. Some could be games. A
coffee shop could have a tough puzzle or a riddle that they could have
for people to try, where they have to buy a cup of coffee to try it, and
if they solve it they'd get a free cup of coffee. 6/19/2005 Justin
Coslor World medicine Have a worldwide franchise of hydroponic
greenhouses stocked full of medicinal plants. Put one or more in every
town and in each one there'd also be a laboratory and clinic, similar to
how they do in China, but using plants from all over the world. The
clinic would be a front-end for a vast computer medicinal expert system
artificial intelligence, and have a fast full-body scanner in each one
to model their body in 3D for closer inspection. Have a ridiculous
amount of data storage capacity, memory, and computational power, and
have a laser surgery machine and blood analysis equipment, etc. Combine
Western Medicine with Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Accupuncture, Chinese
Herbal Medicine, Native American remedies, Aruveydic medicine, and
South-American Shamantic and Russian (Shamantic and modern) medicine,
and ignore smug know-it-all healer wanna-be's. Medicine goes part of the
way, belief accounts for 40% of healing (according to scientists), and
the rest is basically a gift from God. Do everything possible in the
best possible way and constantly improve all areas. Also have
spiritual/energy healers if you can find good ones or manage to train
them. The fee should be a sliding scale based on a percentage of income,
and have payment plans, which can be partially paid by working in the
greenhouse, lab, or clinic.
This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.

Book 4 of Possibility Thinking Explorations in Logic and Thought

This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.
As writer and owner of this piece of intellectual property I hereby
declare it in its present form to be free for use and modification
except I do not condone it's use in weapon systems or for deception.
You may sell applications and/or services that use this
logic (or its modifications) but you may not sell the logic itself and you may
not try to prevent others from understanding or using the logic in any way.
This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability. These are thoughts.
Sincerely, Justin Coslor. December 3rd, 2007.
Possibility Thinking: Explorations in Logic and Thought
Book IV:
Invention Ideas
10/28/2004 Penny Universities
1/1/2005 Inspiring book notes & some art product ideas
1/15/2005 Art Software For Making Symmetrical Design Patterns & Motifs
1/1/2005 Perspective Drawing Projects
1/13/1998 Robotics
8/27/2004 Video Game Idea
2/8/2005 Portable Operating Systems On Cross-Platform USB 2.0 Flash-Memory
7/17/2005 Nanotechnology
7/12/2005 Product idea: seed kits for suburban gardens
7/12/2005 Bottled Water
6/29/2005 Camping Stuff
6/29/2005 Cooling Shirt
6/27/2005 Dune Shirt
6/29/2005 Alternative Energy System for homes that have an acre or more
6/18/2005 Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software
6/18/2005 Pictograph books for language adaptation
6/18/2005 Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software
6/16/2005 Industries, Priority Systems, and Adaptation
6/14/2005 Industry Creation
5/27/2005 Natural Gas Mining in Landfills, Using Grids of Vertical Bamboo
5/27/2005 3-Legged Walking Robot (It Gallops)
3/16/2005 Magneto-sonic Element Separator
1/7/2005 Diamagnetic Electromagnets
2/8/2005 PDA Kiosks
8/10/2005 PDA Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality System
11/12/2004 My eBike Shop: Eco-Bikes(TM)(R)
1/21/2005 Ram-Horn Handlebars for City Bikes
1/13/2005 Augmented Reality Goggles for doing X-Ray Vision and 3D Image
9/19/2004 New Kinds of Electric Generator/Electric Motors
11/7/2004 Batteries
10/31/2004 Diamagnetic Energy Generation Satellites
10/7/2004 Electromagnetism
9/26/2004 Magnetic Coordinates
9/23/2004 Magnetic Battery Idea
8/23/2004 Toroidal EM Fields
9/19/2004 Crystalline Memory Lattices, and Super-Cheap Gigantic Diamagnetic
9/6/2004 Supercomputer and Memory Technology
9/24/2004 Speculation about photodiodes, photovoltaics, and the nature of
energy transmission through materials
9/14/2004 A New Kind of Potentiometer (which can be used as a tactile sensor)
9/12/2004 Highly sensitive tactile/optical range-finding robotic finger
9/11/2004 A cheaper kind of touch-screen for computer kiosks for 2D
operating system user interface haptics and 3D augmented reality user
interface haptics
10/29/2004 Course Catalog and Skills Inventory (Software Idea)
12/14/2001 Portable Robotic Hole-Threading Tool for Building Robots and Stuff.
11/12/2004 Cottage Industry Explosion: Portable Inexpensive
Manufacturing Robots for Intentional Communities in America
11/5/2004 Cottage Industry Stuff
11/11/2004 Holographic Rangefinding Orbiting Space Telescopes, for Holographic
Geometric Reconstruction of Distant Celestial Objects and Celestial Systems
(or point it at the Earth for Geographical Information Systems)
10/29/2004 Safety Skin for Robots
10/20/2004 Free public archive of great anonymous writing and poetry
10/11/2004 Precise EM field sensing nanocoil fabric
9/8/2004 Notes on an Intelligent Agents book
11/14/2002 2D Wireframe Digitalization of Digital Images for Computer Vision
11/14/2002 Computer Vision Thought
4/8/2005 3D Engine Idea
8/7/2005 Binary Space Partition Trees
8/10/2005 Data compression for 3D polygonal objects
8/11/2005 3D compression scheme
--------Re-write my paper on Chromodepth prism glasses and anaglyphs and how
you can just snap regular photos in a black room that has a red, blue
and green light sequentially lined up illuminating the objects front to
back, for making 3D Chromodepth photos.
10/21/2002 Thoughts on Computer Vision: 2D Snapshots to 3D Wireframe
9/29/2002 More Computer Vision Thoughts
10/21/2002 Imaginative new perspectives on famous artworks
10/01/2002 More thoughts on my Thermoelectric Generator Cloth Invention
10/16/2002 Inventory of revolutionary inventions that I've invented (but not
built) up to this date
6/18/2005 Puzzles
6/19/2005 World Medicine
Book IV:
Invention Ideas
10/28/2004 Justin Coslor
Penny Universities
I read in an article on the Internet that coffee houses used to be
called "Penny Universities" in the mid 1600's in England, because it
cost a penny for admission and a mug of coffee. "TIPS" is an acronym
that was posted on a tin at the counter, which stood for "To Insure
Prompt Service", and people would toss in a coin as a perk. It was a
brilliant idea when the main branch of the Carnegie Library of
Pittsburgh (nested between Carnegie Mellon University and the University
of Pittsburgh) opened a coffee shop and free Internet access terminals
this year in their library (terminals have been in place for several
years). Their renovations are beautiful! Copyright 1/1/2005 Justin
Coslor Inspiring book & some art product ideas. I've been reading the
most amazing book called "Connections: The Geometric Bridge Between Art
and Science" ISBN: 0-07-034250-4, and it's inspired me to want to read
more books on the topic of Design Science. On page 264-265 of it it
talks about the duality of Platonic polyhedra: namely The Inscribed
Sphere. face<->vertex edge<->edge p<->q Face centroids of each platonic
polyhedra are also vertex points for their duals, and so they lie
equidistant from a common center. These pages in it talk also talk about
Duality, in some of it's various forms: 1. in Bartók's music - 103 2. of
maps - 125-127 3. of regular tilings - 177 4. of semiregular tilings -
181-182 5. of reciprocal figure - 224-230 6. of Platonic solids -
264-268 7. interpreting duals - 266-267 8. of convex polyhedra - 291-292
9. interpreting duals - 299-301 10. of Archimedean solids - 335-337 11.
interpreting duals - 351 12. of networks - 362-368, 370-371 13.
isometric vector matrix (IVM dual) - 370-371
------------------------------------ Product Idea #1: Copyright 1/1/2005
Here is a product idea I came up with today. *Look at figure 6.A.2
in the book "Projective Geometry" (pg. 248-253) That picture inspired
the following idea. Here's a computer product I could sell both in
computer form, and in paper form as an artists canvas tool: make a 3D
dotted line matrix that has vanishing points along multiple parallel
horizontal lines so artists can draw realistically spacial drawings. The
dots close up are the biggest, and the dots get smaller and smaller the
farther into the background you look. Then the artist can use those dots
to realistically model 3D spacial representations on the paper, and when
they have their sketch done they can just erase the dots, because the
dots can be lightly printed on the page using erasable ink or erasable
graphite. It'd cost fractions of a cent to print out each page of this
kind of drawing paper, and the paper could come in a variety of
perspectives of vanishing point angles. It'd be a great product to sell
archive-quality drawing pads full of an assortment 3D dot matrix
vanishing point angles printed on nice white drawing paper.
On the cover of each pad there should also be a website address for
where to download or order art software such as a software version of
these different matrix patterns that a person can print out onto a page
in very very light print (so light that it won't show up on a photocopy
machine duplicate). Have some screenshots and a brochure-like visual
demonstration and minimum system requirements shown on an advertisement
page of how to use the software, and have that advertisement page as the
first page of the sketch pads that get sold in stores all over the
world. On the software brochure page (note, make the advertisement
double-sided and on a perforated tear-out page that is scored for easy
folding into the shape of a brochure, and use the UPC symbol as a
discount coupon for $5 off of the the price of the software, when
ordered online or through the mail. Include a self-addressed envelope
and software payment form that can be torn out on the next page. I'd
likely sell lots of software that way. On the brochure, suggest that
they draw their lines on the computer paper lightly dotted matrix
perspectives by hand, and that they should then either scan the page
back into the computer and run it through a filter to take out the dots,
or photocopy the original to take out the dots, since computer printer
ink isn't erasable. This way, they wouldn't need to run to the store to
buy new pads of paper. I think both of these products would be a
fantastic product to sell all over the world, and I could probably get a
patent on the pads. I don't agree with the notion of software patents
though. I'd probably write the software using the Java3D API so that
it's cross-platform. ---------------------------------- Product Idea #2:
Copyright 1/1/2005 Justin Coslor N-DIMENSIONAL POLYHEDRAL MOTIF
DESIGNING SOFTWARE FOR ARTISTS First look at some writings by the
mathematician artists from the fifteenth century, such as: Alberti,
Leonardo da Vinci, and Albrecht Dürer. Then write a little computer
software that makes N-dimensional polyhedral motifs (fundamental
patterns) and lets the user design their own and use them as wallpaper
and skins for 3D objects. So people can make M.C. Escher-like artwork
easily. It'll deal with symmetry design and manipulation very easily.
Copyright 1/15/2005 Justin Coslor Art Software For Making Symmetrical
Design Patterns & Motifs: Write a computer graphics software that allows
the user to make precise symmetry design patterns and to be able to
color and shade in the sections with the greatest of ease. It could also
be good for making repeatable interlocking motifs. Copyright 1/1/2005
Justin Coslor Perspective Drawing Projects When I first wrote this I was
reading the book "Basic Perspective" by Robert W. Gill - Library of
Congress Card Number 79-64518. 1. Try drawing a top view of an object
and draw a circle of frames (Boxes) around it, and in each box draw the
3D perspective side-view of the object as it would look to a person
standing on a point in the center of each frame at that particular
frame's perspective angle, where each frame is a 3D perspective drawing,
complete with accurate shading. 2. Draw a 3D perspective drawing form
the viewpoint of a cat, and include the cat's nose, whiskers and the tip
of it's tail in the drawing. Include special lighting and coloring
effects such as how the scene would look if it was a snapshot from the
lens of a Kirlian photography camera, as cats see a different spectrum
of colors than people, and possibly auras. Copyright 1-13-98 by Justin
Coslor Robotics
If one robot figures something out about it's surroundings it goes
and tells the rest, that makes available more potential actions that the
rest can do and have to work with and use as a tool. When one solves a
problem it eliminates an obstacle which each robot would otherwise have
to spend its time figuring out how to do because it communicates the
solution. Example application: new, more efficient route planner.
They could even learn teamwork too. If one robot solves part of a
problem, but knows that the whole thing isn't solved and wants to
completely solve it but not waste all day working on it, it can go and
tell the other robots about the whole problem (denoting the part they've
already solved) instead of just telling them part of the solution that
they've solved. It would also tell the other robots the estimated
"worth" (personal and societal ... sort of like a priority rating) of
getting the problem completely solved. In a sense it "asks" the others
for help. If the requested action's estimated priority is higher than
the current actions priority rating, then the robots will go and help
(fulfill the request) and in a sense perform a "favor" thus the robot in
need would be making some "friends".
Fundamental motivations: #1 stimulate/reinforce self (work towards
own goals). #2 stimulate/reinforce others. The robot might
stimulate/reinforce itself in order to stimulate/reinforce others, but
not quite as much as stimulating or reinforcing itself directly, and it
works on a "friends" and "favors" system socially. Do a favor and they
are grateful and they are your friend (and doing #2 on a friend is equal
to doing #1 and it is a random choice between the two when in question
-- when asked to return a favor for a friend or do something for
yourself). Each robot knows that it can do more faster with friends
helping, so if it has something it needs help with or is bored it might
think ahead and stop what it is doing and go out and get some friends by
doing favors for some others and then later go and ask everyone for
help. It would ask even those who aren't friends because some of them
may help and after a few exchanges of favors with them, they too might
become friends.
With a small group (approximately six robots), in order to have any
of then get any of their own stuff done you must either build a "friend
removal" system, where robots are no longer considered a friend after a
certain amount of rejections and they return to the
neutral "stranger" state from the perspective of the rejected robots.
Later they could easily go back into friend state though, or else have a
system of higher ignorance of the friend state rather than a 50%
favoring rate, or just have it so that they would only help a friend in
an emergency or on major projects (remember, these are robots, not
people)... Although, with only six robots it may work out to have the
standard friend/favor system without these restrictions.
So in summary, these robots would be socially interacting
communicating and sharing discovered knowledge in search of attaining
their goals. They need to be able to set goals then strive toward them,
and interact; and their goals should reflect what they are programmed to
"like" and "dislike". Their own self-discovered "likes" and "dislikes"
should always be required to be checked by multiple qualified human
operators before being allowed to be implemented. In other words all
they need are three things: 1. the ability to set and strive towards
goals (immediate and long term near future), 2. have a motivation system
(know the sensory inputs and actions that it likes and dislikes), 3. and
have a justification system (possibly a self-modifying justification
system based around a few rules and restrictions like Isaac Asimov's
three laws of robotics)... A justification system is just a way of doing
things based on one's own system of what is believed to be logical,
which is based on experience and the motivation/goal system, and checked
by external justification systems.
These three elements are the roots of intelligent behavior. Any
actions of any intelligent system/life-form can be accounted for by
these three things. Copyright 1-13-98 by Justin Coslor Copyright
8/27/2004 Justin Coslor Video Game Idea
Have a digital camera + software computer or video game system that
digitizes the person's physical movements, and incorporates those
motions into the software or game system. Such as a game that taught
people martial arts or some exercise thing. Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin
Coslor. All Rights Reserved. Portable Operating Systems On
Cross-Platform USB 2.0 Flash-Memory Devices This is the wave of the
future in portable cross-platform operating systems. It occurred to me
today while I was drinking coffee and reading a graphical book on How
Computer's Work.
Design a USB 2.0 flash-memory device that only communicates using
standard USB 2.0 protocols, and they would have their own software on
the flash-memory that would take over the video card temporarily and
have their own operating system that would load up as soon as you plug
in the flash-memory card, and that operating system would be able to be
minimized into the corner of the screen into a little icon, and that
operating system could access all of the hardware resources of the
computer, as well as all of it's software directories (using standard
USB 2.0 protocols). In this manner an operating system such as Linux
could be instantly loaded onto any USB 2.0 compatible computer, and it
could perform cross-platform functions between its own operating system
and the operating system on the hard drive, all via the independent
controller drivers that were loaded into the re-initialized temporarily
modified BIOS and boot record the instant you plugged the flash-memory
device into the USB 2.0 port. *So it would make a new video card
operating system as the primary root operating system.
Basically, the BIOS just gets re-initialized while the hard drive's
operating system is running, but this time it sends special instructions
to the video card to force it to buffer two (or more) operating systems
transparently on top of each other, so that the user can switch back and
forth between them while still seeing the other operating system(s) in
the background, and either one can then be minimized into a window or
icon in the corner of the screen and the mouse and keyboard could still
control all of them (such as to maximize one of the operating system
icons or windows) using the video card's new operating system that was
instantly loaded off of the flash-memory card through the temporarily
modification and reinitialization of the BIOS of the computer -- the
moment you plugged in the USB 2.0 flash memory card. As soon as you
unplug the flash-memory card, the computer's plug&play BIOS could unload
the video card's operating system and the computer hard drive's original
operating system would return to normal.
Also, since USB 2.0 has its own universal standards, if multiple
flash memory operating systems (different kinds) were all plugged in
simultaneously, the video card's operating system would just treat them
all like icons on a desktop that can be maximized with a click, or
minimized with a keystroke, or turned into a movable window that can be
stacked on top of or under any or all of the other operating systems
that aren't minimized. Also, another keystroke would switch between
operating systems as though they were windows and which ever operating
system is on top is the primary active one so that they get layered like
a stack. The video card's operating system can have "save screenshot
to"/"print screenshot"/"copy"/"paste"/"save to" features that can be
cross-platform tools that become available when you move the mouse over
an object or highlight some text, or make a selection box with the mouse
-- then hold down the control key as you click the mouse button.
This sort of simple set of cross-platform functionality shouldn't need
to take up more than one mouse click's menu's worth of selection
This might need to be implemented in the USB 3.0 specification,
whenever that comes out, if it can't currently be done using the USB 2.0
specification. Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin Coslor. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 7/17/2005 Justin Coslor Nanotechnology (see picture)
Have a nanotechnology cell composed of seven cubes linked together
by hinges in a dense unit. Electromagnets on each cube can pull each
hinge closed or push it open, and electromagnets on the ends and sides
of each block can connect multiple structures like this together, and
can connect loose dead blocks from an interconnected storage clump to
the central power supply because terminals are on the ends of each face
that is diagonally across from the sub-block's hinge. There is a
micro-controller in the center block of each cell for intelligence,
control and orientation calculation, and communications network
relaying, and there is a port that links to this this micro-controller
on each outward facing face. These cellular structures would be very
small and could link together to form robotic systems that are
reconfigurable and adaptable. A similar robotic system exists, but like
my design *much* better. The hinges could elastically be fixed at
various angles between fully open and fully closed by repelling the
block from both sides, at an adjustable ratio of power being fed to the
opposing electromagnets. In that way the blocks could also act as touch
sensors, and flex sensors, and springs and solenoids, and precisely
adjustable angled hinges.
There could be lots of different shapes of cellular parts for making
things, like planks, rods, hinges, plates, bearings, angle units, etc.
with electromagnets and/or electromagnetic hinges on the ends and/or
face plates.
A vision system would be on the external control module, and could
be linked to the cellular network directly or by remote control.
Everything about the block structure would be automatically calculated
and added to the internal representation of the unit's state model,
which can be communicated from block to block on the network of linked
structures sos that blocks linked in a storage clump can be reoriented
and moved about, and whole multicellular structures can be relocated as
a group. The cells would talk to each other so that they know where they
are in the orientation system, and the controller would have the big
picture so that it could tell the cells what to do on the fly. Each
group of cells could then pool its computing power to run subroutine
programs as multicellular unit. Copyright 7/12/2005 Justin Coslor
Product idea: seed kits for suburban gardens
One way to make a product is to package several things together in
the form of a kit. One such kit that would sell well in stores and be
easy to make would be seed kits for people to plant a vegetable garden
or flower garden in their yard. It could contain a wide variety of seeds
organized inside a divider box with a little container full of seeds in
each section of the divider box, where each row is a growing season
(plants that grow best in a certain season will be grouped together by
row); and each container will be labeled with the name, expiration date,
growing season, and ideal soil pH. The kit will come with a soil tester
and will recommend certain plant fertilizers, such as Miracle Grow to
change the pH.
There will be a color instruction manual with photos of each plant
and seed, and it'll have some drawing space where they can design the
layout of their garden, and an example will be given. The manual will
have gardening tips for growing each plant. Also there should be a
coupon for a discount off of a Garden Claw hand-powered rototiller tool.
There should also be a website address where people can communicate in
topical forums and post pictures of their flowers and vegetables from
the kit for other people to see. The website should also have a
comment/suggestion form to help improve the product. These would be sold
in major chain stores, small shops, plant stores, hardware stores, and
maybe even grocery stores all across America, and maybe even abroad.
There could be several varieties of kits, and the seeds would last for
several years, and seeds from the plants that were planted can then be
put into those same containers to stay organized for the next year. We'd
specialize in perennials especially, and would only use seeds that can
generate offspring of their own, to help combat evil genetic engineering
companies like Monsanto, who produces seeds that grow into sterile or
seedless plants. Copyright 7/12/2005 Justin Coslor Bottled Water With
the latest craze of bottled water companies, I could start my own
entrepreneurial venture: River Water - "From the Ghangi to the Nile!"
Ocean Water - "A mix of the seven seas.", "Aaargh!" Nuclear Power Plant
Cooling Tower Water - "It's energizing!" Run Off - "Mexico City's
finest.", "Free heavy metal test strip included." Sleuce Juice - "Just
like Star Trek -- it's recycled!" Red Tide - "Be a man!", "Nature in a
can!" Dead Sea Colloidal Brew - "Free Bible included!" Copyright
6/29/2005 Justin Coslor Camping Stuff You can make a make-shift backpack
made out of a sheet: 1. Start out with a sheet. 2. Fold the sheet in
half to make the pocket. 3. Tie the two adjacent corners on each side of
the sheet into a knot to make the arm-hole shoulder straps. 4. There's a
big pocket in the back with an opening on the top. It's a one-pocket
backpack. (See Diagram) ---------------------------------- A simple four
stick shelter can be made from a tarp or parachute, some rope, and some
sticks that are lodges securely in the ground. Tie rope around in a
square with an "X" in it on the tops of the sticks, this will help
support the tarp. The corners of the tarp should be tied to the bottom
of each of the four sticks so that it doesn't blow away. The top of the
shelter can be used to collect rainwater or dew. If you have a clear
tarp this makes a great big solar still. A black tarp under a white tarp
will keep you cool. To enter or exit the shelter just lift up and edge
and crawl in or untie one corner and go in that way. Prop a stick under
one edge to make a breathing hole. (See Diagram) Copyright 6/29/2005
Justin Coslor Cooling Shirt
The simplest way to make a cooling shirt would be to have a stretchy
tee-shirt crossed with a fishing vest (for the extra pockets), and have
water pockets all over it, connected by a tube (or not, in case one
leaks), and make the pockets out of a kind of plastic that breathes
moisture through the plastic's pores, so that the evaporation keeps the
water cold, and since the pockets are up against your skin, you stay
cool as a result. It'd be very simple that way and wouldn't require
electricity, and there could be a rubber tube at the bottom with a valve
on it so that you can drink the water right out of the cooling shirt
you're wearing. This would GREAT for use in hot climates, especially in
combination with water purification tablets, and there needs to be a
simple system for cleaning the vest such as filling it with hot salt
water and letting it sit for a few minutes. Copyright 6/27/2005 Justin
Coslor Dune Shirt (See Diagram)
Engineer a still suit/dune shirt for staying cool. It would look
like a cross between a fishing vest and a tee-shirt, with some
attachments. It would have a water reservoir, a pump, tubes, bladders,
and a rechargeable battery pack to run the pump. The battery pack could
be recharged by a solar- power photovoltaic umbrella that could be held
by the wearer to provide shade (it might even have a little fan inside
it). The solar-power photovoltaic umbrella could also be made so that it
could be clipped onto a backpack so that the wearer has both hands free.
If the pump is to be mechanically powered, it might be powered by
ratcheting a spring and small vertical flywheel by swinging your arms
back and forth. In that case, there might be a sort of exoskelleton that
clips a a thing onto each arm just above each elbow, and connecting it
to an exo-ribcage structure for support and making the mechanical energy
transfer. Copyright 6/29/2005 Justin Coslor Alternative Energy System
for homes that have an acre or more.
Have habitat and employment and food/water/coffee procurement for
modern migrators. That's a different topic though...
Live near the coast because it doesn't freeze there, and you can eat
fish and seafood. Build a yurt by the ocean and use wind power or tidal
power to purify water and provide electricity. Hip waders, sweatpants,
wool socks, and a fishing pole are essential, + a waterproof raincoat
and a sweater. Have a large greenhouse garden and do hydroponics.
Just have a farm with a fantastic garden, orchard, and berry bushes.
Map out what grows in what seasons and in what soil conditions, and
terraform the land into the ideal form. Maybe even use terraces and
build a huge solar oven and use photovoltaics and wind turbines, but
instead of using batteries to store the energy generated (since
batteries are toxic), use water as an energy storage mechanism, either
in the form of doing electrolysis and compressing the gases into tanks
(which is dangerous) for future use in fuel cells, or the safer method
of pumping the water far uphill into a reservoir or water tower out of a
well or other water source, then have a hydropower turbine to convert
the down-flowing water into electrical power or mechanical energy as
needed, and it could drain right back into a well or onto crops.
For a combined alternative energy system,build a huge high water
tower and put oil drum s- rotor wind turbines all up and down it and
around it, with a car alternator connected to each one, and put
photovoltaics on the roof of it and have it situated right over top of a
well or stream. Electric energy generated by from the wind turbines and
photovoltaics would be stored by pumping water out of the well into the
water tower and it can be used for plumbing from there, or it can be
used converted back into electricity by letting the water flow out of
the tower through a hydropower turbine and back into the well, or onto
the garden. You might actually get more energy out of this than you put
into it because of the hydropower dam effect that pushes the water out
with great force due to the height of the water inside the tank. Look up
plans for how to build Savonius oil drum S-rotor wind turbines. (See
diagram) Copyright 6/18/2005 Justin Coslor Pictograph books for language
There should be a set of pictographs to use for icons for the main
functions of life in general. That way translations would be fairly
simple in whatever languages are used thousands of years from now. It
would be sort of like a visual dictionary. Actually, a new art form
could be created which is made of cartooning strips and comic books
without words, and you could see how complex and simple the concepts can
get beyond what words can express, though not always apparent to the
casual observer. I don't intend for such an art to replace written
language, but merely for each artwork/book to be used as a teaching tool
for teaching people different languages, and for inventing new
languages. There would be a set of most popular (classic) books which
when combined would cover much or most of the cases of describable
language and basic experience that all people (including aliens) could
reference to indicate a word or concept. Copyright 6/18/2005 Justin
Coslor Knowledge lifespans and pictograph software
We need more mechanisms to improve the quality, quantity, clarity,
simplicity, beauty, accessibility, and efficiency of knowledge that we
have available to us. Hopefully by doing so we will improve the lifespan
of the knowledge so that it may be found useful for many more
generations than it is in its current form. There may be other steps
that can be taken to improve the lifespan of public knowledge, and steps
to ensure that private knowledge is in line with public knowledge, and
not in contradiction..
Pictograph software:
This relates to my pictograph book idea. Maybe a computer software
could be made that accepts stories and documents and written language in
any written language as input, and could output a vivid pictographic
comic strip or pictographic video onto the monitor or out the printer.
It could also have pointer arrows to the different aspects of the
pictographs which when clicked, says the literal translation into
another language. Or, in the pictographic movie sequence, the audio
track could be in the new language at an easy understandable pace, along
with pointer arrows. Checkout Simple English: simple.wikipedia.org. An
example could be done from Simple English to pictographs to another
language. Copyright 6/16/2005 Justin Coslor Industries, Priority
Systems, and Adaptation
Industries, much like the mind (or all life for that matter),
operate under the guidance of constantly-updating priority systems.
However the difference is that a given industry may be governed by the
union of a wide variety of priority systems, when a singular mind may
strive to adapt its priority system into every situation it encounters.
Different systems often have at least some different axioms, and in
attempts to merge them, sometimes axioms need to be dropped or adopted.
By merging systems, they then become more complex to adapt, but are more
versatile as a result.
There is much more to an industry than supply and demand, because
many variables go into and relate to supply, and many others go into and
relate to demand. Quality, quantity available, target audience/market
and their wants and needs, manufacturing and distribution,
beneficial/enjoyability rating, priority of selling and of buying the
product or service, how the product or service affects other products or
services, time-frame of use and possible likely re-use count, etc.
Basically the factors involved are the factors of merging a new system
with an existing system, and incorporating it into the priority system.
Gaining a needed capability is generally a high priority, however
taking the time and effort to analyze and learn/map out what
capabilities are needed or that would drastically improve things is
generally a low priority. Learning how to actually obtain those
capabilities is an even lower priority in many cases. However,
pre-existing maps and a personal demonstration of the value of new
capabilities I've heard gets about a 15% to 30% success rate if done
well (since people are resistant to change). Adaptation takes time,
though if you have all of the elements in the configuration you want or
need right from the start, its easier to learn that system than to learn
a lesser system and then make a paradigm shift into an adaptation of
that system, because the two can get confused and it takes more time.
It's important to keep things simple enough to prevent discouragement in
any system, unless your goal is to repel people. Copyright 6/14/2005
Justin Coslor Industry Creation
In creating a new industry one must redesign a concept or broaden a
context to allow for the existence and development of a new concept to
re-route a network of infrastructure. Some objects are anchored, others
are flexible, and others can be augmented to, or can come in quite a
A sub-industry can be created by making an anchored object flexible,
augmentable, or opening up a variety of alternatives. Invent a new thing
for people to do that is enjoyable and/or beneficial and there lyes the
potential for a new industry. So systematically map out all of the
things that people CAN do, and look for patterns that can be re-applied
to dependency-chart mappings of other areas. That's the analogical
approach. Also if you can solve the problem of making it possible to do
something that is needed or wanted, that's another route to a new
industry. The other approach is the experimental scientific
deductive/inductive approach of combining concepts and wiring a
pattern/tool/technique/concept into the context of another field, or
even to wire many things together into what will be a novel unique
context that meets the simple criteria of being beneficial and/or
enjoyable. The other criteria is that it should be sustainable and
non-harmful to people and the environment. The possibilities for the
creation of niche markets is only limited by people's initiative and
creativity. Criteria for new industries: 1. Novel/unique/worthwhile 2.
Beneficial/enjoyable 3. Sustainable 4. Non-harmful to people Copyright
5/27/2005 Justin Coslor Natural Gas Mining in Landfills, Using Grids of
Vertical Bamboo Tubes Since someone figured out that you can collect
methane gas by sticking tubes into landfills vertically, maybe they
could save some money and materials by using bamboo tubes since they're
very strong, and they could drill some holes into the part of the tube
that goes below the surface, to collect extra gas from the sides. Then
they could push the bamboo tubes down until they're less than 1 foot
above the surface, and space them out about 3 feet apart in a grid, and
above the surface, have re-usable plastic or rubber caps with rubber or
PVC tubes connecting the bamboo tubes to horizontal pipelines, much like
a computer RAM memory array structure, and there could be a safety valve
on each row. Then, when the output is really low from the methane supply
being depleted, they could just stack another 5-10 feet of garbage over
the pipeline field after first removing the top caps & pipeline grid on
the surface, and they could do it all over again with new bamboo tubes
since the other ones would eventually rot and bamboo grows so easily.
Maybe use timber bamboo. Also, it may be possible to grow bamboo forests
over landfills, along with non- THC hemp plants as underbrush for rope
and cloth, since they're both really hardy useful weeds. Copyright
5/27/2005 Justin Coslor 3-Legged Walking Robot (It Gallops) The middle
leg has a knee and a duck foot for stability, and it jumps through two
spider legs that each have a knee and are angled wide for stability.
When the duck foot is in back it bends or ratchets the knee (which could
cock a spring), and then it rapidly straightens it out to perform the
jump, then cocks the knee again in mid-jump as it passes between the two
spider legs, and makes a controlled fall onto the duck leg, which is now
in front. The spider legs make a similar motion to get in front too,
except the spider legs do the turning. To turn, one of the spider legs
just bends more than the other one, or pushes harder than the other one.
It could even pull a cart. These things could be smoothly hopping along
all over the place, and could be made very small or even very large. It
could even climb up stairs too, and might even be able to go down stairs
(carefully). Copyright 3/16/2005 Justin Coslor MAGNETOSONIC ELEMENT
SEPARATOR Have six walls separate walls, each one individually attached
to it's own robotic manipulator arm, so that the robotic arms can clamp
the walls into the shape of a cube. Two of the walls, both opposite to
each other, are to be lined with ferromagnetic electromagnets. Two of
the walls, both on opposite sides, are to be lined with paramagnetic
electromagnets. The remaining two walls are to be lined with diamagnetic
electromagnets. Before the top wall (the lid) is put on, rocks and raw
ore are to be dumped inside. In two opposite diagonal corners there are
some fiberoptics units connected on long cords to digital CCD
observation cameras. Each of the remaining corners is to have a sonic
cannon mounted in it beamed at the wall diagonally across from it. Then
all of electromagnets are to be turned on, as well as all of the sonic
cannons, and so, all of the rocks and ore inside will be obliterated by
the sonic cannons into powder, and then magnetically drawn to the wall
that it is molecularly attracted to by the various kinds of
electromagnets. Then the robotic arms will take the cube apart and dump
each wall's contents into its own melting pot or storage container for
further chemical separation or polymerization. This can be a very
efficient way to process materials. Here I've labeled the sonic
cannon-mounted corners using the letters A through F: A->side 1 =
electroferromagnetic north plate B->side 2 = electroferromagnetic south
plate C->side 3 = electroparamagnetic positive plate D->side 4 =
electroparamagnetic negative plate E->side 5 = electrodiamagnetic
negative plate F->side 6 = electrodiamagnetic positive plate. The
remaining two corners are the fiberoptic view-ports. Anything that isn't
magnetic at all also just gets dumped in its own vat. Copyright 1/7/2005
Justin Coslor Diamagnetic Electromagnets {Diamagnetic materials: water,
salt, pyrolytic graphite, bismuth, etc.}
When you pass a magnet over a coil, or pass a coil through a
magnetic field, electricity flows through the coil. Electric generators
are based on that principle. Electric generators turn into electric
motors when electricity is passed through them (At least the
electro-magnetic rotational kind.)
So why can't we make electric generators that are based on
diamagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic coils or diamagnetic
electromagnets? *See the electromagnetism logic database diagram I drew
that shows in the database margins what is perpendicular and parallel to
what, etc, in the relations of different kinds of electromagnetic
properties and devices and materials maybe. **See the different kinds of
ferromagnetic and diamagnetic electromagnet designs I invented
(hand-drawn diagrams 1/7/2005). Copyright 2/8/2005 Justin Coslor PDA
Use a PDA as a remote-controlled teaching pendant for a robot, and
bolt several PDA's down into a kiosk and network them for use as a
head's-up display. Attach a keyboard and a switch-box to it, have a
stylus on a cord, and include a printer. The great part is that PDA's
turn on instantly and consume very little electricity. Networking
software and hardware might need to be designed for them though, but it
likely already exists.
The kiosks could be very very small this way, and could just be on a
swing-arm or arm bolted to a wall or tabletop with power cord leading up
to them. Copyright 8/10/2005 Justin Coslor PDA Virtual Reality/Augmented
Reality System (See Diagram)
Build or adapt a lightweight sunglasses-like head mounted display
that uses high resolution LCD screens in stereo for portable virtual
reality uses with a PDA and folding PDA keyboard (it should also work on
a laptop). Even a single color high resolution LCD head mounted display
for a PDA would be incredible for reading and browsing the web
wirelessly, as well as browsing VRML and Java3D worlds at at least
800x600 color pixel resolution. Battery life is the main issue here. You
need to be able to get at least 10 hours of battery life, and it needs
to be easily rechargeable. An augmented reality transparent LCD screen
would be ideal or one of those miniature projector LCD's. Also, it might
be neat to have a wireless 3D finger ring mouse that has several buttons
on it, at least for drawing 3D models and browsing VRML and Java3D
worlds and webpages. The PDA screen could be a small scale version of
the 3D HMD scene or programmable control panel buttons. There could be a
videocamera on the HMD for doing Augmented Reality, and have a visual
dictionary pattern matching software and a 2D to 3D object
reconstruction software, as well as have a 6DOF head tracking system.
It's important that all of the hardware be open source programmable and
be openly interfacable.
I realize the military already has contact lens versions of this
Augmented Reality display system, but this would be affordable to the
public. They also have G.W.E.N. (Ground Wave Emission Network)
Tower/Tempest brain interface systems too all over the country (for
martial law population control and clandestine "experiments", and such),
but that's another matter. Copyright 11/12/2004 Justin Coslor My eBike
Shop: Eco-Bikes (TM)(R)
If I ever wanted to live in Pittsburgh for an extended period of
time (such as to go to Grad School later on), I could open up an
electric bicycle dealership, and fit each bike with solid rubber tires
from GreenTires.com or AirFreeTires.com, so that they wouldn't get
flats, and only sell bikes that use batteries that aren't highly toxic
(no lead-acid or NiCd batteries).It could be open in the evenings so
that I could go to class during the day, or I could hire some students
to help run it. We could do maintenance and repairs on electric bikes
too, and recycle broken batteries and recycle or re-use parts from old
eBikes sometimes.
Most of all, they'd be affordable, and fitted with baskets and
fenders, and comfortable seats. This way, students could easily ride to
the East-End Food Co-Op & Whole Foods for groceries, carry library
books, etc, and ride all over town and re-claim the roads. It'd get the
city to put in special well-swept bike lanes all over town and to pass
enormous hit and run penalty laws for drivers to follow. We'd make a
huge push to get bike racks re-installed on all of the public transit
buses too. 1/13/2005 Justin Coslor Business ideas:
Right now as a money maker I could retrofit people's bikes with
electric motors for a $100 fee + parts.
I could also sell hard drives with Linux pre-installed on them for
$100 + parts (~$150). It could come with a set of GNU/Linux CD's.
I could also sell homemade random number generators for $250. See my
journal entry dated 12/15/2003 and the drawing I made on 1/22/2005 for
details. They could be useful to staticians, scientists, and people who
use encryption technologies. The machine is capable of generating large
amounts of random seed numbers simultaneously for each cycle that it is
run. I might be able to sell it for even more. Copyright 1/21/2005
Justin Coslor Ram-Horn Handlebars for City Bikes: I think whomever
designed the handlebars on city bikes got the idea from looking at a
pair of rams horns.. As such, it would be neat to bolt a rams skull onto
the bike in place of the handlebars or make a hollow or cast mold
version to sell to ram/bicycle enthusiasts. (GNU-compatible) Copyright
1/13/2005 Justin Coslor Augmented Reality Goggles for doing X-Ray Vision
and 3D Image Reconstruction Architects could like augmented reality
goggles for doing x-ray or sonar vision and stereo 3D image
reconstruction of live video data as they walk through a building while
wearing the goggles. The goggles could be used as digitizers to map
details onto the original wireframe CAD schematics. The military already
has this, but I don't know if anyone has done an open-source
open-hardware version of this for the commercial market and archeology
gear. ------------------------------------ 9/19/2004 Justin Coslor
Simple magnetism experiment: What happens when you wrap copper wire
around an insulated tube, then put an iron bar inside the tube, then run
electricity through both the copper coil, as well as the iron bar, but
from separate power supplies? What happens when you switch the polarity
of the iron bar's power supply? What electrical voltage, amperage,
resistance, and magnetism (Gaussmeter) readings do you get in each case,
and in the case where you don't energize the iron bar but only the coil?
Does the electricity running through the iron bar amplify the magnetic
field or the current of the copper coil?
This is an unfinished work and I disclaim all liability.